Used Treatment (used + treatment)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The cognitive-behavioral model of bulimia nervosa: A direct evaluation

Susan M. Byrne
Abstract Objective This study represented the first attempt to directly evaluate Fairburn et al's (1986) cognitive-behavioral model of bulimia nervosa , the model on which the most widely used treatment for bulimia nervosa is based. Method The major predictions of the model were tested using structural equation modeling. Data were collected from the responses of 526 subjects to a number of self-report measures. Results The factors of self-esteem, overconcern with weight and shape, and dietary restraint accounted for a large proportion of the variance in binge eating and purging. The key pathway in the model was the link between overconcern with weight and shape and the adoption of purgative behaviors, which then fed into a vicious cycle of binge eating and purging. Contrary to Fairburn's hypothesis, high levels of dietary restraint did not predict increased binge eating. Discussion The results suggest that the components of Fairburn's model may operate to maintain the bulimic cycle in a slightly different way to that originally proposed. 2002 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 31: 17,31, 2002. [source]

Atrial fibrillation and bisphosphonate therapy

Michael Pazianas
Abstract Bisphosphonates are the most commonly used treatment for osteoporosis and have proven efficacy in the reduction of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures. Recently, concerns have been raised about a possible association between bisphosphonate therapy and atrial fibrillation (AF) following the report of a significant increase in risk of serious AF in women treated with zoledronic acid in the HORIZON study. Subsequent studies have produced conflicting results but have not excluded the possibility of such an association. Currently there is no direct evidence that bisphosphonates exert either acute or chronic effects on cardiac electrophysiology. Nevertheless, altered intracellular electrolyte homeostasis and proinflammatory, profibrotic, and antiangiogenic effects provide potential mechanisms by which atrial conduction could be affected in patients treated with bisphosphonates. In studies in which an increase in risk of AF has been identified, there is no evidence that this translates into increased mortality or increased risk of stroke, and the risk-benefit balance of bisphosphonate therapy in patients with osteoporosis and other forms of metabolic bone disease remains strongly positive. 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research [source]

The bioflavonoid compound, sinupret, stimulates transepithelial chloride transport in vitro and in vivo,,

Frank Virgin MD
Abstract Objectives/Hypothesis: Dehydration of airway surface liquid (ASL) disrupts normal mucociliary clearance in sinonasal epithelium leading to chronic rhinosinusitis. Abnormal chloride (Cl,) transport is one mechanism that contributes to this disorder, as demonstrated by the disease cystic fibrosis. Identifying safe compounds that stimulate transepithelial Cl, transport is critical to improving hydration of the ASL and promoting mucociliary transport. Sinupret (Bionorica, LLC, San Clemente, CA), a combination of naturally occurring bioflavonoids, is a widely used treatment for respiratory ailments in Europe. However, the effects of Sinupret on target respiratory epithelium have yet to be fully investigated. The present study evaluated the mechanisms underlying this bioflavonoid therapeutic on transepithelial Cl, transport in respiratory epithelium. Study Design: In vitro and in vivo investigation. Methods: Well characterized murine nasal septal epithelial (MNSE) cultures, and murine nasal potential difference (NPD) techniques were used to evaluate the effects of Sinupret on Cl, secretion. Results: The change in Sinupret-stimulated current (, ISC expressed as ,A/cm2) in MNSE, representing Cl, secretion, was significantly increased when compared to controls (19.04 1.67 ,A/cm2 vs. 1.8 0.35 ,A/cm2, respectively; P = .00005). Transepithelial Cl, transport measured in the murine NPD in vivo assay (n = 42) was also significantly enhanced when compared to controls (,0.8 mV vs. ,0.9 mV; P = .0004). Importantly, Sinupret-stimulated Cl, transport was substantially more robust in vivo than forskolin, a compound among the strongest known cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator activators (,3.8 mV vs. ,1.65 mV; P = .01). Conclusions: Sinupret strongly activates transepithelial Cl, secretion through a mechanism known to hydrate the ASL of respiratory epithelium. This is one means by which the medication is likely to exert therapeutic benefit. Laryngoscope, 2010 [source]

Infertility in Australia circa 1980: an historical population perspective on the uptake of fertility treatment by Australian women born in 1946-51

