Urge Incontinence (urge + incontinence)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Urge Incontinence

  • de novo urge incontinence
  • novo urge incontinence
  • urinary urge incontinence

  • Selected Abstracts

    The completely dry rate: A critical re-evaluation of the outcomes of slings

    Kathleen C. Kobashi
    Abstract Objective To critically evaluate sling outcomes and revisit the realistic goals of anti-incontinence surgery. Materials and Methods A review of an Institutional Review Board-approved prospective database revealed the outcomes of four different sling techniques that are utilized at our institution. Results Four hundred ninety-eight patients had a mean follow-up varying from 9 to 24 months (range 6,50) after undergoing one of four different sling techniques utilized at our institution. The techniques had similar results with regard to completely dry rate, overall success rate, and rate of urgency regardless of the variation in follow-up time. Success was defined as completely dry or leakage =,1/week or =,70% improved by questionnaire in those patients who leaked 1/week. Success, by this definition, varied from 74.9% to 85.7%, but the completely dry rate varied from 36.1% to 45.2%. An additional 31.0% to 33.3% leaked =,1/week, and of the remaining patients, 24.5% to 44.4% considered themselves =,70% improved despite leakage >,1/week. Urge incontinence was reported by 24.4% to 33.3% of patients. Conclusion As surgeons, we must constantly reevaluate the outcomes and purposes of the procedures we perform on our patients. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    A longitudinal study over 5 to 10 years of clinical outcomes in women with idiopathic detrusor overactivity

    AR Morris
    Objective, To evaluate the long-term clinical outcome in women with idiopathic detrusor overactivity (IDO) and to identify significant prognostic factors. Design, Longitudinal study incorporating retrospective case note review and a postal questionnaire. Setting, Tertiary referral urogynaecology clinic in Australia. Population, Women with a sole urodynamic diagnosis of IDO. Methods, Audit of urodynamic records and case notes. Postal questionnaire incorporating validated disease-specific quality-of-life (QoL) instruments. Main outcome measure, Subjective assessment of overall improvement on a 4-point scale followed by scoring of short forms of the urogenital distress inventory and incontinence impact questionnaire. Results, One hundred and thirty two women were identified following examination of 1975 consecutive records with 76 (67%) returning questionnaires. Median follow up was 8 years (6,9), and the duration of symptoms was 13 years (9,18). Improvement was achieved in 25 (35%) women. Disease symptoms fluctuated in severity and QoL were worse in nonresponders to therapy (P < 0.0001). Urge incontinence at presentation was associated with treatment failure (P= 0.001) as was nocturia (P= 0.04), but urodynamic variables were not associated with outcome. Only 3 of 46 (6.5%) women not responding to therapy thought that their symptoms would improve with time. Conclusions, IDO seldom resolves and fluctuates in severity. Individual response is unpredictable, although the presence of urge incontinence is associated with a significantly worse prognosis. [source]

    Urge incontinence and voiding postponement in children: somatic and psychosocial factors

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 9 2002
    K HjälmåsArticle first published online: 2 JAN 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Solifenacin treatment for overactive bladder in Hispanic patients: patient-reported symptom bother and quality of life outcomes from the VESIcare® Open-Label Trial

    J. P. Capo' Jr
    Summary Objective:, The primary goal of overactive bladder (OAB) treatment is to reduce symptoms and improve health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Although trials open enrolment to everyone, most OAB studies feature Caucasians. Here we present Hispanic data. Methods:, VESIcare® Open-Label Trial was a 12-week, open-label, flexible-dosing study in patients with OAB symptoms for , 3 months. All patients started on solifenacin 5 mg/day, with a dosing option of 5 or 10 mg/day at weeks 4 and 8. Three patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures assessed symptom improvement and treatment satisfaction: the Patient Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC) scale, a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), the Overactive Bladder Questionnaire (OAB-q). Results:, 94/2205 patients in the full population were Hispanic. Urgency was most frequently reported at baseline (93.6%), followed by frequency (91.5%), nocturia (84.0%) and urge incontinence (UI) (67.0%). Frequency was reported as the most bothersome symptom (MBS) by a higher proportion of Hispanics than the full population (40.4% vs. 28.1%). UI was reported as the MBS by a smaller proportion of Hispanics (18.1% vs. 27.3%). Patients reporting moderate-to-severe problems related to bladder condition at baseline reported improvement to ,some minor problems' at week 12. Over 72.0% of patients experienced PPBC score improvement. Both groups reported significant improvements in urgency, UI, frequency and nocturia on the VAS (all p < 0.001) and all OAB-q domains (all p < 0.001) at week 12. Conclusion:, Although numbers were small, Hispanics receiving solifenacin for OAB reported improvement from baseline in symptom bother and HRQoL, as assessed by three independent PRO measures. [source]

