US Examination (us + examination)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


The value of frozen section in intraoperative surgical management of thyroid follicular carcinoma,

HEAD & NECK: JOURNAL FOR THE SCIENCES & SPECIALTIES OF THE HEAD AND NECK, Issue 7 2003
Danijel Do, en MD
Abstract Background. Preoperative and intraoperative diagnosis of follicular carcinoma (FC), resulting in one-stage surgical treatment of follicular thyroid tumors, is an important issue in thyroid surgery. Methods. In the 10-year period there were 4158 operations performed on thyroid gland. There were 1559 patients with follicular tumors, 70 (4.4%) of them having FC. We analyzed the groups of patients with FC determined on frozen section (FS) and permanent section (PS) according to duration of clinical symptoms, ultrasound (US) examination, tumor size, patient gender and age, intensity of invasion, localization, and multiple or solitary occurrence of tumor. Results. FC was diagnosed in 39 (55.7%) patients on frozen section (FS). Among the encapsulated (minimal invasion) carcinomas, the FS was accurate in 19 of 33 (57.6%) FC and in 5 of 15 (27.8%) Hürthle cell carcinomas (HCC); among extensively invasive carcinoma in 11 of 14 (78.6%) FC and in 4 of 5 (80.0%) HCC. FC was significantly more common in men (p < .001) and in the right lobe (p < .05). We did not find statistically significant differences concerning duration of symptoms, US examination, tumor size, patient age, and multiple or solitary occurrence of the tumor between the patients with FC diagnosed on FS and the patients with FC diagnosed on PS. Conclusions. The intraoperative diagnosis of FC is difficult. Although the percentage of false-negative results was relatively high (44.3%), there were no false-positive results. This means that the second operation was avoided in 55.7% of the patients, and no unnecessary thyroidectomies were performed. FS biopsy is an important method in surgery of follicular tumors. Improved technical support and the ability to analyze a greater number of slides will increase the accuracy of the method. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 25: 521,528, 2003 [source]


Serial compression B-scan and Doppler sonography for the screening of deep venous thrombosis in patients with spinal cord injuries

JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ULTRASOUND, Issue 1 2010
Alfried Germing MD
Abstract Purpose To evaluate the usefulness of serial compression B-scan and Doppler sonography (US) in screening for deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of the lower extremities in patients with spinal cord injuries. Method Patients with paraplegia and tetraplegia due to spinal cord injuries were screened by a serial compression B-scan and Doppler US protocol for DVT of the bilateral lower extremities within the first 36 hours after admission, at day 7 and at day 21. In patients with DVT, a follow-up US examination was performed 3 weeks after diagnosis to assess thrombi distribution. Results Between January 2007 and March 2008, a total of 115 patients (75 males, 40 females), aged 19 to 85 years, were included. The first US examination documented a DVT in 44 cases (38.3%). After an initial negative scan, sonography after 7 days and 21 days showed DVT in 6 patients and 2 patients, respectively. Cumulative rate of DVT after the first 3 weeks was 45.2% (n=52). Follow-up US after 3 weeks in patients with DVT documented a complete recanalization in 19 patients (36.5%), no change in 12 patients (23.1%), and residual thrombi with partial recanalization in 21 patients (40.4%). Conclusion Our study supports the use of serial compression B-scan and Doppler US as a screening tool for DVT of the lower extremities in patients with spinal cord injuries early after injury. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound, 2010 [source]


Salivary simulation with ascorbic acid enhances sonographic diagnosis of obstructive sialadenitis

JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ULTRASOUND, Issue 6 2009
Alessandro Bozzato MD
Abstract Purpose. High-frequency ultrasound (US) is routinely used to evaluate various diseases of the salivary glands. Normally, the duct network of the submandibular and parotid glands is not visible during US assessment. In obstructive sialadenitis of the parotid and submandibular glands, localization of the obstacle is often difficult. Methods. In a case-control study, the sonographic visibility of the duct before and after stimulation with oral ascorbic acid (vitamin C) was compared with sialendoscopy as the gold standard. Twenty male and 23 female patients suffering from salivary gland diseases were included in this study and compared with 25 healthy volunteers. US examination of the parotid and submandibular glands was performed before and after oral ascorbic acid stimulation. Changes in visibility of the main excretory duct were recorded and US diagnoses were compared with results of sialendoscopy. Results. In 7 of 25 controls, the main duct became partially visible after stimulation. In the group of 43 patients, the main duct was depicted before stimulation in 27 patients (63%). After ascorbic acid stimulation, the main duct became visible in 41 patients (95%). Grading the stimulated duct dilation by measuring diameters at different points revealed no correlation with the underlying type of pathology. Conclusions. Application of ascorbic acid prior to diagnostic US examination facilitates the sonographic evaluation of obstructive salivary gland diseases. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 2009 [source]


