Used Test (used + test)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Prefrontal cortex activity is reduced in gambling and nongambling substance users during decision-making,

Jody Tanabe
Abstract Objective: Poor decision-making is a hallmark of addiction, whether to substances or activities. Performance on a widely used test of decision-making, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), can discriminate controls from persons with ventral medial frontal lesions, substance-dependence, and pathological gambling. Positron emission tomography (PET) studies indicate that substance-dependent individuals show altered prefrontal activity on the task. Here we adapted the IGT to an fMRI setting to test the hypothesis that defects in ventral medial and prefrontal processing are associated with impaired decisions that involve risk but may differ depending on whether substance dependence is comorbid with gambling problems. Method: 18 controls, 14 substance-dependent individuals (SD), and 16 SD with gambling problems (SDPG) underwent fMRI while performing a modified version of the IGT. Result: Group differences were observed in ventral medial frontal, right frontopolar, and superior frontal cortex during decision-making. Controls showed the greatest activity, followed by SDPG, followed by SD. Conclusion: Our results support a hypothesis that defects in ventral medial frontal processing lead to impaired decisions that involve risk. Reductions in right prefrontal activity during decision-making appear to be modulated by the presence of gambling problems and may reflect impaired working memory, stimulus reward valuation, or cue reactivity in substance-dependent individuals. Hum Brain Mapp, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

UK data from 197 undergraduates for the Nelson Denny Reading Test

Jackie Masterson
The Nelson Denny Reading Test (Brown, Fishco & Hanna, 1993) provides measures of comprehension, reading rate and vocabulary. It is widely used in research studies with high school and undergraduate students and for assessment purposes in the USA. No widely used test of this kind exists for adults in the UK. The present paper reports data from 197 undergraduates from the University of Essex on the Nelson Denny test. Analyses were carried out of the data in terms of degree type and year of study. The scores obtained with the present sample were higher than those reported in the manual of the Nelson Denny test for a subset of the standardisation sample. Possible reasons for this difference are discussed. Overall, the results suggest that the Nelson Denny test is suitable for use with UK undergraduate students. [source]

Seasonal Variation in Serum Concentrations of Selected Metabolic Hormones in Horses

N.J. Place
Background: Determination of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) concentration is a commonly used test in the evaluation of endocrine causes of equine laminitis, but the concentration in healthy horses can be high at certain times of year, which alters the specificity of the ACTH test. Objective: To determine if circulating concentrations of ACTH, cortisol, glucose, insulin, and thyroxine vary month to month in healthy horses and in horses with equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). Animals: Nine healthy adult horses were studied on their farm/stable over the course of 1 year. After the diagnosis of EMS, 10 laminitic horses residing at the same farm/stable were also studied. Methods: Prospective study of healthy and laminitic horses. Plasma/serum samples were analyzed for concentrations of hormones and glucose. Results: ACTH was the only analyte to show a discrete seasonal pattern, with concentrations in healthy and EMS horses frequently outside of the reference range (9,35 pg/mL) in August through October. Insulin was elevated (>40 ,IU/mL) in EMS horses during most months and median serum glucose was generally higher in EMS horses (100 mg/dL, range, 76,163 mg/ dL) than in controls (94 mg/dL, range, 56,110 mg/dL), but no seasonal patterns for insulin or glucose were found. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: An increased ACTH concentration in horses in late summer or autumn should be interpreted with caution. In contrast, insulin concentration is maintained within the reference range throughout the year in healthy horses, thus an increased insulin concentration at any time of year should raise suspicions of EMS, ECD, or both. [source]

Added Value of a Resting ECG Neural Network That Predicts Cardiovascular Mortality

Marco V. Perez M.D.
Background: The resting 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) remains the most commonly used test in evaluating patients with suspected cardiovascular disease. Prognostic values of individual findings on the ECG have been reported but may be of limited use. Methods: The characteristics of 45,855 ECGs ordered by physician's discretion were first recorded and analyzed using a computerized system. Ninety percent of these ECGs were used to train an artifical neural network (ANN) to predict cardiovascular mortality (CVM) based on 132 ECG and four demographic characteristics. The ANN generated a Resting ECG Neural Network (RENN) score that was then tested in the remaining ECGs. The RENN score was finally assessed in a cohort of 2189 patients who underwent exercise treadmill testing and were followed for CVM. Results: The RENN score was able to better predict CVM compared to individual ECG markers or a traditional Cox regression model in the testing cohort. Over a mean of 8.6 years, there were 156 cardiovascular deaths in the treadmill cohort. Among the patients who were classified as intermediate risk by Duke Treadmill Scoring (DTS), the third tertile of the RENN score demonstrated an adjusted Cox hazard ratio of 5.4 (95% CI 2.0,15.2) compared to the first RENN tertile. The 10-year CVM was 2.8%, 8.6% and 22% in the first, second and third RENN tertiles, respectively. Conclusions: An ANN that uses the resting ECG and demographic variables to predict CVM was created. The RENN score can further risk stratify patients deemed at moderate risk on exercise treadmill testing. [source]

Correlates of screening sigmoidoscopy use among men in a large nonprofit health plan