    Urinary incontinence in men with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Fumi Hirayama
    Abstract: This study investigated urinary incontinence in men with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). A total of 244 community-dwelling men (mean age 66.5 years) diagnosed with COPD within the past 4 years were recruited from six hospital outpatient departments in central Japan. The prevalence of urinary incontinence was 10% according to the International Consultation on Incontinence criterion. Urine leakage among the 24 incontinent men was typically a small amount (75%) and occurred once a week or less often (58%). Fifteen (63%) of them reported urge incontinence while only two men experienced stress incontinence. On average they had urine leakage for 2.5 (SD 2.3) years and the majority (n = 19, 79%) developed the condition after diagnosis of COPD. The finding of higher prevalence of urge incontinence challenges the conventional view that COPD is associated with stress incontinence due to high pressure coughs. [source]

    Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of the Cognitive Effect, Safety, and Tolerability of Oral Extended-Release Oxybutynin in Cognitively Impaired Nursing Home Residents with Urge Urinary Incontinence

    Thomas E. Lackner PharmD
    OBJECTIVES: Determine the cognitive effect, safety, and tolerability of oral extended-release oxybutynin in cognitively impaired older nursing home residents with urge urinary incontinence. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. SETTING: Twelve skilled nursing homes. PARTICIPANTS: Fifty women aged 65 and older with urge incontinence and cognitive impairment. INTERVENTION: Four-week treatment with once-daily oral extended-release oxybutynin 5 mg or placebo. MEASUREMENTS: Withdrawal rates and delirium or change in cognition from baseline at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after starting treatment using the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM), Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and Severe Impairment Battery (SIB). The Brief Agitation Rating Scale, adverse events, falls incidence, and serum anticholinergic activity change with treatment were also assessed. RESULTS: Participants' mean age ±standard deviation was 88.6±6.2, and MMSE baseline score was 14.5±4.3. Ninety-six percent of subjects receiving oxybutynin (n=26) and 92% receiving placebo (n=24) completed treatment (P=.50). The differences in mean change in CAM score from baseline to all time points were equivalent between the oxybutynin and placebo groups. Delirium did not occur in either group. One participant receiving oxybutynin was withdrawn because of urinary retention, which resolved without treatment. Mild adverse events occurred in 38.5% of participants receiving oxybutynin and 37.5% receiving placebo (P=.94). CONCLUSION: Short-term treatment using oral extended-release oxybutynin 5 mg once daily was safe and well tolerated, with no delirium, in older female nursing home participants with mild to severe dementia. Future research should investigate different dosages and long-term treatment. [source]

    Tolterodine: A Safe and Effective Treatment for Older Patients with Overactive Bladder

    James G. Malone-Lee MD
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical safety and efficacy of two dosages of tolterodine in older patients with symptoms attributable to overactive bladder. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multinational, phase III study. SETTING: Incontinence, older care, urological, and urogynecological clinics in the United Kingdom, France, and the Republic of Ireland. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred and seventy-seven older patients (age ,65 years) with symptoms of urinary urgency, increased frequency of micturition (,8 micturitions/24 hours), and/or urge incontinence (,1 episode/24 hours). INTERVENTION: Tolterodine 1 mg or 2 mg twice daily (bid), or placebo, for 4 weeks. MEASUREMENTS: Safety and tolerability were evaluated through spontaneously reported adverse events, electrocardiogram, and blood pressure measurements. Efficacy was assessed using micturition diary variables: mean change from baseline in frequency of micturition and number of incontinence episodes/24 hours. RESULTS: The mean age of the patient population was 75 years. Overall, ,87% of patients completed the study. Neither dosage of tolterodine was associated with serious drug-related adverse events during the study. No cardiac arrythmogenic events were noted. Dry mouth (mild to moderate intensity) was the most common adverse event in both the placebo and tolterodine treatment groups. Three percent of patients in the tolterodine 2 mg bid group discontinued treatment because of dry mouth, compared with 2% of placebo-treated patients. Compared with placebo, statistically significant decreases in micturition frequency were apparent in both tolterodine treatment groups. Furthermore, patients treated with tolterodine 2 mg bid had statistically significant decreases in urge incontinence episodes/24 hours and increases in volume voided per micturition compared with placebo. CONCLUSION: Tolterodine (taken for 4 weeks) is safe and shows efficacy, particularly at a dosage of 2 mg bid, in the treatment of older patients with urinary symptoms attributable to overactive bladder. J Am Geriatr Soc 49:700,705, 2001. [source]

    Sling operations in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence: How to adjust sling tension