The Effect of Rigid Cervical Collars on Internal Jugular Vein Dimensions

ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE, Issue 1 2010
Michael B. Stone MD
Abstract Objectives:, Prior research has demonstrated that rigid cervical collars cause an increase in intracranial pressure (ICP). The mechanism for this effect is unclear and one proposed mechanism involves obstruction of venous outflow in the neck. Ultrasound (US) allows assessment of internal jugular vein dimensions and may yield information regarding the mechanism for the increase in ICP seen with rigid collar application. Methods:, Forty-two healthy volunteers underwent US examination of the internal jugular vein before and after cervical collar application. Internal jugular vein cross-sectional areas were compared with and without the cervical collar in place. Results:, The cross-sectional area of the internal jugular vein increased significantly (p < 0.0001) after application of the cervical collar. The mean percentage increase in cross-sectional area was 37% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 20% to 53%). Conclusions:, Internal jugular vein cross-sectional area increases after application of a rigid cervical collar. This supports the hypothesis that venous obstruction in the neck may contribute to the increase in ICP seen after rigid collar application. ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2010; 17:100,102 © 2009 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine [source]


Cytologic, hormonal, and ultrasonographic correlates of the menstrual cycle of the New World monkey Cebus apella

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF PRIMATOLOGY, Issue 3 2005
R.E. Ortiz
Abstract Few reports on the reproductive physiology of Cebus apella have been published. In this study we characterized menstrual cycle events by means of vaginal cytology, ultrasonography (US), and hormonal measurements in serum during three consecutive cycles in 10 females, and assessed the probability that ovulation would occur in the same ovary in consecutive cycles in 18 females. The lengths and phases of the cycles were determined according to vaginal cytology. Taking the first day of endometrial bleeding as the first day of the cycle, the mean cycle length ± SEM was 19.5±0.4 days, with follicular and luteal phases lasting 8.2±0.2 and 11.3±0.4 days, respectively. The follicular phase included menstruation and the periovulatory period, which was characterized by the presence of a large number of superficial eosinophilic cells in the vaginal smear. The myometrium, endometrium, and ovaries were clearly distinguished on US examination. During each menstrual cycle a single follicle was recruited at random from either ovary. The follicle grew from 3 mm to a maximum diameter of 8,9 mm over the course of 8 days, in association with increasing estradiol (E2) serum levels (from 489±41 to 1600±92 pmol/L). At ovulation, the mean diameter of the dominant follicle usually decreased by >20%, 1 day after the maximum E2 level was reached. Ovulation was associated with an abrupt fall in E2, a decreased number of eosinophilic cells, the presence of leukocytes and intermediate cells in the vaginal smear, and a progressive increase in progesterone (P) levels that reached a maximum of 892±65 nmol/L on days 3,6 of the luteal phase. The menstrual cycle of Cebus apella differs in several temporal and quantitative aspects from that in humans and Old World primates, but it exhibits the same correlations between ovarian endocrine and morphologic parameters. Am. J. Primatol. 66:233,244, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Is screening for vesicoureteral reflux mandatory in infants with antenatal renal pelvis dilatation?

ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 12 2006
KARL-JOHAN LIDEFELT
Abstract Aim: To determine whether postnatal ultrasound (US) can guide the use of voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) in infants with antenatally detected renal pelvis dilatation (ARPD). Methods: 14000 pregnant women consecutively underwent routine US examination during the second trimester. US examinations later in pregnancy were performed as follow-up of previous anomalies or on obstetrical indications. One hundred and six fetuses with ARPD ,5 mm were identified. Two postnatal US examinations were performed in the newborns: on the 5th to 7th day and during the 3rd week of life. The findings were considered normal when renal pelvis dilatation (RPD) was ,7 mm on both US examinations, and no calyceal or ureteric dilatation or signs of renal dysplasia or other anomalies were present. VCUG was done 6 to 8 wk after birth. Results: In 53 of 103 analysable infants, the postnatal ultrasonographic findings were normal. The VCUG was abnormal in three of these 53 infants, all with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) grade I. Of 50 infants who had abnormal US examinations, six had VUR, four of which were grade IV and V reflux. Conclusion: In infants with ARPD who undergo two postnatal US examinations with RPD ,7 mm and have no other abnormalities, VCUG is unnecessary. [source]


