Used Intraoperatively (used + intraoperatively)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Hydrophilic Polymers with Potassium Salt and Microporous Polysaccharides for Use as Hemostatic Agents

BACKGROUND Postoperative bleeding can lead to complications such as hematoma, infection, dehiscence, and an unscheduled office visit. Topical hemostatic agents can be used to aid in hemostasis. OBJECTIVE The objective is to familiarize physicians with topical hemostatic agents,hydrophilic polymers with potassium salts (Urgent QR powder) and microporous polysaccharide hemispheres (Bleed-X). METHODS Two hemostatic agents, microporous polysaccharide hemospheres and hydrophilic polymers with potassium salt, are discussed. The literature is reviewed. RESULTS Numerous types of hemostatic agents exist. Topical hemostatic agents are safe, cost-effective, and efficient. CONCLUSION Microporous polysaccharide hemospheres and hydrophilic polymers with potassium salts can be an adjunct to hemostasis after cautery and ligation. Patients can apply hemostatic agents if they experience any bleeding leading to decreased office visits. Hemostatic agents used intraoperatively shorten bleeding time and enable the physician to use less cautery. Using hemostatic agents can lead to fewer hematomas, infections, and office visits. [source]

Prior pallidotomy reduces and modifies neuronal activity in the subthalamic nucleus of Parkinson's disease patients

A. Zaidel
Abstract Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with prior radio-frequency lesions in the internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi, pallidotomy), whose symptoms have deteriorated, may be candidates for further invasive treatment such as subthalamic deep brain stimulation (STN DBS). Six patients with prior pallidotomy (five unilaterally; one bilaterally) underwent bilateral STN DBS. The microelectrode recordings (MERs, used intraoperatively for STN verification), ipsilateral and contralateral to pallidotomy, and MERs from 11 matched PD patients who underwent bilateral STN DBS without prior pallidotomy were compared. For each trajectory, average, variance and mean successive difference (MSD, a measure of irregularity) of the root mean square (RMS) of the STN MER were calculated. The RMS in trajectories ipsilateral to pallidotomy showed significant reduction of the mean average and MSD of STN activity when compared with trajectories from patients without prior pallidotomy. The RMS parameters contralateral to pallidotomy tend to lie between those ipsilateral to pallidotomy and those without prior pallidotomy. The average STN power spectral density of oscillatory activity was notably lower ipsilateral to pallidotomy than contralateral, or without prior pallidotomy. The finding that pallidotomy reduces STN activity and changes firing characteristics, in conjunction with the effectiveness of STN DBS despite prior pallidotomy, calls for reappraisal and modification of the current model of the basal ganglia (BG) cortical network. It highlights the critical role of direct projections from the BG to brain-stem structures and suggests a possible GPi,STN reciprocal positive-feedback mechanism. [source]

A systematic review of the effectiveness of cutaneous warming systems to prevent hypothermia

Cristina M Galv„o
Aims., To retrieve and critique recent randomised trials of cutaneous warming systems used to prevent hypothermia in surgical patients during the intraoperative period and to identify gaps in current evidence and make recommendations for future trials. Background., Hypothermia affects up to 70% of anaesthetised surgical patients and is associated with several significant negative health outcomes. Design., Systematic review using integrative methods. Methods., We searched CINAHL, EMBASE, Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials and Medline databases (January 2000,April 2007) for recent reports on randomised controlled trials of cutaneous warming systems used with elective patients during the intraoperative period. Inclusion criteria., We included randomised control trials examining the effects of cutaneous warming systems used intraoperatively on patients aged 18 years or older undergoing non-emergency surgery. Studies published in English, Spanish or Portuguese with a comparison group that consisted of either usual care or active cutaneous warming systems without prewarming were reviewed. Results., Of 193 papers initially identified, 14 studies met the inclusion criteria. There was moderate evidence to indicate that carbon-fibre blankets and forced-air warming systems are equally effective and that circulating-water garments are most effective for maintaining normothermia during the intraoperative period. Few trials reported costs. Conclusions., Carbon-fibre blankets and forced-air warming systems are effective and circulating-water garments may be preferable. Future research should measure the direct and indirect costs associated with competing systems. Relevance to clinical practice., Nurses can use this review to inform their selection of warming interventions in perioperative nursing practice. They can also assess other factors such as nursing workload, staff training and equipment maintenance, which should be incorporated into future research. [source]

Use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in infants.

A survey of members of the Association of Paediatric Anaesthetists of Great Britain, Ireland
Summary Background:, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly used as perioperative analgesics. Many are currently used off label. Diclofenac is currently licensed for use in children over 1 year of age for the treatment of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, while ibuprofen is licensed for use in children weighing over 7 kg. The dose and interval in children is currently extrapolated from adult studies, as the pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) data are lacking in infants. Methods:, A postal questionnaire was sent to members of the Association of Paediatric Anaesthetist of Great Britain and Ireland seeking to clarify members' prescribing patterns of NSAIDs, especially in infants. Information regarding the choice of NSAIDS, route of administration, lower age limit, dose interval, dose and practice in two specific perioperative contexts (adenotonsillectomy and open heart surgery) was sought. Results:, The response rate was 80%. NSAIDs are used by 86% of responders in infants. Diclofenac is most commonly used intraoperatively (78%); while ibuprofen (73%) was used more frequently postoperatively. NSAIDs are used by 21% of respondents in ICU. Commonest routes of administration were oral (81%) and rectal (80%), rarely intravenously (9%). The commonest dose for diclofena is 1 mg∑kg,1 (59%); the dosing schedule employed being 8 hourly in 53% of cases. NSAIDs are used by 57% of responders as part of their analgesic regime for adenotonsillectomies. Conclusion:, Members of the Association of Paediatric Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland commonly prescribe NSAIDs in infants. This is despite the dearth of PK and PD data in this age group. [source]

The graphemic/motor frontal area Exner's area revisited,

Franck-Emmanuel Roux MD
Objective In 1881, Exner first described a "graphic motor image center" in the middle frontal gyrus. Current psycholinguistic models of handwriting involve the conversion of abstract, orthographic representations into motor representations before a sequence of appropriate hand movements is produced. Direct cortical stimulation and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were used to study the human frontal areas involved in writing. Methods Cortical electrical stimulation mapping was used intraoperatively in 12 patients during the removal of brain tumors to identify the areas involved in oral language (sentence reading and naming) and writing, and to spare them during surgery. The fMRI activation experiment involved 12 right-handed and 12 left-handed healthy volunteers using word dictation (without visual control) and 2 control tasks. Results Direct cortical electrical stimulation of restricted areas rostral to the primary motor hand area (Brodmann area [BA] 6) impaired handwriting in 6 patients, without disturbing hand movements or oral language tasks. In 6 other patients, stimulation of lower frontal regions showed deficits combining handwriting with other language tasks. fMRI also revealed selective activation during word handwriting in left versus right BA6 depending on handedness. This area was anatomically matched to those areas that affected handwriting on electrical stimulation. Interpretation An area in middle frontal gyrus (BA6) that we have termed the graphemic/motor frontal area supports bridging between orthography and motor programs specific to handwriting. Ann Neurol 2009;66:537,545 [source]