Urine Osmolality (urine + osmolality)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The Relationship Between the Action of Arginine Vasopressin and Responsiveness to Oral Desmopressin in Older Men: A Pilot Study

Theodore M. Johnson II
OBJECTIVES: To identify whether oral desmopressin (ddAVP) reduced nocturnal urine volume (NUV) in older men with nocturia without obvious bladder outlet obstruction and to determine whether deficiencies in arginine vasopressin (AVP) release and action demonstrated using water deprivation testing predicted responsiveness to ddAVP. DESIGN: Participants had a 2-day Clinical Research Center (CRC) evaluation followed by a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial of individually titrated oral ddAVP. SETTING: Participants were from a single Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center. MEASUREMENTS: Maximum urine osmolality and percentage increase in osmolality were measured after subjects received aqueous vasopressin as part of the overnight water deprivation study; these data were used to categorize participants as normal, having partial central AVP deficiency, or having impaired renal responsiveness to AVP. Response to ddAVP was assessed using data from frequency-volume records. RESULTS: Fourteen participants completed the CRC stay and ddAVP trial. Subjects given ddAVP reduced NUV significantly from baseline (P=.02) and had significantly lower NUV than when on placebo (P=.01). The mean net reduction in NUV from ddAVP compared to placebo was 14±18%. Using water deprivation testing to categorize participants, 10 were normal, two had partial central AVP deficiency, and two had impaired renal responsiveness. The mean net reduction in NUV for those with abnormal water deprivation tests was 11±25%, versus 15±16% for those with normal water deprivation testing (P=.70). CONCLUSION: In this small randomized, controlled trial in older men with nocturia, ddAVP reduced NUV. Counter to expectations, participants deemed normal according to water deprivation tests had approximately equivalent responsiveness to ddAVP. Although this study cannot offer definitive conclusions on the lack of prediction of water deprivation testing for ddAVP benefit, these data offer additional information that may help clarify the pathophysiology and optimal treatment of nocturia in older men. [source]

Dietary NaCl Does Not Affect Blood Pressure in Healthy Cats

Nicole Luckschander
The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of dietary salt intake on systolic blood pressure, water intake, urine output, and urine concentration in cats. Ten healthy young adult cats (mean age 2.5 years) were randomly divided into 2 groups and fed either a control diet (0.46% Na and 1.33% Cl on a dry matter [DM] basis) or a diet with a moderately increased salt content (1.02% Na and 2.02% Cl on a DM basis) for 2 weeks. After a 1-week wash-out period, each group was switched to the opposite diet for 2 weeks. During each 2-week study period, food and water intake, urine volume, urine specific gravity, and urine osmolality were measured daily. Systolic blood pressure (calculated as the mean of 5 readings measured with a Doppler flow detector) was assessed twice daily. No significant effect of diet composition was found on systolic blood pressure, and blood pressure measurements remained within reference limits throughout the study in all 10 cats. However, animals fed the higher salt diet had significantly increased water intake and urine osmolality, and significantly decreased urine specific gravity in comparison to animals fed the control diet. Examination of results of this preliminary study suggests that feeding a diet with moderately increased salt content increases water intake and causes diuresis without increasing systolic blood pressure in healthy adult young cats. [source]

Differential osmoregulatory capabilities of common spiny mice (Acomys cahirinus) from adjacent microhabitats

Uri Shanas
Abstract The osmoregulatory function of common spiny mice Acomys cahirinus living on opposite slopes of the lower Nahal Oren (,Evolution Canyon') on mount Carmel, Israel, was investigated by increasing the salinity of the water source whilst maintaining a high-protein diet. The southern-facing slope (SFS) of this canyon differs from the northern-facing slope (NFS) as it receives considerably more solar radiation and consequently forms a more xeric, sparsely vegetated habitat. During the summer, mice living on the two opposite slopes significantly differed in their urine osmolality, which also increased significantly as dietary salinity increased. Offspring of wild-captured mice, born in captivity, and examined during the winter, continued to show a difference in osmoregulatory function depending on the slope of origin. However, they differed from wild-captured mice, as they did not respond to the increase in dietary salinity by increasing the concentration of their urine, but rather by increasing the volume of urine produced. This study shows that A. cahirinus occupying different microhabitats may exhibit differences in their ability to concentrate urine and thus in their ability to withstand xeric conditions. We suggest that they may also differ genetically, as offspring from the NFS and SFS retain physiological differences, but further studies will be needed to confirm this hypothesis. [source]

Concentrations of ketone body and antidiuretic hormone in cerebrospinal fluid in response to the intra-ruminal administration of butyrate in suckling calves

