Used Alcohol (used + alcohol)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The Mexican migration to the United States and substance use in northern Mexico

ADDICTION, Issue 4 2009
Guilherme Borges
ABSTRACT Aims To examine the impact of migration to the United States on substance use and substance use disorders in three urban areas of northern Mexico. Design Cross-sectional survey of immigration-related experiences and life-time and past-year alcohol and drug use, in a representative sample of respondents aged 12,65 years. Setting Interviews were conducted in the cities of Tijuana, Ciudad Juarez and Monterrey during 2005. Respondents were classified into three groups: (i) ,return migrants', (ii) ,relatives of migrants' and (iii) ,others in the general population'. Findings A total of 1630 completed interviews were obtained for a response rate of 70.5%. ,Return migrants' were more likely to have used alcohol, marijuana or cocaine at least once in their life-time and in the last 12 months, more likely to develop a substance use disorder and more likely to have a 12-month substance use disorder compared with ,others in the general population'. Among ,return migrants', longer length of time in the United States and type of work performed as an immigrant were related to higher prevalence of substance use. Among ,relatives of migrants', migration experiences were not associated with increased prevalence of substance use compared with ,others in the general population'. Conclusion This study found a link between migration to the United States and the transformation of substance use norms and pathology in Mexico. Future research on pre-migration involvement in substance use and data on the timing of events among return migrants is needed. Public health measures are likely to require cross-border coordination of research and service development. [source]

Alcohol abuse in a metropolitan city in China: a study of the prevalence and risk factors

ADDICTION, Issue 9 2004
Zhang Jiafang
ABSTRACT Aims To investigate the prevalence of alcohol abuse in modern China and to explore the risk factors that may be associated with alcohol abuse. Design A face-to-face interview was carried out in a random sample with 2327 respondents. Setting Respondents were selected randomly from Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China, between May and June 2002. Participants Fifteen,65-year-old urban Chinese adults. Measurements Scores for alcohol abuse and related risk factors were the main measures. Findings (1) Nearly 15% of urban Chinese adults aged 15,65 were alcohol abusers. (2) Deviant drinking habits of mother, schoolmates, colleagues or friends all had a negative impact on the respondent's alcohol drinking behaviours, and higher economic status, current smokers, being male and being older were identified as risk factors related to alcohol abuse. In particular, if a drinker's mother used alcohol frequently then this drinker was more likely to become an alcohol abuser than those drinkers whose mothers did not use alcohol frequently (P = 0.0001). Fathers' drinking behaviours do not have a significant impact on the alcohol abusers. Conclusions In addition to common risk factors such as economic status, deviant peers' and fellows' drinking behaviours and negative attitudes to alcohol drinking, maternal alcohol drinking habit influenced significantly the offspring's drinking habits. Therefore, efficient intervention and education of healthy drinking habits in early motherhood is necessary for Chinese women. [source]

The beverage maté: A risk factor for cancer of the head and neck

David Goldenberg MD
Abstract Background. Maté is a tealike beverage consumed habitually in South America and among South Americans throughout the world. It is brewed from the dried leaves and stemlets of the perennial tree Ilex paraguariensis (yerba maté), a species that belongs to the Aquifoliaceae family. Maté consumption has been associated with an increased rate of oral, oropharyngeal, esophageal, and laryngeal cancers. The purpose of this study is to review the literature and discuss the role of Maté consumption as a risk factor for head and neck cancers. Materials and Methods. We performed a thorough review of the relevant literature linking maté consumption with head and neck cancer and the proposed carcinogenicity of maté. Case control studies on maté-drinking populations and in vivo and in vitro studies on the carcinogenicity of maté were reviewed. The populations included in many of these studies also used alcohol and tobacco products, confounding the influence of maté as an independent risk factor. Results. Evidence in the literature suggests that maté consumption is carcinogenic and plays a role in the development of cancers of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, and esophagus. Conclusions. The exact mechanism of carcinogenesis of maté is unknown. Both chemical and thermal carcinogenesis mechanisms have been suggested. Available information suggests that maté drinking is a risk factor for upper aerodigestive tract cancer. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 25: 595,601, 2003 [source]

Adolescent Depression: Important Facts That Matter

Lisa M. Pullen PhD
PURPOSE. To determine if there are differences in adolescent depression using variables of age, gender, smoking, and alcohol use. METHODS. A comparative, descriptive survey design was used. The adolescents (N = 217) completed either the Beck Depression Inventory or the Children's Depression Inventory and a demographic questionnaire. FINDINGS. The 15- to 2 6-year-olds (p = .016), females (p = .003), and smokers (p = .001) scored significantly higher than the 12- to 14-year-olds on depression. The 15- to 16-year-olds who used alcohol were found to be twice as depressed as the nonusers (p = .002). No significant differences were found in the 17- to 19-year-old age group. CONCLUSIONS. This study confirmed depression increased with age, in females, and with smokers. Nurses are in a unique position to provide interventions to promote healthy lifestyles and reduce the likelihood of depression and alcohol and nicotine abuse in adolescents. [source]

