Urine pH (urine + ph)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Vacuolar H+ -ATPase expression is increased in acid-secreting intercalated cells in kidneys of rats with hypercalcaemia-induced alkalosis

W. Wang
Abstract Aims:, Hypercalcaemia is known to be associated with systemic metabolic alkalosis, although the underlying mechanism is uncertain. Therefore, we aimed to examine whether hypercalcaemia was associated with changes in the expression of acid,base transporters in the kidney. Methods:, Rats were infused with human parathyroid hormone (PTH, 15 ,g kg,1 day,1), or vehicle for 48 h using osmotic minipumps. Results:, The rats treated with PTH developed hypercalcaemia and exhibited metabolic alkalosis (arterial HCO: 31.1 0.8 vs. 28.1 0.8 mmol L,1 in controls, P < 0.05, n = 6), whereas the urine pH of 6.85 0.1 was significantly decreased compared with the pH of 7.38 0.1 in controls (P < 0.05, n = 12). The observed alkalosis was associated with a significantly increased expression of the B1-subunit of the H+ -ATPase in kidney inner medulla (IM, 233 45% of the control level). In contrast, electroneutral Na+ -HCO cotransporter NBCn1 and Cl,/HCO anion exchanger AE2 expression was markedly reduced in the inner stripe of the outer medulla (to 26 9% and 65 6%, respectively). These findings were verified by immunohistochemistry. Conclusions:, (1) hypercalcaemia-induced metabolic alkalosis was associated with increased urinary excretion of H+; (2) the increased H+ -ATPase expression in IM may partly explain the enhanced urinary acidification, which is speculated to prevent stone formation because of hypercalciuria and (3) the decreased expression of outer medullary AE2 suggests a compensatory reduction of the transepithelial bicarbonate transport. [source]

Ammonium acid urate urolithiasis in Japan

Aim:, Ammonium acid urate (AAU) calculi are a rare urolithiasis in developed countries but are endemic in developing countries. We assessed the features of AAU urolithiasis in Japanese patients. Methods:, We reviewed hospital charts of patients with urolithiasis who were treated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and endourological procedures at Sagamidai Hospital (Kanagawa, Japan) from January 1992 to December 2001. On the basis of the results of stone analysis with an infrared spectrophotometer, AAU stones were found. Results:, Of 8664 urolithiasis that we reviewed, 33 calculi (0.38%) from 29 patients contained AAU crystals. From crystallographic findings, we defined two types of AAU-containing stones: pure and mixed AAU urolithiasis. Pure AAU urolithiasis were seen in 13 stones from 10 patients and mixed AAU in 20 stones from 19 patients. We found significant differences between the groups: the pure AAU group predominantly consisted of young, thin women and the mixed group consisted of middle-aged men. Laboratory findings showed trends of low levels of serum protein, potassium, and urine pH in the pure AAU group. Conclusions:, Because each type of AAU urolithiasis is associated with different patient characteristics and pathophysiological features, it is important to understand the type of AAU urolithiasis in patients with calculi. [source]

Metabolic and productive response to ruminal protein degradability in early lactation cows fed untreated or xylose-treated soybean meal-based diets

M. Jahani-Moghadam
Summary Effects of different dietary rumen undegradable (RUP) to degradable (RDP) protein ratios on ruminal nutrient degradation, feed intake, blood metabolites and milk production were determined in early lactation cows. Four multiparous (43 5 days in milk) and four primiparous (40 6 days in milk) tie-stall-housed Holstein cows were used in a duplicated 4 4 Latin square design with four 21-day periods. Each period had 14-day of adaptation and 7-day of sampling. Diets contained on a dry matter (DM) basis, 23.3% alfalfa hay, 20% corn silage and 56.7% concentrate. Cows were first offered alfalfa hay at 7:00, 15:00 and 23:00 hours, and 30 min after each alfalfa hay delivery were offered a mixture of corn silage and concentrate. Treatments were diets with RUP:RDP ratios of (i) 5.2:11.6 (control), (ii) 6.1:10.6, (iii) 7.1:9.5 and (iv) 8.1:8.5, on a dietary DM% basis. Different RUP:RDP ratios were obtained by partial and total replacement of untreated soybean meal (SBM) with xylose-treated SBM (XSBM). In situ study using three rumen-cannulated non-lactating cows showed that DM and crude protein (CP) of SBM had greater rapidly degradable fractions. The potentially degradable fractions were degraded more slowly in XSBM. Treatment cows produced greater milk, protein, lactose, solids-non-fat and total solids than control cows. Increasing RUP:RDP reduced blood urea linearly. Feed costs dropped at RUP:RDP ratios of 6.1:10.6 and 7.1:9.5, but not at 8.1:8.5, compared with the 5.2:11.6 ratio. Intake of DM and CP, rumen pH, blood glucose, albumin and total protein, faecal and urine pH, changes in body weight and body condition score, and milk lactose and solids-non-fat percentages did not differ among treatments. Results provide evidence that increasing dietary RUP:RDP ratio from 5.2:11.6 to 7.1:9.5 optimizes nitrogen metabolism and milk production and reduces feed costs in early lactation cows. Reduced blood urea suggests reprodutive benefits. [source]

