Urinary Specimens (urinary + specimen)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Urinary excretion of inositol phosphoglycan P-type in gestational diabetes mellitus

M. Scioscia
Abstract Objective The mechanisms underlying insulin resistance during normal pregnancy, and its further exacerbation in pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), are generally unknown. Inositolphosphoglycan P-type (P-IPG), a putative second messenger of insulin, correlates with the degree of insulin resistance in diabetic subjects. An increase during normal pregnancy, in maternal and fetal compartments, has recently been reported. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in 48 women with GDM and 23 healthy pregnant women. Urinary levels of P-IPG were assessed spectrophotometrically by the activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase in urinary specimens and correlated with clinical parameters. Results Urinary excretion of P-IPG was higher in GDM than in control women (312.1 ± 151.0 vs. 210.6 ± 82.7 nmol NADH/min/mg creatinine, P < 0.01) with values increasing throughout pregnancy in control subjects (r2 = 0.34, P < 0.01). P-IPG correlated with blood glucose levels (r2 = 0.39, P < 0.01 for postprandial glycaemia and r2 = 0.18 P < 0.01 for mean glycaemia) and birthweight in the diabetic group (r2 = 0.14, P < 0.01). Conclusions Increased P-IPG urinary excretion occurs in GDM and positively correlates with blood glucose levels. P-IPG may play a role in maternal glycaemic control and, possibly, fetal growth in GDM. [source]

Low-grade urothelial carcinoma: Reappraisal of the cytologic criteria on ThinPrep®

Ph.D., Wei Xin M.D.
Abstract The diagnostic criteria for low-grade urothelial lesions that have been described in the past were based on urinary specimens prepared by the cytospin method. Recognizing the recent popularity of the ThinPrep® methodology and the cytologic alterations it introduces to the cellular features, we sought to evaluate the reproducibility of these criteria in ThinPrep urinary samples. One hundred twenty-six ThinPrep urinary specimens with a tissue diagnosis of low-grade urothelial carcinoma (LGUC) and 45 negative controls were evaluated. Three pathologists blindly reviewed the slides separately and the consensus on each feature was used in the study. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine which criteria in combination were most predictive of low-grade urothelial carcinoma. All specimens were evaluated for the following 18 features: nucleus/cytoplasm ratio, irregular nuclear border, cytoplasm homogeneity, cell clusters, high cellularity, prominent nucleoli, granular nuclear chromatin, hyperchromasia, acute inflammation, vesicular chromatin, nuclear molding, nuclear eccentricity, elongated nuclei, necrosis, anisonucleosis, irregular bordered fragments, absent cytoplasmic collar, and peripheral palisading. High nucleus-to-cytoplasm ratio, irregular nuclear borders, and homogeneous cytoplasm (combination sensitivity of 59% and specificity of 100%) were the best predictive features for LGUC. Minor predictive criteria were eccentric nuclei and nuclear molding. ThinPrep provides well preserved, cleaner specimens without significantly altering the morphology. The three key criteria applied in cytospin specimens to diagnose LGUC were reproducible in ThinPrep specimens. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2003;29:125,129. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Genetic and epigenetic aspects of bladder cancer

Wun-Jae Kim
Abstract Transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder has a diverse collection of biologic and functional characteristics. This is reflected in differing clinical courses. The diagnosis of bladder cancer is based on the information provided by cystoscopy, the gold standard in combination with urinary cytology findings. Many tumor markers have been evaluated for detecting and monitoring the disease in serum, bladder washes, and urinary specimens. However, none of these biomarkers reported to date has shown sufficient sensitivity and specificity for the detection of the whole spectrum of bladder cancer diseases in routine clinical practice. The limited value of established prognostic markers requires the analysis of new molecular parameters of interest in predicting the prognosis of bladder cancer patients; in particular, the high-risk patient groups at risk of progression and recurrence. Over the past decade, there has been major progress elucidating of the molecular genetic and epigenetic changes leading to the development of transitional cell carcinoma. This review focuses on the recent advances of genetic and epigenetic aspects in bladder cancer, and emphasizes how molecular biology would be likely to affect the future therapies. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Discovery of myopodin methylation in bladder cancer,

V Cebrian
Abstract Myopodin is an actin-binding protein that shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. After identifying an enriched CpG island encompassing the transcription site of myopodin, we aimed at evaluating the potential relevance of myopodin methylation in bladder cancer. The epigenetic silencing of myopodin by hypermethylation was tested in bladder cancer cells (n = 12) before and after azacytidine treatment. Myopodin hypermethylation was associated with gene expression, being increased in vitro by this demethylating agent. The methylation status of myopodin promoter was then evaluated by methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MS-PCR) analyses. Myopodin was revealed to be frequently methylated in a large series of 466 bladder tumours (68.7%). Myopodin methylation was significantly associated with tumour stage (p < 0.0005) and tumour grade (p = 0.037). Myopodin expression patterns were analysed by immunohistochemistry on tissue arrays containing bladder tumours for which myopodin methylation was assessed (n = 177). The presence of low nuclear myopodin expression alone (p = 0.031) or combined with myopodin methylation (p = 0.008) was associated with poor survival. Moreover, myopodin methylation in 164 urinary specimens distinguished patients with bladder cancer from controls with a sensitivity of 65.0%, a specificity of 79.8%, and a global accuracy of 75.3%. Thus, myopodin was identified to be epigenetically modified in bladder cancer. The association of myopodin methylation and nuclear expression patterns with cancer progression and clinical outcome, together with its ability to detect bladder cancer patients using urinary specimens, suggests the utility of incorporating myopodin methylation assessment in the clinical management of patients affected by uroepithelial neoplasias. Copyright © 2008 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]