Drinking Alcohol before Age 13 and Negative Outcomes in Late Adolescence

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 11 2009
Neta Peleg-Oren
Background:, Research has shown that adolescents who begin drinking at an early stage in life are at greater risk of developing alcohol dependency, as well as a variety of negative outcomes, for instance, delinquent behavior. Most of these studies have focused on those who begin drinking in middle adolescence, but little attention has been paid to youth who initiate drinking under the age of 13. Twenty percent of adolescents have begun using alcohol by the age of 13. The purpose of the study is to examine whether initiating alcohol use before the age of 13 exacerbates negative outcomes in late adolescence. Methods:, Data for the study were derived from 2 school-based statewide surveys conducted in Florida: the 2005 YRBS and the 2006 FYSAS. The sample included 12,352 11th and 12th grade students divided into 3 groups: students who initiated alcohol use under the age of 13, students who initiated alcohol use at age 13 or later, and students who never used alcohol. Results:, Results showed that after adjusting for gender, ethnicity/race, and grade, adolescents who initiated alcohol use before age 13 were more likely to report problems with school performance and display delinquent behaviors (carrying a gun, carrying a weapon to school, and recent marijuana use). Conclusion:, Although no temporal relationships can be determined between drinking alcohol before age 13 and delinquent behavior outcomes, the results suggested that adolescents under the age of 13 need to be included in national epidemiological surveys on alcohol use and more efforts need to be directed toward the implementation of prevention programs early in elementary and middle schools. [source]

A matched comparison study of medical and psychiatric complications and anesthesia and analgesia requirements in methadone-maintained liver transplant recipients

Robert M. Weinrieb
Approximately 85% of patients receiving methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) for opiate dependence in the United States are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). MMT is significantly underrepresented in most liver transplant programs, but the number of patients receiving MMT is increasing and few data are available to guide treatment. We evaluated MMT in our program (27 pretransplant and 10 posttransplant cases) for medical and psychiatric complications and anesthesia and analgesia requirements. After transplant, 10 patients receiving MMT were compared with a matched control group of 19 patients who were not receiving MMT and not dependent on opiates. Fewer patients receiving MMT retained a spot on the transplant waiting list (65%) than patients not receiving MMT (80%); 30% of patients receiving MMT pretransplant used heroin, cocaine, or marijuana, and more than 25% were lost to follow-up. Liver disease according to mean Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) score and transplant waiting times was similar between the 2 groups. Patients receiving MMT required significantly more intraoperative anesthesia and postoperative analgesia (mean fentanyl 3,175 ,g/d, SD = 2,832; intravenous morphine 67.86 mg/d, SD = 38.84, respectively) compared with patients not receiving MMT (mean fentanyl 1,324 ,g/d, SD = 1,122; intravenous morphine 12.17 mg/d, SD = 10.24, respectively). More patients receiving MMT had severe recurrent HCV infection (60%) and worse survival (60%) versus patients not receiving MMT (21% and 78.9%, respectively). Follow-up times did not differ between groups (MMT: mean 4.19 years, median 1.15 years, SD = 7.6; non-MMT: mean 2.68 years, median 2.19 years, SD = 1.73). Finally, patients receiving MMT required an average methadone dose increase of 60% from pretransplant to posttransplant. Postoperative analgesia guidelines are described. Posttransplant, 20% of patients receiving MMT used alcohol or illicit drugs. Data do not support withholding the provision of liver transplantation to patients receiving MMT, but larger, well-controlled studies are warranted. (Liver Transpl 2004;10:97,106.) [source]

Grandparents Raising Grandchildren: The Association of Grandparents' Self-Reported Use of Alcohol and Drugs and Their Emotional Well-Being

Richard A. Longoria
The research literature on the emotional well-being of grandparents raising grandchildren has identified an array of factors that predict psychological distress among this population of caregivers. However, little is known about whether grandparents' alcohol and/or other drug (AOD) use among some grandparents may negatively affect their emotional well-being. Moreover, a synthesis of the research literature on mental health and AOD misuse suggests a plausible link between psychological distress and AOD use may exist among some grandparents raising grandchildren. Using a probability sample of grandparents raising their grandchildren, multivariate analyses conducted in this study show that grandparents who misused a drug and used alcohol had lower levels of emotional well-being compared with grandparents who did not use or misuse such substances. Clinical implications concerning the mental health needs of this underserved population of caregivers are discussed. [source]

Personality Risk Factors Associated with Trajectories of Tobacco Use

Judith S. Brook EdD
The purpose of this longitudinal, prospective study was to evaluate trajectories of smoking in a cohort of African-American and Puerto Rican young adults and describe personality and behavioral factors associated with specific smoking trajectory group membership. Participants consisted of African-American and Puerto Rican male and female young adults (n = 451, mean age 26) from an inner-city community. Data were collected at four time points over a period of 13 years using structured interviews. Interviews took place within the schools and the participants' homes. Scales with adequate psychometric properties were adapted from previously validated measures. Variables that were examined for this study came from the domains of internalizing behaviors, externalizing behaviors, drug use, and demographic information. Data were analyzed using latent growth mixture modeling to explore discrete smoking trajectories. Logistic regression analyses were then used to examine the risk factors associated with the various smoking trajectory groups. Four trajectory groups were determined to best fit the data: nonsmokers, maturing-out smokers, late-starting smokers, and early-starting continuous smokers. Subjects who were unconventional, experienced intrapersonal distress, and used alcohol and illegal drugs were more likely to belong to one of the smoking trajectory groups than to the nonsmoking group. The early-starting continuous group scored highest on these personal risk attributes. The long-term impact of unconventional behavior, intrapersonal distress, and drug use on developmental trajectories of smoking support the importance of early intervention and prevention. [source]