Danielle L. Herbert
Abstract Objective: To estimate the prevalence of lifetime infertility in Australian women born in 1946-51 and examine their uptake of treatment. Methods: Participants in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health born in 1946-51 (n=13,715) completed up to four mailed surveys from 1996 to 2004. The odds of infertility were estimated using logistic regression with adjustment for socio-demographic and reproductive factors. Results: Among participants, 92.1% had been pregnant. For women who had been pregnant (n=12738): 56.5% had at least one birth but no pregnancy loss (miscarriage and/or termination); 39.9% experienced both birth and loss; and 3.6% had a loss only. The lifetime prevalence of infertility was 11.0%. Among women who reported infertility (n=1511), 41.7% used treatment. Women had higher odds of infertility when they had reproductive histories of losses only (OR range 9.0-43.5) or had never been pregnant (OR=15.7, 95%CI 11.8-20.8); and higher odds for treatment: losses only (OR range 2.5-9.8); or never pregnant (1.96, 1.28-3.00). Women who delayed their first birth until aged 30+ years had higher odds of treatment (OR range 3.2-4.3). Conclusions: About one in ten women experienced infertility and almost half used some form of treatment, especially those attempting pregnancy after 1980. Older first time mothers had an increased uptake of treatment as assisted reproductive technologies (ART) developed. Implications: This study provided evidence of the early uptake of treatment prior to 1979 when the national register of invasive ART was developed and later uptake prior to 1998 when data on non-invasive ART were first collected. [source]

Topical adapalene gel 01% vs. isotretinoin gel 005% in the treatment of acne vulgaris: a randomized open-label clinical trial

D. Ioannides
Summary Background Topical application of isotretinoin and adapalene has proved effective in treating acne vulgaris. Both drugs demonstrate therapeutic advantages and less irritancy over tretinoin, the most widely used treatment for acne. They both act as retinoid agonists, but differ in their affinity profile for nuclear and cytosolic retinoic acid receptors. Objectives To compare the efficacy and tolerability of adapalene gel 01% and isotretinoin gel 005% in the treatment of acne vulgaris of the face, in a randomized open-label clinical trial. Methods Eighty patients were enrolled and were instructed to apply adapalene gel 01% or isotretinoin gel 005% once daily over a 12-week treatment period. Efficacy determination included noninflammatory and inflammatory lesion counts by the investigator and global evaluation of improvement. Cutaneous tolerance was assessed by determining erythema, scaling and burning with pruritus. Results Adapalene and isotretinoin gels were highly effective in treating facial acne. Adapalene gel produced greater reductions in noninflammatory and inflammatory lesion counts than did isotretinoin gel, but differences between treatments were not statistically significant. Adapalene gel was significantly better tolerated than isotretinoin gel during the whole treatment period. Conclusions The two gels studied demonstrated comparable efficacy. When adapalene and isotretinoin were compared, significantly lower skin irritation was noted with adapalene, indicating that adapalene may begin a new era of treatment with low-irritant retinoids. [source]

Surgical Management of Pyoderma Gangrenosum: Case Report and Review

Murad Alam MD
Background. Commonly used treatments for pyoderma gangrenosum are medical, with immunosuppressive agents employed most often. Objective. To report a case and discuss the indications for radical surgical treatment of pyoderma gangrenosum. Methods. Analysis of a case of Crohn's disease-associated pyoderma gangrenosum treated with immunosuppression followed by amputation, and a review of the literature on surgical management of pyoderma gangrenosum. Results. In unstable patients with intractable multiple medical problems, surgical treatment of pyoderma gangrenosum may be indicated by the existence of these life-threatening comorbidities. The recent literature suggests that surgical management of pyoderma gangrenosum may also be appropriate in other special circumstances. Conclusions. Surgical management, including amputation, may have a role in the management of pyoderma gangrenosum. Further research is needed to delineate precisely the circumstances and patient factors that are appropriate indications for such surgery. [source]

Acne vulgaris in Nigerian adolescents , prevalence, severity, beliefs, perceptions, and practices