Tsunenori IRIKI
ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to elucidate the mechanism by which ketone bodies increase antidiuretic hormone (ADH) secretion. Four male Holstein calves (5 weeks of age) were utilized. Four levels of butyrate (0 g, 11 g, 22 g and 44 g) were administrated intra-ruminally in a 4 × 4 Latin square design and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, six-position lumbar puncture), blood plasma and urine were collected. The concentration of total plasma and CSF protein was 5.5,5.6 g/dL and 27.5,28.3 mg/dL, respectively. CSF concentrations of a specific ketone body, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, were significantly higher in the 22 g and 44 g butyrate groups than in the control group. CSF concentrations of ADH in the 11 g and 44 g butyrate groups were significantly higher than in the control group. Plasma concentration of 3-hydroxybutyric acid was increased by intraruminal administration of butyrate within 15 min in a dose-dependent manner, and it was higher in the 22 g and 44 g butyrate group than in the control group from 15 min to 4 h. With the exception of the 11 g butyrate group, plasma concentrations of ADH also increased in response to butyrate treatment, and it was higher in the 44 g butyrate group than in the 22 g butyrate group from 15 min to 1.5 h. The duration of the elevated plasma concentrations of ADH was shorter than that of the plasma concentration of 3-hydroxybutyric acid. The relationship between the plasma concentrations of ADH and 3-hydroxybutyric acid was statistically significant but the correlation between the two concentrations was not high. Butyrate treatment elevated the plasma concentration of ADH and also resulted in reduced urine volume and increased urine osmolality. Haematocrit (Ht) values, and the osmolality of CSF and plasma were not different among the groups. Our results suggested that the increased ADH secretion observed in suckling calves fed dry feeds was caused by butyrate-derived ketone body that crossed the blood-brain barrier rapidly. [source]

Renal concentrating capacity as a marker for glomerular filtration rate

Víctor M García Nieto
Aim: We have studied 160 children with a variety of renal diseases, 14 of them with chronic renal failure (CRF), to evaluate maximum urinary osmolality as a predictor of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) testing the hypothesis that a normal GFR is necessary to have a normal urinary concentrating capacity. Methods: All patients had a serum creatinine measured. GFR was calculated according to the Schwartz formula. All patients underwent desmopressin (DDAVP) test to evaluate renal concentrating capacity. Results: Patients with CRF were unable to concentrate the urine beyond 486 mosm/kg whereas all patients with a normal concentrating capacity (urine osmolality > 835 mosm/kg) had a normal GFR. Desmopressin test sensitivity to detect CRF was 100% and specificity 70.5%. A significant negative correlation was found between urinary osmolality after DDAVP administration and serum creatinine levels and between urinary volume corrected by 100 mL of GFR (V/GFR) and urinary osmolality. Conclusion: In our series, a normal concentrating capacity was always associated with a normal GFR while all patients with decreased GFR had a concentrating capacity defect. Thus, in the evaluation of infants and children with renal disease, the finding of a normal urinary concentrating capacity will suggest and intact glomerular and tubular function. [source]

Vasopressin V1A Receptor Antagonism Does Not Reverse Adrenocorticotrophin-Induced Hypertension In The Rat

Tafline B Fraser
SUMMARY 1. The role of arginine vasopressin (AVP) was examined in adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH)-induced hypertension in Sprague-Dawley rats using the non-peptide AVP V1a receptor antagonist OPC 21268. 2. In an acute study, six rats were pretreated with ACTH for 11 days and direct arterial blood pressure (4 h), plasma osmolality and electrolyte concentrations were measured after OPC 21268 gavage. In a chronic study, 40 rats were randomly divided into four groups: (i) sham injection + sham gavage; (ii) ACTH + sham gavage; (iii) sham injection + OPC 21268; or (iv) ACTH + OPC-21268 for 16 days. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), water intake, urine volume (UV), urine osmolality and electrolytes, food intake, bodyweight and plasma osmolality and electrolyte concentrations were measured. 3. In the acute study, direct mean arterial blood pressure did not change with OPC 21268 (122±2 and 120±3 mmHg at 0 and 240 min, respectively). 4. In the chronic study, OPC 21268 did not affect ACTH-induced rises in blood pressure (from 125±2 (control) to 145±5 mmHg (group 4) compared with 122±3 (control) to 149±5 mmHg (group2)). Water intake and UV increased (from 29±2 to 83±6 mL/day; and from 5±1 to 36±5 mL/day, respectively) and the change in bodyweight decreased from 0±2 to ,107±7 g. 5. These results suggest that AVP (at the V1a receptor) does not play a significant role in the maintenance of ACTH-induced hypertension. [source]