Urinary Steroids (urinary + steroid)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Urinary steroids, FSH and CG measurements for monitoring the ovarian cycle and pregnancy in the chimpanzee

JOURNAL OF MEDICAL PRIMATOLOGY, Issue 1 2003
Keiko Shimizu
Abstract: Non-invasive methods for monitoring reproductive status of chimpanzee based on the measurement of urinary steroids and gonadotropins were examined. A typical pre-ovulatory urinary estrone conjugate (E1C) surge and post-ovulatory increase in pregnandiol glucuronide (PdG) were seen during the menstrual cycle. Urinary follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) showed two peaks over the infertile menstrual cycle. The earliest changes indicating pregnancy were a coincident rise in E1C and chorionic gonadotropin (CG) levels and a concomitant fall in FSH levels. Urinary PdG levels showed a prolonged rise. Urinary E1C in the pregnant chimpanzee was higher than during the menstrual cycle and increased with advancing gestation, with maximum levels occurring near term. In the case of stillbirth, E1C and CG levels from mid- through late-pregnancy were low and the prepartum progressive increase in E1C was not shown. The data presented here are of great practical value in captive breeding management of chimpanzees. [source]


13C/12C Ratios of endogenous urinary steroids investigated for doping control purposes

DRUG TESTING AND ANALYSIS, Issue 2 2009
Thomas Piper
Abstract In order to detect the misuse of endogenous anabolic steroids such as testosterone by athletes a total of n = 1734 suspicious urine samples were investigated by gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry throughout the years 2005, 2006 and 2007. The 13C/12C ratio of a target substance (androsterone, a testosterone metabolite) was compared to the 13C/12C ratio of an endogenous reference compound (11,-hydroxyandrosterone). N = 1340 samples were investigated due to elevated testosterone/epitestosterone ratios, with n = 87 (6.5%) exceptional findings regarding their isotopic ratios. An additional n = 164 samples were investigated because of elevated dehydroepiandrosterone concentrations, with n = 2 (1.2%) exceptional findings. The remainder were subjected to isotope ratio analysis because of elevated androsterone levels or because this was requested by sports federations. Significant differences between female and male samples were found for the 13C/12C ratios of androsterone and 11,-hydroxyandrosterone but not for samples taken in or out of competition. A further n = 645 samples originating from other World Anti-Doping Agency accredited laboratories, mainly throughout Europe as well as South America, South Africa and Southeast Asia, were investigated. The 13C/12C ratios of the urinary steroids differ significantly for each geographical region, reflecting the dietary status of the individuals. The system stability over time has been tested by repeated injections of a standard solution and repeated processing of frozen stored blank urine. Despite a drift over time in absolute 13C/12C ratios, no significant change in the difference of 13C/12C (11,-hydroxyandrosterone) minus 13C/12C (androsterone) could be observed. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


The application of carbon isotope ratio mass spectrometry to doping control

JOURNAL OF MASS SPECTROMETRY (INCORP BIOLOGICAL MASS SPECTROMETRY), Issue 7 2008
Adam T. Cawley
Abstract The administration of synthetic steroid copies is one of the most important issues facing sports. Doping control laboratories accredited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) require methods of analysis that allow endogenous steroids to be distinguished from their synthetic analogs in urine. The ability to measure isotope distribution at natural abundance with high accuracy and precision has increased the application of Gas Chromatography,Combustion,Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (GC,C,IRMS) to doping control in recent years. GC,C,IRMS is capable of measuring the carbon isotope ratio (,13C) of urinary steroids and confirm their synthetic origin based on the abnormal 13C content. This tutorial describes some of the complexities encountered by obtaining valid ,13C measurements from GC,C,IRMS and the need for careful interpretation of all relevant information concerning an individual's metabolism in order to make an informed decision with respect to a doping violation. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Urinary steroids, FSH and CG measurements for monitoring the ovarian cycle and pregnancy in the chimpanzee

JOURNAL OF MEDICAL PRIMATOLOGY, Issue 1 2003
Keiko Shimizu
Abstract: Non-invasive methods for monitoring reproductive status of chimpanzee based on the measurement of urinary steroids and gonadotropins were examined. A typical pre-ovulatory urinary estrone conjugate (E1C) surge and post-ovulatory increase in pregnandiol glucuronide (PdG) were seen during the menstrual cycle. Urinary follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) showed two peaks over the infertile menstrual cycle. The earliest changes indicating pregnancy were a coincident rise in E1C and chorionic gonadotropin (CG) levels and a concomitant fall in FSH levels. Urinary PdG levels showed a prolonged rise. Urinary E1C in the pregnant chimpanzee was higher than during the menstrual cycle and increased with advancing gestation, with maximum levels occurring near term. In the case of stillbirth, E1C and CG levels from mid- through late-pregnancy were low and the prepartum progressive increase in E1C was not shown. The data presented here are of great practical value in captive breeding management of chimpanzees. [source]


Relationship between urinary profile of the endogenous steroids and postmenopausal women with stress urinary incontinence

