Urinary Cytology (urinary + cytology)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Ex Vivo Fluorescence Imaging of Normal and Malignant Urothelial Cells to Enhance Early Diagnosis

Karine Steenkeste
ABSTRACT Urinary cytology is a noninvasive and unconstraining technique for urothelial cancer diagnosis but lacks sensitivity for detecting low-grade lesions. In this study, the fluorescence properties of classical Papanicolaou-stained urothelial cytological slides from patients or from cell lines were monitored to investigate metabolic changes in normal and tumoral cells. Time- and spectrally-resolved fluorescence imaging was performed at the single cell level to assess the spectral and temporal properties as well as the spatial distribution of the fluorescence emitted by urothelial cells. The results reveal quite different fluorescence distributions between tumoral urothelial cells, characterized by a perimembrane fluorescence localization, and the normal cells which exhibit an intracellular fluorescence. This is not caused by differences in the fluorescence emission of the endogenous fluorophores NAD(P)H, flavoproteins or porphyrins but by various localization of the EA 50 Papanicolaou stain as revealed by both the spectral and time-resolved parameters. The present results demonstrate that the use of single-cell endofluorescence emission of Papanicolaou-stained urothelial cytological slides can allow an early ex vivo diagnosis of low-grade bladder cancers. [source]

Urinary bladder biopsy with denuded mucosa: Denuding cystitis,Cytopathologic correlates

Anil V. Parwani M.D., Ph.D.
Abstract Denuding cystitis is often encountered in tissue biopsies of bladder mucosa performed by either cold-cup forceps or wire loop electrocautery to evaluate hematuria or to rule out recurrent urothelial carcinoma. Lack of urothelium in these biopsies is often a frustrating experience, leading to a nonspecific interpretation. In this study, 151 cases of denuding cystitis were retrieved from the surgical pathology files of The Johns Hopkins Hospital over a 4-year period (1996,1999). Patients under the age of 40 years and outside consultation material were excluded. Of the 151 cases of denuding cystitis, 48 patients were identified who had concurrent urinary cytologic studies. Of these patients, 35 were male (73%) and 13 were female (27%). Patient ages ranged from 43 to 85 years (mean, 67). Twenty-six of these 48 patients (54%) had at least one concurrently positive urinary cytology, which was histologically confirmed. All except three cases were high-grade urothelial carcinoma with the following histologic subtypes: flat carcinoma in situ (n = 11), noninvasive papillary (n = 9), and invasive urothelial carcinoma (n = 3). We conclude that urinary cytology is a sensitive modality that detects exfoliated carcinoma cells in patients with a histologic diagnosis of denuding cystitis. An inconclusive diagnosis of denuding cystitis on tissue might be related to biopsy method and technique, small sample size, or biopsy of cystoscopically abnormal urothelium that is denuded. A cytologic diagnosis of high-grade urothelial carcinoma in these cases leads to a timely clinical intervention for optimal patient management. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2004;30:297,300. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Multiple biopsies of normal-looking urothelium in patients with superficial bladder cancer: Are they necessary?

Abstract Background:, The objective of the study presented here was to assess the usefulness and indications of multiple biopsies of normal-appearing urothelium in patients with superficial bladder cancer. Methods:, Between December 1996 and December 2002, multiple biopsies of normal-appearing bladder mucosa were performed in 100 patients with superficial bladder transitional cell carcinoma. Biopsy specimens were taken from seven different sites in females and nine different sites in males. Results:, In eight of 100 patients, bladder cancers were detected in the biopsy specimens. Three cases were Ta and five were Tis. All of the five patients with carcinoma in situ (CIS) in their biopsy specimens had multiple papillary broad-base tumors and positive urinary cytology. The detection ratio of CIS in patients with these findings was 17.9% (5/28). No concomitant CIS was detected in the 72 patients who had a solitary tumor, pedunculated tumor(s), or negative urinary cytology. Conclusion:, Multiple mucosal biopsies of normal-appearing urothelium are not necessary for all patients with superficial bladder cancer. They are, however, necessary for patients with multiple papillary broad-base tumors and positive urinary cytology. [source]

Transurethral endoscopic treatment of upper urinary tract tumors using a holmium:YAG laser