Incidence and growth pattern of simple cysts of the kidney in patients with asymptomatic microscopic hematuria

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF UROLOGY, Issue 2 2003
KEN MARUMO
AbstractBackground: We examined the incidence and natural history of simple renal cysts found by ultrasonography (US) in patients referred for asymptomatic microscopic hematuria. Methods: Among the 906 patients aged 18,78 years, 743 patients who had undergone US were included in the present study. The natural history of simple renal cysts was investigated in 55 patients who underwent periodical US examinations for more than 3 years. Results: The incidence of simple renal cysts was 4.3% for ages 29 years or younger, 15.3% for ages 30,39, 21.8% for ages 40,49, 23.3% for ages 50,59 and 32.6% for ages 60 years or older; thus the incidence increased in older age groups (P = 0.0005 for men, P = 0.0020 for women). Men tended to have a higher incidence than women. The degree of hematuria did not influence the incidence of renal cysts (P = 0.9044). The annual growth rate of the mean maximum diameter was 4.2% during a 3-year follow-up period in 55 patients and 5.1% during a 6-year follow-up in 31 patients. Conclusion: Since the diameter of a renal cyst may increase by 5% annually, the diameter of the cyst may increase by 1.6 times in 10 years. The scheduling of follow-up examinations depends on the size at the time of disclosure, the effects on calyceal systems, or the suspicion of a concurrent malignant disease. However, the most simple renal cysts may be followed-up at an interval of more than 10 years, once a diagnosis has been established. [source]


Can the smallest depth of ascitic fluid on sonograms predict the amount of drainable fluid?

JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ULTRASOUND, Issue 8 2009
Abid Irshad MD
Abstract Purpose To investigate the correlation between the ,smallest fluid depth' (SFD) measured on sonography (US) at the ,paracentesis pocket' with the amount of fluid drained in patients referred for US-guided large-volume paracentesis. Methods US examinations performed to guide 60 paracenteses in 29 patients with large-volume ascites were reviewed and the SFD measured at the site of the paracentesis. The SFD was measured from the most superficial bowel loop to the abdominal wall. The SFD measurements were compared with the drained fluid volume (DFV) measurements. Results The average DFV per paracentesis was 5.2 L with an average SFD measurement of 5.4 cm. For every 1-cm increase in the measured SFD, there was an average 1-L increase in the DFV. After applying this relationship to the measured depth in each case, the comparison between the estimated fluid volume (EFV) on US and the DFV demonstrated a <1-L difference in 38 of 60 paracenteses (63.3%) and a <2-L difference in 51 of 60 paracenteses (85%). Conclusion The SFD measured at the site of paracentesis shows a correlation with the drained fluid volume and can be used for fluid volume estimation on US. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound, 2009 [source]


Is screening for vesicoureteral reflux mandatory in infants with antenatal renal pelvis dilatation?

ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 12 2006
KARL-JOHAN LIDEFELT
Abstract Aim: To determine whether postnatal ultrasound (US) can guide the use of voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) in infants with antenatally detected renal pelvis dilatation (ARPD). Methods: 14000 pregnant women consecutively underwent routine US examination during the second trimester. US examinations later in pregnancy were performed as follow-up of previous anomalies or on obstetrical indications. One hundred and six fetuses with ARPD ,5 mm were identified. Two postnatal US examinations were performed in the newborns: on the 5th to 7th day and during the 3rd week of life. The findings were considered normal when renal pelvis dilatation (RPD) was ,7 mm on both US examinations, and no calyceal or ureteric dilatation or signs of renal dysplasia or other anomalies were present. VCUG was done 6 to 8 wk after birth. Results: In 53 of 103 analysable infants, the postnatal ultrasonographic findings were normal. The VCUG was abnormal in three of these 53 infants, all with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) grade I. Of 50 infants who had abnormal US examinations, six had VUR, four of which were grade IV and V reflux. Conclusion: In infants with ARPD who undergo two postnatal US examinations with RPD ,7 mm and have no other abnormalities, VCUG is unnecessary. [source]