NEUROUROLOGY AND URODYNAMICS, Issue 3 2003
S.W. Bai
Abstract Aims The aims of this study were to investigate whether endogenous steroid hormones are (1) related to pathogenesis of stress urinary incontinence after menopause, (2) are related to severity of stress urinary incontinence, and (3) are related to prognostic parameters of stress urinary incontinence. Methods Twenty post-partum women with clinically diagnosed stress urinary incontinence and 20 age-matched postmenopausal women without stress urinary incontinence (control group) were evaluated. We compared urinary profile of the endogenous steroid hormones patients with stress urinary incontinence and controls, and between grade I and grade II of stress urinary incontinence. We also in vestigated the relationship between urinary profile of the endogenous steroid hormones and prognostic parameters of stress urinary incontinence (maximal urethral closure pressure, functional urethral length, Valsalva leak point pressure, cough leak point pressure, posterior urethrovesical angle, bladder neck descent, and stress urethral axis). The ages of the patients and those in the control group were 64.3,,5.6 and 57.5,,3.8 years old and the body mass indexes were 24.96,,3.14 and 22.11,, 2.73 kg/m2 in patients and in normal subjects, respectively. Nine patients were grade I and 11 were grade II. Estrone and 17,-estradiol only were detected in all subjects, regardless of control or patient group. It is noteworthy that there were no significant differ ences (P,>,0.05) in the levels of estrone and 17,-estradiol in the urine of postmenopausal normal subjects compared with in the urine of postmenopausal patients with urinary incontinence. E2/E1 ratio was not different between the two groups (P,>,0.05). Among the objective steroids, DHEA, ,4 -dione, ,5 -diol, Te, DHT, 16,-DHT, 11-keto An, THDOC, and THB were not detected either in the urine of normal subjects and nor in the urine of the patients. After comparing androgen levels between normal subjects and patients, no significant differences (P>0.05) were detected, except for 5,-THB and 5,-THF. Neither 5,-THB or 5,-THF were detected in the patients' urine. Et/An (11,-OH Et/11,-OH An) concentration ratios were not significantly different between the two groups, either (P,>,0.05). There were not significant differences of concentrations (,mol/g creatinine) of urinary steroids between grade I and grade II of stress urinary incontinence. Pregnanediol was significantly related to bladder neck descent in supine and sitting positions (R,=,0.79, P,=,0.01, and R,=,0.73, P,=,0.03, respectively), and pregnanetriol was significantly related to maximal urethral closure pressure and functional urethral length (R,=,0.68, P,=,0.04, and R,=,,0.79, P,=,0.01, respectively). Androsterone was significantly related to bladder neck descent in supine and sitting positions (R,=,0.68, P,=,0.04, and R,=,0.78, P,=,0.01, respectively). 5-AT was significantly related to bladder neck descent in sitting position and stress urethral axis (R,=,0.72, P,=,0.03, and R,=,,0.71, P,=,0.03). 11-Keto Et was significantly related to bladder neck descent in supine and sitting positions and related to stress ure thral axis (R,=,0.82, P,=,0.01, and R,=,0.81, P,=,0.01, R,=,,0.67, P,=,0.04, respectively). THS was signi ficantly related to bladder neck descent in supine and sitting positions and related to stress urethral axis (R,=,0.76, P,=,0.02, and R,=,0.74, P,=,0.02, R,=,,0.68, P,=,0.04, respectively). THE was significantly related to bladder neck descent in sitting position (R,=,0.67, P,=,0.04).,-Tetrahydrocortisol/,-tetrahydrocortisol (,-THF/,-THF) and ,-cortol were significantly related to maximal urethral closure pressure and functional urethral length (R,=,0.74, P,=,0.02, and R,=,,0.92, P,=,0.01; R,=,0.71, P,=,0.36, and R,=,,0.87, P,=,0.000, respectively). 17,-Estradiol (E2) was significantly related to bladder neck descent in supine position (R,=,,0.62, P,=,0.04) and 17,-estradiol/estrone (E2/E1) was significantly related to cough leak point pressure (R,=,0.79, P,=,0.01). In conclusion, the urinary concentrations of endogenous steroid metabolites in postmenopausal patients with stress urinary incontinence were not significantly different from normal patients and were not significantly different between grade I and grade II patients with stress urinary incontinence. Some endogenous steroid metabolites were positively or negatively significantly related to prognostic parameters of stress urinary incontinence. Neurourol. Urodynam. 22:198,205, 2003. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Determination of 13C/12C ratios of endogenous urinary steroids: method validation, reference population and application to doping control purposes

RAPID COMMUNICATIONS IN MASS SPECTROMETRY, Issue 14 2008
Thomas Piper
The application of a comprehensive gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS)-based method for stable carbon isotopes of endogenous urinary steroids is presented. The key element in sample preparation is the consecutive cleanup with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of underivatized and acetylated steroids, which allows the isolation of ten analytes (11, -hydroxyandrosterone, 5, -androst-16-en-3, -ol, pregnanediol, androsterone, etiocholanolone, testosterone, epitestosterone, 5, -androstane-3,,17, -diol, 5, -androstane-3,,17, -diol and dehydroepiandrosterone) from a single urine specimen. These steroids are of particular importance to doping controls as they enable the sensitive and retrospective detection of steroid abuse by athletes. Depending on the biological background, the determination limit for all steroids ranges from 5 to 10,ng/mL for a 10,mL specimen. The method is validated by means of linear mixing models for each steroid, which covers repeatability and reproducibility. Specificity was further demonstrated by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for each analyte, and no influence of the sample preparation or the quantity of analyte on carbon isotope ratios was observed. In order to determine naturally occurring 13C/12C ratios of all implemented steroids, a reference population of n,=,61 subjects was measured to enable the calculation of reference limits for all relevant steroidal , values. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]