Used Fluorescence (used + fluorescence)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Multiple bacterial symbionts in two species of co-occurring gutless oligochaete worms from Mediterranean sea grass sediments

Caroline Ruehland
Summary Gutless oligochaete worms are found worldwide in the pore waters of marine sediments and live in symbiosis with chemoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. In the Mediterranean, two species of gutless oligochaete worms, Olavius algarvensis and O. ilvae, co-occur in sediments around sea grass beds. These sediments have extremely low sulfide concentrations (< 1 ,M), raising the question if O. ilvae, as shown previously for O. algarvensis, also harbours sulfate-reducing symbionts that provide its sulfur-oxidizing symbionts with reduced sulfur compounds. In this study, we used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and comparative sequence analysis of genes for 16S rRNA, sulfur metabolism (aprA and dsrAB), and autotrophic carbon fixation (cbbL) to examine the microbial community of O. ilvae and re-examine the O. algarvensis symbiosis. In addition to the four previously described symbionts of O. algarvensis, in this study a fifth symbiont belonging to the Spirochaetes was found in these hosts. The symbiotic community of O. ilvae was similar to that of O. algarvensis and also included two gammaproteobacterial sulfur oxidizers and two deltaproteobacterial sulfate reducers, but not a spirochete. The phylogenetic and metabolic similarity of the symbiotic communities in these two co-occurring host species that are not closely related to each other indicates that syntrophic sulfur cycling provides a strong selective advantage to these worms in their sulfide-poor environment. [source]

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of the interactions between honeybee larvae and Paenibacillus larvae, the causative agent of American foulbrood of honeybees (Apis mellifera)

Dominique Yue
Summary American foulbrood (AFB) is a bacterial disease of honeybee larvae caused by the spore-forming bacterium Paenibacillus larvae. Although AFB and its aetiological agent are described now for more than a century, the general and molecular pathogenesis of this notifiable disease is poorly understood. We used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) performed with P. larvae -specific, 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes to analyse the early steps in the pathogenesis of American foulbrood. The following chain of events could be demonstrated: (i) the spores germinate in the midgut lumen, (ii) the vegetative bacteria massively proliferate within the midgut before, and (iii) they start to locally breach the epithelium and invade the haemocoel. The paracellular route was shown to be the main mechanism for invasion contrasting earlier hypotheses of phagocytosis of P. larvae. Invasion coincided with the death of the host implicating that the penetration of the midgut epithelium is a critical step determining the time of death. [source]

Secreted CREG inhibits cell proliferation mediated by mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II receptor in NIH3T3 fibroblasts

GENES TO CELLS, Issue 9 2008
Ya-Ling Han
Cellular repressor of E1A-stimulated genes (CREG) is a recently described glycoprotein that plays a critical role in keeping cells or tissues in mature, homeostatic states. To understand the relationship between CREG and its membrane receptor, mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II receptor (M6P/IGF2R), we first generated stable NIH3T3 fibroblasts by transfection of pDS_shCREGs vectors, which produced an approximately 80% decrease in CREG levels both in the lysate and in the media. We used fluorescence activated cell sorting and a bromide deoxyuridine incorporation assay to identify whether CREG knockdown promoted the cell proliferation associated with the increase of IGF-II in NIH3T3 fibroblasts. Proliferation was markedly inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by re-addition of recombinant CREG protein into the media, and this was mediated by the membrane receptor M6P/IGF2R. We subsequently confirmed the direct interaction of CREG and M6P/IGF2R by both immunoprecipitation-Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining. We found that expression of CREG correlated with localization of the receptor in NIH3T3 fibroblasts but did not affect its expression. Our findings indicated that CREG might act as a functional regulator of M6P/IGF2R to facilitate binding and trafficking of IGF-II endocytosis, leading to growth inhibition. [source]

Gene position within chromosome territories correlates with their involvement in distinct rearrangement types in thyroid cancer cells

Manoj S. Gandhi
Chromosomal rearrangements in human cancers are of two types, interchromosomal, which are rearrangements that involve exchange between loci located on different chromosomes, and intrachromosomal, which are rearrangements that involve loci located on the same chromosome. The type of rearrangement that typically activates a specific oncogene may be influenced by its nuclear location and that of its partner. In interphase nuclei, each chromosome occupies a distinct three-dimensional (3D) territory that tends to not overlap the territories of other chromosomes. It is also known that after double strand breaks in the genome, mobility of free DNA ends is limited. These considerations suggest that loci located deep within a chromosomal territory might not participate in interchromosomal rearrangements as readily as in intrachromosomal rearrangements. To test this hypothesis, we used fluorescence in situ hybridization with 3D high-resolution confocal microscopy to analyze the positions of six oncogenes known to be activated by recombination in human cancer cells. We found that loci involved in interchromosomal rearrangements were located closer to the periphery of chromosome territories as compared with the loci that were involved in intrachromosomal inversions. The results of this study provide evidence suggesting that nuclear architecture and location of specific genetic loci within chromosome territories may influence their participation in intrachromosomal or interchromosomal rearrangements in human thyroid cells. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Cyclin D1 Amplification and p16(MTS1/CDK4I) Deletion Correlate With Poor Prognosis in Head and Neck Tumors,

Ali Namazie MD
Abstract Objectives/Hypothesis Cyclin D1, a cell cycle regulator localized to chromosome 11q13, is amplified in several human tumors including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Amplification and/or overexpression of cyclin D1 have been correlated to a poor prognosis. Deletion of the p16 gene, localized to 9p21, has also been observed in a significant proportion of HNSCC. The p16 gene regulates cyclin D1-CDK4 activity and prevents retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene phosphorylation, thereby downregulating cellular proliferation. Detection of cyclin D1 amplification and p16 deletion using a simple and sensitive method will be valuable for the development of effective treatment modalities for head and neck cancer. Study Design We have used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to study cyclin D1 amplification and p16 gene deletion in head and neck tumors. Both single- and dual-color FISH were performed. Methods Paraffin-embedded tissues from 103 patients with HNSCC were analyzed using genomic DNA probes for cyclin D1 and p16. Dual-color FISH was performed with chromosome 11 or 9 centromeric probes as a control. Twenty-eight of these samples were analyzed for p16 expression by immunohistochemistry. Results Cyclin D1 amplification was observed in 30% (31/103) of patients, and p16 deletion in 52% (54/103). Lack of p16 expression was observed in 64% (18/28) of patients. There was a good correlation between the deletion of p16 sequences and the loss of p16 expression (P = .008). Amplification of cyclin D1 had a statistically significant association with recurrence, distant metastasis, and survival at 36 months. There was a significant association between p16 deletion and the development of distant metastases. Cyclin D1 amplification and p16 deletion together correlated with recurrence, distant metastasis, and survival. Conclusions We demonstrate that FISH is a simple and sensitive method for detecting cyclin D1 amplification and p16 deletion in head and neck cancer. Our results suggest that these two genetic aberrations together portend a poorer outcome than either of the abnormalities alone in head and neck cancer. [source]