Kei Matsuoka MD
Abstract Background and Objectives The feasibility of treating upper urinary tract tumors with a holmium:YAG (Ho:YAG) laser in transurethral endoscopy was examined. Study Design/Materials and Methods Thirty-three treatments were performed on 30 patients with renal pelvic and ureteral carcinomas. After vaporization and coagulation eliminated the tumors, the surrounding mucosa was fully coagulated. Postoperative follow-up consisted of urinary cytology once a month, cystoscopy every 3 months, excretory pyelography every 6 months, and uretero-pyeloscopy every 6,12 months. Results The recurrence rate after the first treatment was 86% in the imperative indication group. The tumor-free rate (median follow-up, 37 months) in the imperative indication group was 57%. In the elective indication group, those values were 20 and 95% (median follow-up, 33 months), respectively. Conclusions Transurethral endoscopic treatment of upper urinary tract tumors using Ho:YAG laser can be a useful method on limited cases identified into specific treatments groups combined with a strict follow-up. Lasers Surg. Med. 32:336,340, 2003. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

5-aminolaevulinic acid-induced fluorescence cystoscopy during transurethral resection reduces the risk of recurrence in stage Ta/T1 bladder cancer

Marko Babjuk
OBJECTIVE To assess the influence of 5-aminolaevulinic acid-induced fluorescence cystoscopy (FC) during transurethral resection (TUR) on the recurrence rate and the length of tumour-free interval in stage Ta/T1 transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder. PATIENTS AND METHODS In all, 122 patients with primary or recurrent stage Ta/T1 bladder TCC treated with TUR were enrolled in a prospective randomized study. In group A the TUR was performed with standard white-light endoscopy, and in group B with FC. The patients were followed using standard cystoscopy and urinary cytology. The recurrence-free interval was evaluated in whole groups, for single and multiple, and for primary and recurrent tumours separately. RESULTS At the time of the first cystoscopy (10,15 weeks after TUR) tumour recurrence was detected in 23 of 62 patients (37%) in group A, but only in five of 60 patients (8%) in group B. The recurrence-free survival rates in group A were 39% and 28% after 12 and 24 months, compared to 66% and 40% respectively in group B (P = 0.008, log-rank test). In separate analyses, the recurrence-free survival rates were significantly higher using FC in multiple (P = 0.001) and in recurrent (P = 0.02) tumours. In solitary and primary tumours the median time to recurrence was also longer in group B, but the difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION 5-aminolaevulinic acid-induced FC during TUR reduces the recurrence rate in stage Ta/T1 bladder TCC. The most significant benefit is in patients with multiple and recurrent tumours. [source]

A comparison of urinary nuclear matrix protein-22 and bladder tumour antigen tests with voided urinary cytology in detecting and following bladder cancer:the prognostic value of false-positive results

V. Poulakis
Objectives To evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of the nuclear matrix protein-22 (NMP22) and bladder tumour antigen (BTAstat) tests compared with voided urinary cytology (VUC) in detecting and following bladder cancer, assessing particularly the prognostic value of false-positive test results in patients followed up for bladder cancer. Patients and methods From 739 patients suspected of having bladder cancer, voided urine samples for the NMP22 and BTAstat tests, and for VUC and urine analysis, were collected before cystoscopy. All patients underwent transurethral resection of bladder lesions or mapping, and were followed for a mean (range) of 27.3 (3,65) months. Results In the 406 patients with bladder cancer, the overall sensitivity was 85% for NMP22, 70% for BTAstat and 62% for VUC. For histological grades 1,3 the sensitivity in detecting transitional cell carcinoma was 82%, 89% and 94% for NMP22, 53%, 76% and 90% for BTAstat, and 38%, 68% and 90% for VUC, respectively. Although the sensitivity in detecting invasive carcinoma was > 85% for all the tests, NMP22 and BTAstat were statistically more sensitive than VUC for superficial tumours. The optimal threshold value for NMP22, calculated using the receiver operating characteristics curve, was 8.25 U/mL. The specificity was 68% for NMP22, 67% for BTAstat, and 96% for VUC. The specificity of VUC remained > 87% and was independent of benign histological findings. In contrast, in patients with no apparent genitourinary disease on histology, NMP22 and BTAstat had significantly higher specificity (94% and 92%, respectively; P = 0.003) than in the group with chronic cystitis (52% for both tests). Forty patients having no bladder cancer at biopsy had a recurrence after a mean (range) follow-up of 7.7 (3,15) months; all had a previous history of bladder cancer. According to subsequent recurrence, the prognostic positive and negative predictive values were 18% and 91% for NMP22, 13% and 88% for BTAstat, and 79% and 91% for VUC. Both false-positive VUC and NMP22 tests predicted recurrence (log-rank test, P < 0.001 and P = 0.004, respectively), but the BTAstat test produced no similar correlation (P = 0.778). Conclusion The NMP22 and BTAstat tests are better than VUC for detecting superficial and low-grade bladder cancer but they have significantly lower specificity. After excluding diseases with the potential to interfere in these tests the overall specificity of both tests is increased considerably. False-positive results from NMP22 and VUC but not from BTAstat in patients followed up for bladder cancer correlate with future recurrences. [source]