CANCER, Issue 2 2007
Reina Haque PhD
Abstract BACKGROUND. As the majority of patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer have no known risk factors, regular screening is strongly recommended. The authors examined factors associated with screening sigmoidoscopy use among participants in the California Men's Health Study (CMHS). METHODS. The authors conducted a cross-sectional study over a 5-year period nested within a prospective cohort study. The CMHS enrolled a large multiethnic cohort (n = 84,170) of men from 2 major California health plans. Because screening sigmoidoscopy was the preferred and most commonly used test for patients at average risk of colorectal cancer in the health plans, the authors excluded from the analysis men who completed a barium enema colonoscopy or a fecal occult blood test. RESULTS. Eligible subjects included 39,559 men at average risk for colorectal cancer. Prevalence of screening sigmoidoscopy use decreased with older age and increased with higher education and household income over the 5-year study period. Compared with whites, Asians (adjusted OR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.30,1.56) and African Americans (adjusted OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.08,1.29) were more likely to undergo screening sigmoidoscopy. Screening increased with the number of outpatient visits and with having a primary care provider in internal medicine. Men who did not undergo prostate-specific antigen testing were also less likely to undergo sigmoidoscopy screening. Only 24.5% of current smokers had a screening sigmoidoscopy examination and were 25% less likely to undergo this procedure compared with nonsmokers (adjusted OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.69,0.82). CONCLUSIONS. In this insured population for whom financial barriers are minimized, screening sigmoidoscopy use was as low as reported in the general population. However, minority patients were not less likely to be screened. Cancer 2007. © 2007 American Cancer Society. [source]

Compliance with Recommended Cancer Screening among Emergency Department Patients: A Multicenter Survey

Adit A. Ginde MD
Abstract Objectives:, The objectives were to measure compliance with, and possible sociodemographic disparities for, cancer screening among emergency department (ED) patients. Methods:, This was a cross-sectional survey in three academic EDs in Boston. The authors enrolled consecutive adult patients during two 24-hour periods at each site. Self-reported compliance with standard recommendations for cervical, breast, testicular, and prostate cancer screening were measured. The chi-square test was used test to evaluate associations between demographic variables and cancer screening compliance. Results:, The authors enrolled 387 patients (81% of those eligible). The participants had a mean (±standard deviation) age of 44 (±18) years and were 52% female, 16% Hispanic, and 65% white. Sixty-seven percent (95% confidence interval [CI] = 60% to 73%) of all women reported Pap smear examinations in the past 3 years, 92% (95% CI = 85% to 96%) of women aged ,40 years reported clinical breast examinations, and 88% (95% CI = 81% to 94%) of women aged ,40 years reported mammography. Fifty-one percent (95% CI = 40% to 61%) of men aged 18,39 years reported testicular self-examinations, and among men aged ,40 years, 79% (95% CI = 69% to 87%) reported digital rectal examinations (DREs) and 51% (95% CI = 40% to 61%) reported prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing. Racial and ethnic minorities reported slightly lower rates of clinical breast examinations and testicular self-examinations. Conclusions:, Most women and a majority of men in our ED-based study were compliant with recommended measures of cervical, breast, testicular, and prostate cancer screening. No large sociodemographic disparities in our patient population were identified. Based on these data, and the many other pressing public health needs of our ED population, the authors would be reluctant to promote ED-based cancer screening initiatives at this time. [source]

Use of advanced red blood cell and reticulocyte indices improves the accuracy in diagnosing iron deficiency in pregnant women at term

Mari Ervasti
Abstract Objectives:, Detection of iron deficiency during pregnancy with hemoglobin (Hb) and serum measurements is insignificant as the measurements may be affected by e.g. hemodilution or accelerated erythropoiesis. This study tests whether cell indices will give a more reliable measure of iron deficiency in pregnant women at term. Methods:, The population was 202 pregnant women. Using the ADVIA 120 hematology system, Hb, mean cell volume (MCV), percentage of hypochromic red blood cells (%HYPOm) and reticulocytes (%HYPOr), and cellular hemoglobin in reticulocytes (CHr) were tested. Additionally, transferrin saturation (TfSat), ferritin, and transferrin receptor (TfR) were analyzed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and area under the ROC curves (AUC) were used as statistical methods. Results:, When TfSat (,11%) was used as the reference test for iron deficiency, %HYPOm and CHr had a sensitivity of 58.1% and 80.7%, while the specificities were 82.6% and 71.3%, respectively. Additionally, the AUC values were %HYPOr 0.80, CHr 0.79, ferritin 0.77, %HYPOm 0.75, TfR 0.67, MCV 0.63 and Hb 0.64. The results provided by the cell indices alone (%HYPOm or CHr) were in good agreement with the results based on the usage of a combination of three commonly used tests (Hb, MCV, ferritin). Conclusions:, This study suggests that the most practical way to diagnose iron deficiency in pregnant women at term is to use cell indices such as CHr and %HYPOm provided by the automated hematological analyzer. Further studies are needed to determine the usefulness of the cell indices in diagnosing iron deficiency longitudinally during the course of pregnancy. [source]