Prediction of human pharmacokinetics , renal metabolic and excretion clearance

Urban Fagerholm
The kidneys have the capability to both excrete and metabolise drugs. An understanding of mechanisms that determine these processes is required for the prediction of pharmacokinetics, exposures, doses and interactions of candidate drugs. This is particularly important for compounds predicted to have low or negligible non-renal clearance (CL). Clinically significant interactions in drug transport occur mostly in the kidneys. The main objective was to evaluate methods for prediction of excretion and metabolic renal CL (CLR) in humans. CLR is difficult to predict because of the involvement of bi-directional passive and active tubular transport, differences in uptake capacity, pH and residence time on luminal and blood sides of tubular cells, and limited knowledge about regional tubular residence time, permeability (Pe) and metabolic capacity. Allometry provides poor predictions of excretion CLR because of species differences in unbound fraction, urine pH and active transport. The correlation between fraction excreted unchanged in urine (fe) in humans and animals is also poor, except for compounds with high passive Pe (extensive/complete tubular reabsorption; zero/negligible fe) and/or high non-renal CL. Physiologically based in-vitro/in-vivo methods could potentially be useful for predicting CLR. Filtration could easily be predicted. Prediction of tubular secretion CL requires an in-vitro transport model and establishment of an in-vitro/in-vivo relationship, and does not appear to have been attempted. The relationship between passive Pe and tubular fraction reabsorbed (freabs) for compounds with and without apparent secretion has recently been established and useful equations and limits for prediction were developed. The suggestion that reabsorption has a lipophilicity cut-off does not seem to hold. Instead, compounds with passive Pe that is less than or equal to that of atenolol are expected to have negligible passive freabs. Compounds with passive Pe that is equal to or higher than that of carbamazepine are expected to have complete freabs. For compounds with intermediate Pe the relationship is irregular and freabs is difficult to predict. Tubular cells are comparably impermeable (for passive diffusion), and show regional differences in enzymatic and transporter activities. This limits the usefulness of microsome data and makes microsome-based predictions of metabolic CLR questionable. Renal concentrations and activities of CYP450s are comparably low, suggesting that CYP450 substrates have negligible metabolic CLR. The metabolic CLR of high-Pe UDP-glucuronyltransferase substrates could contribute to the total CL. [source]

Assessment of acid-base status of cats with naturally occurring chronic renal failure

J. Elliott
Metabolic acidosis is reported to be a common complication of feline chronic renal failure (CRF) but acid-base status of feline patients with this disease is rarely assessed by general practitioners. A cross-sectional study involving 59 cases of naturally occurring feline CRF was conducted to determine the prevalence of acid-base disturbances. Cases were categorised on the basis of their plasma creatinine concentrations as mild, moderate or severe. A group of 27 clinically healthy, age-matched cats was assessed for comparison. A low venous blood pH (<7270) was found in 10 of the 19 severe cases (526 per cent), three of the 20 moderate cases (15 per cent) and none of the 20 mild cases. Acidaemia was associated with an increased anion gap contributed to by both low plasma bicarbonate and low chloride ion concentrations. Biochemical analysis of urine samples showed urine pH to decrease with increasing severity of renal failure. Urinary loss of bicarbonate was not associated with the occurrence of acidaemia and there was a tendency for urinary ammonium ion excretion to decrease as the severity of renal failure increased. Cats with naturally occurring CRF do not show plasma biochemical evidence of acid-base disturbances until the disease is advanced. [source]