Husain Yahya MSc
Background, Community-based studies of acne vulgaris conducted in many parts of the world show that it is very common in adolescents but little is known from Africa. Methods, In a cross-sectional study, 539 randomly selected students aged 11,19 years in a secondary school in Kaduna, Nigeria were administered a questionnaire to assess self-report of acne, its severity and impact; beliefs and perceptions of causes, and treatments used. 418 students were later examined to detect and grade acne severity. Results, 274 (50.8%) were male while 265 (49.2%) were female. Mean age for respondents was 16 years. 320 students (59.4%) self-reported acne. Of 418 students examined, 379 had acne giving a prevalence of 90.7%. There was no significant gender difference in prevalence at all ages of adolescence. Prevalence of acne increased with age (76.7% at age 10,13 years; 88.2% at age 14,16 years; 97.1% at age 17,19 years). 353 of 379 (93.1%) had mild acne while 26 of 379 (6.9%) had moderate acne. The severity of acne was similar in boys and girls. 47.7% of students reported feeling "very sad/unhappy" about their acne although in more than 70% of those who self-reported, this did not interfere with relationship with family, friends or school work. Diet was the commonest factor believed to cause acne. Cleansing agents were the most commonly used treatments. Conclusions, Acne vulgaris is very common in Nigerian adolescents, although it is mild acne in most. [source]

Ebastine in allergic rhinitis and chronic idiopathic urticaria

ALLERGY, Issue 2008
J. Sastre
Histamine is a key mediator in the development of allergy symptoms, and oral H1 -antihistamines are among the most widely used treatments for symptomatic relief in conditions such as allergic rhinitis and chronic urticaria. Ebastine is a second-generation antihistamine which has been shown to be an effective treatment for both seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis. In controlled clinical trials in adult and adolescent patients with allergic rhinitis, ebastine 10 mg once-daily improved symptoms to a significantly greater extent than placebo and to a similar extent as loratadine 10 mg and cetirizine 10 mg (both once-daily), while ebastine 20 mg proved to be more effective than these two comparator antihistamines. In addition, ebastine was significantly more effective than placebo at relieving the symptoms of chronic idiopathic urticaria. Ebastine provides efficacy throughout the 24-h dosing interval with once-daily administration and clinical benefit is seen from the first day of treatment. Small studies have found beneficial effects for ebastine in patients with other disorders, including cold urticaria, dermographic urticaria, atopic asthma, mosquito bites and (in combination with pseudoephedrine) the common cold. In addition to the regular ebastine tablet, a fast-dissolving tablet (FDT) formulation, which disintegrates in the mouth without the aid of a drink, is also available. It has been shown to be bioequivalent to the regular tablet, and to be significantly more effective than desloratadine at reducing histamine-induced cutaneous wheals. A number of patient surveys demonstrated that the majority of individuals who tried the fast-dissolving formulation reported it to be convenient for use, fast-acting and preferred it to their previous antihistamine medication. Perhaps most importantly, a large proportion of patients indicated that they would prefer to use this new formulation in the future. Ebastine has a rapid onset of action and it can be administered once-daily, with or without food. Dose modifications are not needed in elderly patients, or in those with renal or mild to moderate hepatic impairment. Ebastine is generally well-tolerated, and clinical studies showed that at usual therapeutic doses of 10 and 20 mg once-daily, it had no clinically relevant adverse effects on cognitive function and psychomotor performance or on cardiovascular function. In conclusion, ebastine is an effective and generally well-tolerated treatment for allergic rhinitis and chronic idiopathic urticaria. In addition to the regular tablet formulation, ebastine is available as a FDT, providing a treatment option that is particularly convenient for patients. [source]

The effects of lamotrigine on the pharmacokinetics of lithium

Chao Chen
Aims The treatment of bipolar disorder often includes use of multiple drug therapies. Lithium is one of the most commonly used treatments, but has a narrow therapeutic window. Lamotrigine, an established antiepileptic drug, is emerging as a potentially important new therapy in the treatment of bipolar disorder. The objective of this two-treatment crossover study was to determine whether lamotrigine affects lithium pharmacokinetics. Methods Twenty healthy adult men completed the study. Subjects took 2 g lithium gluconate anhydrous every 12 h in the morning and evening for 5 days and in the morning of day 6, with or without 100 mg lamotrigine once daily in the morning for 6 days. Blood and urine samples were collected on day 6 of both treatments to characterize the pharmacokinetics of lithium using noncompartmental methods. Results The geometric least-square mean ratio for renal clearance of lithium between the combination treatment and lithium alone treatment was 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.85,1.02). Both treatments were well tolerated. Conclusions Lamotrigine does not cause significant change in the pharmacokinetics of lithium. [source]