Sensitivity and specificity of the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT), the maintenance of wakefulness test and the Epworth sleepiness scale: Failure of the MSLT as a gold standard

Murray W. Johns
SUMMARY Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is an important symptom that needs to be quantified, but there is confusion over the best way to do this. Three of the most commonly used tests: the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT), the maintenance of wakefulness test (MWT) and the Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) give results that are significantly correlated in a statistical sense, but are not closely related. The purpose of this investigation was to help clarify this problem. Previously published data from several investigations were used to calculate the reference range of normal values for each test, defined by the mean±2 SD or by the 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles. The ,rule of thumb' that many people rely on to interpret MSLT results is shown here to be misleading. Previously published results from each test were also available for narcoleptic patients who were drug-free at the time and who by definition had EDS. This enabled the sensitivity and specificity of the three tests to be compared for the first time, in their ability to distinguish the EDS of narcolepsy from the daytime sleepiness of normal subjects. The receiver operator characteristic curves clearly showed that the ESS is the most discriminating test, the MWT is next best and the MSLT the least discriminating test of daytime sleepiness. The MSLT can no longer be considered the gold standard for such tests. [source]

Which instruments are most commonly used to assess traumatic event exposure and posttraumatic effects?: A survey of traumatic stress professionals

Jon D. Elhai
We report findings from a Web-based survey of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies' members (n = 227) regarding use of trauma exposure and posttraumatic assessment instruments. Across clinical and research settings, the most widely used tests included the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale, Trauma Symptom Inventory, Life Events Checklist, Clinician-Administered Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Scale, PTSD Checklist, Impact of Event Scale,Revised, and Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children. Highest professional degree, time since degree award, and student status yielded no differences in extent of reported trauma assessment test use. [source]

Systematic review and meta-analysis of methods of diagnostic assessment for urinary incontinence,,

J.L. Martin
Abstract Aims To evaluate the performance of all tests proposed for the diagnosis of urinary incontinence. Methods A systematic review and meta-analyses of the published literature of methods for diagnostic assessment of urinary incontinence. Results One hundred twenty-one papers were included in the full review [Martin et al., 2006]. The quality of reporting in the primary studies was poor which reduced the number of studies that could be included in the data analysis. The literature suggests that women with urodynamic stress incontinence (USI) can be correctly identified in primary care from clinical history alone with a sensitivity of 0.92 (95% C.I.: 0.91,0.93) and specificity of 0.56 (0.53,0.60). A clinical history for the diagnosis of detrusor overactivity (DO) was found to be 0.61 (0.57,0.65) sensitive and 0.87 (0.85,0.89) specific. Within secondary care imaging of leakage by ultrasound was found to be effective in the diagnosis of USI in women with a sensitivity of 0.89 (0.84,0.93) and specificity of 0.82 (0.73,0.89). Conclusions Clinical interpretation of the results of the review is difficult because few studies could be synthesized and conclusions made. The published evidence suggests that a large proportion of women with USI can be correctly identified in primary care from history alone. Ultrasound offers a useful diagnostic tool which could be used prior to, and possibly instead of, multi-channel urodynamics in some circumstances. If a patient is to undergo urodynamic testing, multi-channel urodynamics is likely to give the most accurate result. Further primary studies adhering to STARD guidelines are required on commonly used tests. Neurourol. Urodynam. 25:674,683, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Practitioner Review: Computerized assessment of neuropsychological function in children: clinical and research applications of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Testing Automated Battery (CANTAB)

Monica Luciana
Background: Computers have been used for a number of years in neuropsychological assessment to facilitate the scoring, interpretation, and administration of a variety of commonly used tests. There has been recent interest in applying computerized technology to pediatric neuropsychological assessment, which poses unique demands based on the need to interpret performance relative to the child's developmental level. Findings: However, pediatric neuropsychologists have tended to implement computers in the scoring, but not administration, of tests. This trend is changing based on the work of experimental neuropsychologists who frequently combine data obtained from test batteries with lesion or neuroimaging data allowing descriptions of brain,behavior relations to be made with increasing confidence. One such battery is the Cambridge Neuropsychological Testing Automated Battery (CANTAB), and current studies in which the CANTAB has been used to measure executive functions in children are reviewed. Conclusions: Computerized batteries of this type can record aspects of performance that are difficult for psychometrists to achieve, and these may reflect activity in developing neural networks with more sensitivity than can be achieved with traditional tests. However, before computerized test administration becomes a routine part of pediatric neuropsychological assessment, several obstacles must be overcome. Despite these limitations, it is concluded that computerized assessment can improve the field by facilitating the collection of normative and clinical data. [source]

Trial by fire: are the crystals macromolecules?

Kannan Raghunathan
Protein crystallization screens frequently yield salt crystals as well as protein crystals. A simple method for determining whether a crystal is composed of salt or macromolecules is suggested. A drop containing one or more crystals is transferred to a glass cover slip and the cover slip is then passed through the flame of a Bunsen burner. Macromolecule crystals are destroyed by this treatment, while salt crystals generally remain. The test can be performed after other commonly used tests such as crushing and staining. [source]