Used Classification (used + classification)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Origins and characteristics of Nearctic landbirds in Britain and Ireland in autumn: a statistical analysis

IBIS, Issue 4 2006
We used data from eastern North America in regressions to explain autumn frequencies of Nearctic landbird species in Britain and Ireland (UK-IR). The data were: day-counts of 16 August,15 November from Nova Scotia (NS) on Sable Island 1963,2000 and Seal Island (1963,2002), combined in half-monthly intervals to account for seasonality; published seasonal totals (10- to 11-day intervals, 20 August,10 November 1955,80) of birds killed at a Florida (FL) TV tower; and published counts following a ,Fallout', 11 October 1998, of unseasonal species and southern vagrants in NS, believed to have originated as migrants in the southeast USA that followed a cold front offshore into strong southwest flow beyond. We also used the following species variables: body mass and wing length for size; sd of mass as a proxy for lipid capacity; a five-level index of migratory span (1 for within North America to 5 for almost totally to South America); latitude of easternmost breeding, and distance to nearest normal range to indicate status in NS; a two-level index for day vs. night migrants; an index, where pertinent, of significant population change (0 and 2 for a decrease and increase, respectively, 1 for no change). We also used classification and regression trees to cluster the potential transatlantic vagrants into homogeneous groups based on the explanatory variables. Standard generalized linear model regressions using counts from NS islands and FL produced highly positively skewed residuals (many species too common in UK-IR), but robust regressions eliminated statistical problems, and strengthened effects of non-count variables. Results using Fallout records, representing a subset of longer-distance night migrants, were statistically acceptable. The Fallout list, when supplied with counts from the same species from the NS islands and FL, produced highly significant (R2 = 0.79,0.93) and statistically acceptable regressions that were not improved by robust versions. Overall, the results indicate that October counts, especially of generally larger, longer-distance migrants, best represented those reaching UK-IR. The effect of geographical remoteness was negative , vagrants in NS were less likely to appear in UK-IR. Population changes were important in predicting the 1956,2003 UK-IR counts from 1955,80 FL counts. The seasonal characteristics, high explanatory power of the Fallout list and over-representation of probable over-ocean migrants in the standard regressions all support suggestions by others that many Nearctic vagrants in UK-IR originate in flights off southeast USA and are displaced downwind across the North Atlantic. [source]

Sprouting ability across diverse disturbances and vegetation types worldwide

Peter A. Vesk
Summary 1A widely used classification of plant response to fire divides species into two groups, sprouters and non-sprouters. In contrast, regeneration responses to catastrophic wind throw and small gap disturbance are more often considered a continuum. 2We determined general patterns in the distribution of sprouting ability across species with respect to disturbance type and intensity, vegetation type and phylogeny and assessed the adequacy of a dichotomy for describing species' sprouting responses. These are important steps if sprouting is to be adopted widely and consistently as a functional trait. 3Quantitative data were compiled from the literature and differences in species' sprouting proportions between disturbance classes were assessed using simple sprouting categorizations, visually using histograms and with mixture models. 4The sprouter/non-sprouter dichotomy effectively characterized intense disturbances, such as fires resulting in stem-kill (peaks at 13%, 79% probability of sprouting). But there was a continuum of responses following less intense disturbances. Where substantial above-ground tissue was retained, as for wind throw, localized gap disturbances and low intensity fires, there were fewer non-sprouters and more intermediate sprouters. 5Comparisons across diverse vegetation types and disturbances require quantitative records of sprouting, although the simple sprouter/non-sprouter dichotomy was sufficient for comparisons within fire. Patterns appeared consistent across broad vegetation types. Sprouting ability showed little phylogenetic conservatism. [source]

Phylogeny of Thalassinidea (Crustacea, Decapoda) inferred from three rDNA sequences: implications for morphological evolution and superfamily classification

