Urine Levels (urine + level)

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Selected Abstracts

Plasma and urine levels of urinary trypsin inhibitor in patients with acute and fulminant hepatitis

Abstract Background and Aim Urinary trypsin inhibitor (UTI) is synthesized by hepatocytes and excreted into urine. Plasma and urine UTI levels have been measured to evaluate whether these levels may be useful markers in various pathological conditions. However, there has been no study on plasma and urine UTI levels in patients with acute liver diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate plasma and urine UTI levels and their relationship with the severity of hepatic damage in patients with acute liver diseases. Methods Plasma and urine UTI levels were measured by newly developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 15 patients with acute hepatitis (AH), 12 patients with acute severe hepatitis (ASH) and 10 patients with fulminant hepatitis (FH), as assessed on admission. The serial changes in plasma and urine UTI were also observed in some patients with AH and ASH. Results Plasma UTI levels (U/mL, median [25,75th percentile]) were: 11.0, (9.5,16.1) in patients with AH; 7.8 (5.6,11.5) in those with ASH; 6.5 (4.0,9.5) in patients with FH; and 9.7 (7.3,11.0) in normal controls. Plasma UTI levels in patients with FH were significantly lower than in those with AH. Plasma UTI levels showed significant positive correlations with the levels of prothrombin time (PT), hepaplastin test, antithrombin III, ,2-plasmin inhibitor, plasminogen (Plg) and fibrinogen. After the recovery of liver dysfunction, increased plasma UTI levels in patients with AH were decreased, whereas previously decreased plasma UTI levels in patients with ASH were increased. Urine UTI levels were significantly increased in patients with AH compared with those of normal controls. In patients with ASH and FH, urine UTI levels were increased but not significantly. Urine UTI levels significantly positively correlated with PT and Plg. After the recovery of liver dysfunction, previously increased urine UTI levels in patients with AH were decreased. The correlation between plasma UTI and urine UTI levels was not significant. Conclusions The findings of the present study suggested that the levels of plasma and urine UTI changed in patients with AH and were closely related to the abnormalities of coagulo-fibrinolysis, including PT. Further studies are needed to clarify whether these levels may be useful markers to predict the prognosis of acute hepatitis. [source]

Analytical method for the quantitative determination of urinary ethylenethiourea by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

Cristina Sottani
A direct, rapid and selective method for the quantitative determination of the ethylenethiourea (ETU) in human urine has been validated and is reported in the present study. It allows the accurate quantification of ETU in this complex matrix without the use of any internal standard as the sample cleanup is effective enough for the removal of interferences that could lead to ion suppression in the electrospray ionization (ESI) source. This simple and rapid purification system, based on the use of a Fluorosil phase of a BondElut® column followed by a liquid-liquid extraction procedure, achieves mean extracted recoveries, assessed at three different concentrations (2.5, 10.0, and 25.0,,g/L), always more than 85%. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with positive ion tandem mass spectrometry, operating in selected multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, is used to quantify ETU in human urine. The assay is linear over the range 0,50,,g/L, with a lower limit of quantification (LOQ) of 1.5,,g/L and a coefficient of variation (CV) of 8.9%. The lower limit of detection (LOD) is assessed at 0.5,,g/L. The overall precision and accuracy were determined on three different days. The values for within- and between-day precision are ,,8.3 and 10.1%, respectively, and the accuracy is in the range 97,118%. The relative uncertainties for the LOQ and QC concentrations have been estimated to be 18 and 8%, respectively. The assay was applied to quantify ETU in human urine from growers that regularly handle ethylenebisdithiocarbamate pesticides in large crop plantations. The biological samples were collected at the start and end of the working day, and the ETU urine levels were found to vary between 1.9 and 8.2,,g/L. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Kidney Injury Molecule-1 is an Early Noninvasive Indicator for Donor Brain Death-Induced Injury Prior to Kidney Transplantation

W. N. Nijboer
With more marginal deceased donors affecting graft viability, there is a need for specific parameters to assess kidney graft quality at the time of organ procurement in the deceased donor. Recently, kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) was described as an early biomarker of renal proximal tubular damage. We assessed Kim-1 in a small animal brain death model as an early and noninvasive marker for donor-derived injury related to brain death and its sequelae, with subsequent confirmation in human donors. In rat kidney, real-time PCR revealed a 46-fold Kim-1 gene upregulation after 4 h of brain death. In situ hybridization showed proximal tubular Kim-1 localization, which was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Also, Luminex assay showed a 6.6-fold Kim-1 rise in urine after 4 h of brain death. In human donors, 2.5-fold kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) gene upregulation and 2-fold higher urine levels were found in donation after brain death (DBD) donors compared to living kidney donors. Multiple regression analysis showed that urinary KIM-1 at brain death diagnosis was a positive predictor of recipient serum creatinine, 14 days (p < 0.001) and 1 year (p < 0.05) after kidney transplantation. In conclusion, we think that Kim-1 is a promising novel marker for the early, organ specific and noninvasive detection of brain death-induced donor kidney damage. [source]

Ibudilast in healthy volunteers: safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics with single and multiple doses

Paul Rolan
WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT , Ibudilast is an oral drug approved in Asia for asthma. , Tolerability of 10-mg regimens has been described previously. , Published pharmacokinetics (PK) are limited: single or 7-day repeat oral administration of 10 mg in healthy male Asian volunteers. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS , Safety/tolerability and PK of a single 30-mg dose and a 30-mg twice daily (b.i.d.) 2-week regimen in male and female healthy volunteers. , Higher-dose regimens are relevant for testing in new neurological indications. , LC-MS/MS analytics for quantification of plasma and urine levels of ibudilast parent and its primary metabolite (6,7-dihydrodiol-ibudilast). AIMS To investigate the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics (PK) of ibudilast after a single-dose and a multiple-dose regimen. METHODS Healthy adult male (n = 9) and female (n = 9) volunteers were evaluated over a 17-day stay in a Phase 1 unit. Subjects were randomized 1 : 3 to either oral placebo or ibudilast at 30-mg single administration followed by 14 days of 30 mg b.i.d. Complete safety analyses were performed and, for PK, plasma and urine samples were analysed for ibudilast and its major metabolite. RESULTS Ibudilast was generally well tolerated. No serious adverse events occurred. Treatment-related adverse events included hyperhidrosis, headache and nausea. Two subjects discontinued after a few days at 30 mg b.i.d. because of vomiting. Although samples sizes were too small to rule out a sex difference, PK were similar in men and women. The mean half-life for ibudilast was 19 h and median Tmax was 4,6 h. Mean (SD) steady-state plasma Cmax and AUC0,24 were 60 (25) ng ml,1 and 1004 (303) ng h ml,1, respectively. Plasma levels of 6,7- dihydrodiol-ibudilast were approximately 30% of the parent. CONCLUSIONS Ibudilast is generally well tolerated in healthy adults when given as a single oral dose of 30 mg followed by 30 mg b.i.d. (60 mg day,1) for 14 days. Plasma PK reached steady state within 2 days of starting the b.i.d. regimen. Exposure to ibudilast was achieved of a magnitude comparable to that associated with efficacy in rat chronic pain models. [source]