L. M. Tsang
Abstract The infraorder Thalassinidea is a group of cryptic marine burrowing decapods of which the higher taxonomy is often contentious. The present analysis attempts to reconstruct phylogenetic relationship among 12 of the 13 currently recognized families using partial nuclear 18S, 28S rDNA and mitochondrial 16S rDNA sequences. The infraorder is divided into two distinct clades, with the first clade consisting of Thalassinidae, Laomediidae, Axianassidae and Upogebiidae, and the second clade including Axiidae, Calocarididae, Eiconaxiidae, Callianassidae, Ctenochelidae, Micheleidae, Strahlaxiidae and Callianideidae. Within the first clade, the Upogebiidae is the basal family. The Axianassidae shows low affinity to other laomediid genera indicating that it is a valid family. The interfamilial relationships are less well resolved in the second clade. The Axiidae is paraphyletic with respect to Calocarididae and Eiconaxiidae. Thus, the status of these two latter families is not supported if the currently defined Axiidae is maintained. All three families appear to be basal in the thalassinidean clade. The Micheleidae is closely related to the Callianideidae and they form a sister group to the Strahlaxiidae. The monophyletic Callianassidae aligns with the Micheleidae + Callianideidae + Strahlaxiidae clade. The relationship among the Axiidae + Calocarididae + Eiconaxiidae clade, Callianassidae + Micheleidae + Callianideidae + Strahlaxiidae clade and the Ctenochelidae cannot be resolved which might be due to a rapid radiation of the three lineages. Our results do not support the generally used classification scheme of Thalassinidea and suggest that the infraorder might be divided into two superfamilies instead of three as suggested based on larval morphology, second pereiopod morphology in adults and gastric mill structure. The two superfamilies are Thalassinoidea (i.e. Thalassinidae, Laomediidae, Upogebiidae and Axianassidae) and Callianassoidea (i.e. Axioidea + Callianassoidea, as defined in Martin and Davis (2001) but excluding Laomediidae and Upogebiidae). It also appears that gill-cleaning adaptations are important in thalassinidean evolution while the presence of linea thalassinica is a result of parallel evolution. Résumé L'infraordre des Thalassinidea est un groupe de décapodes marins fouisseurs cryptiques dont la taxonomie au niveau supérieur est souvent controversée. Cette analyse tente de reconstruire les relations phylogénétiques entre 12 familles sur les 13 actuellement reconnues en utilisant les séquences partielles de rDNA nucléaire 18S, 28S et de rDNA mitochondrial 16S. L'infraordre est divisé en deux clades distincts, le premier comprenant les Thalassinidae, Laomediidae, Axianassidae et Upogebiidae, et le deuxième comprenant les Axiidae, Calocarididae, Eiconaxiidae, Callianassidae, Ctenochelidae, Micheleidae, Strahlaxiidae et Callianideidae. Dans le premier clade, les Upogebiidae est la famille basale. Les Axianassidae montre peu d'affinité avec les autres genres de laomedidés, ce qui indique que la famille est valide. Les relations interfamiliales sont moins bien résolues dans le second clade. La famille des Axiidae est paraphylétique par rapport aux Calocarididae et Eiconaxiidae. Ainsi le statut de ces deux dernières familles n'est pas supporté si la famille des Axiidae est maintenue dans sa définition actuelle. Toutes les trois familles apparaissent basales dans le clade thalassinidéen. La famille des Micheleidae est très proche des Callianideidae et elles forment un groupe frère des Strahlaxiidae. La famille monophylétique des Callianassidae s'aligne avec le clade Micheleidae + Callianideidae + Strahlaxiidae. La relation entre le clade Axiidae + Calocarididae + Eiconaxiidae, le clade des Callianassidae + Micheleidae + Callianideidae + Strahlaxiidae et la famille des Ctenochelidae ne peut être résolue, ce qui pourrait être dûà une radiation rapide des trois lignées Nos résultats ne supportent pas le schéma de classification généralement utilisé pour les Thalassinidea et suggèrent que l'infraordre pourrait être divisé en deux superfamilles au lieu de trois comme suggéré sur la base de la morphologie larvaire, de la morphologie du deuxième péréiopode de l'adulte et de la structure du moulin gastrique. Les deux superfamilles sont: les Thalassinoidea (c'est-à-dire Thalassinidae, Laomediidae, Upogebiidae et Axianassidae) et Callianassoidea (c'est-à-dire Axioidea + Callianassoidea, comme définis dans Martin et Davis 2001 mais excluant les Laomediidae et les Upogebiidae). Il apparaît aussi que les adaptations pour le nettoyage des branchies sont importantes dans l'évolution thalassinidéenne alors que la présence de la linea thalassinica est le résultat d'une évolution parallèle. [source]

Mitochondrial phylogeography of the European sprat (Sprattus sprattus L., Clupeidae) reveals isolated climatically vulnerable populations in the Mediterranean Sea and range expansion in the northeast Atlantic

Abstract We examined the genetic structure of the European sprat (Sprattus sprattus) by means of a 530-bp sequence of the mitochondrial control region from 210 fish originating from seven sampling localities of its distributional range. Phylogeographical analysis of 128 haplotypes showed a phylogenetic separation into two major clades with the Strait of Sicily acting as a barrier to gene flow between them. While no population differentiation was observed based on analysis of molecular variance and net nucleotide differences between samples of the Baltic Sea, the North Sea and the Bay of Biscay nor between the Black Sea and the Bosporus, a strong population differentiation between these samples and two samples from the Mediterranean Sea was found. Further, the biggest genetic distance was observed within the Mediterranean Sea between the populations of the Gulf of Lyon and the Adriatic Sea, indicating genetic isolation of these regions. Low genetic diversities and star-like haplotype networks of both Mediterranean Sea populations point towards recent demographic expansion scenarios after low population size, which is further supported by negative FS values and unimodal mismatch distributions with a low mean. Along the northeast Atlantic coast, a northwards range expansion of a large and stable population can be assumed. The history of a diverse but differentiated Black Sea population remains unknown due to uncertainties in the palaeo-oceanography of this sea. Our genetic data did not confirm the presently used classification into subspecies but are only preliminary in the absence of nuclear genetic analyses. [source]

Linnaeus' sexual system and flowering plant phylogeny

Birgitta Bremer
Carl Linnaeus brought order to the knowledge of plants and animals by arranging all known species in encyclopaedic works. He proposed a system of plants, the sexual system, based on the number and arrangement of male and female organs. His artificial sexual system has since long been replaced by ,natural' or phylogenetic systems but there has never been a comprehensive comparison of the sexual system with modern plant classification. The currently most often used classification of flowering plants is the APG-system. It is based on comprehensive phylogenies of flowering plants, reconstructed by analyses of DNA data. The APG-system covers all flowering plants which are classified in 453 families and these are classified in 45 orders. Most of the species were not known at time of Linnaeus. Families and orders in the APG-system are arranged in larger informal groups representing major branches in the flowering plant phylogenetic tree. Three such groups are the monocots, the rosids, and the asterids. I have examined all genera published in Species plantarum (1753) and classified them according to order and major groups in the APG-system. All classes except one, number 15 Tetradynamia, comprises groups of unrelated plants. Not surprisingly, the sexual system does not display what we know today about plant relationships. As is evident from this analysis, there is little correspondence between the sexual system and the APG-system. This does not mean that the sexual system has been useless or misleading. When it was introduced, it formed the basis for much intensified research and increased knowledge of plants. [source]