    Ibraheem Mahmoud Ezzat
    Abstract Aim:, To find an objective method of adjusting sling tension in order to avoid postoperative urinary obstruction. Methods:, Thirty-five female patients with type II/III and type III stress urinary incontinence were treated using a sling procedure. Pubovaginal fascial slings were implanted in 20 patients and polytetrafluoroethylene patch slings with nylon sutures were implanted in 15 patients. During the procedures the urinary bladder was partially full and the patients, who were under spinal or epidural anesthesia, were asked to cough and strain. The proper tension that effectively prevents urine leakage was selected and the corresponding suture length was marked. An objective new method to adjust sling tension was used. As part of this method, the abdominal bulge index is added to the suture length before tying. Results:, Short-term follow-up of 6,12 months showed that 33 of 35 patients reported no leakage of urine (94%). Two patients had unsatisfactory urge incontinence. We did not encounter postoperative urinary retention in any patient. No significant post-voiding residual urine was reported. None of our patients in this series have complained of difficulties during micturition or the need to strain during voiding. Conclusion:, Proper adjustment of sling tension using the abdominal bulge index has eliminated postoperative urinary retention and obstructed urine flow, including any appreciable amount of post-voiding residual urine. This method has been found to be both objective and reproducible. [source]

    Animal Model with Detrusor Overactivity Caused by Cerebral Infarction as a Useful Tool for Pharmacological Therapeutic Approaches

    LUTS, Issue 2009
    Osamu YOKOYAMA
    Supra-pontine lesions resulting from neurological disorders, such as vascular disease or Parkinson's disease, cause a sense of urgency, frequency, and/or urge incontinence, all of which constitute an overactive bladder. This phenomenon is due in part to the elimination of cortical inhibitory control of the micturition center in the pontine and in part to facilitation of excitatory control. These controls consist of several neurotransmitter systems that include acetylcholine, dopamine, and glutamate. The development of detrusor overactivity following cerebral infarction is mediated by upregulation and downregulation of excitatory and inhibitory inputs of these neurotransmitter systems to the micturition center in the brain, respectively. [source]

    Bladder dysfunction in Parkinsonism: Mechanisms, prevalence, symptoms, and management

    MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 6 2006
    Kristian Winge MD
    Abstract The advent of functional imaging methods has increased our understanding of the neural control of the bladder. This review examines current concepts of the role of brain function in urinary control with particular emphasis on the putative role of dopamine receptors. Dopaminergic mechanisms play a profound role in normal bladder control and the dysfunction of these may result in symptoms of overactive bladder in Parkinsonism. The importance of this nonmotor disorder has been overlooked. We address the problem of bladder dysfunction as it presents to patients and their neurologist. The prevalence of bladder symptoms in Parkinson's disease is high; the most common complaint is nocturia followed by frequency and urgency. In multiple-system atrophy, the combination of urge and urge incontinence and poor emptying may result in a complex combination of complaints. The management of bladder dysfunction in Parkinsonism addresses treatment of overactive detrusor as well as incontinence. © 2006 Movement Disorder Society [source]

    Short-term effect of a single levodopa dose on micturition disturbance in Parkinson's disease patients with the wearing-off phenomenon

    MOVEMENT DISORDERS, Issue 5 2003
    Tomoyuki Uchiyama MD
    Abstract We investigated the short-term effects of a single dose of levodopa (L -dopa) on micturition function in PD patients with wearing-off phenomenon. Eighteen PD patients who had median Hoehn and Yahr scores of 5 during the off phase and 3 during the on phase were recruited. We carried out urodynamic studies before and about 1 hour after the patients had taken 100 mg of L -dopa with dopa-decarboxylase inhibitor (DCI). After taking the L -dopa/DCI, urinary urgency and urge incontinence aggravated, whereas voiding difficulty was alleviated in all 12 patients. When compared to the baseline assessment, urodynamic study results after taking 100 mg of L -dopa/DCI showed aggravated detrusor hyperreflexia; decreased maximum bladder capacity (P = 0.006); an increased maximum Watts Factor value (P = 0.001), reflecting the detrusor power on voiding; an increased Abrams-Griffiths number (P = 0.042), reflecting urethral obstruction on voiding; decreased residual urine volume (P = 0.025); and increased static urethral closure pressure (P = 0.012). One hundred milligrams of L -dopa/DCI worsened detrusor hyperreflexia, producing worsened urinary urgency and urge incontinence during the storage (bladder-filling) phase. It also increased detrusor contractility much more than it did urethral obstruction in the voiding phase, producing overall lessening of voiding difficulty and improving voiding efficiency in our PD patients with the wearing-off phenomenon. © 2003 Movement Disorder Society [source]

    Midurethral sling procedures for stress urinary incontinence in women over 80 years,,

    Kobi Stav
    Abstract Aims To compare the safety and efficacy of midurethral sling surgery for management of urinary stress incontinence in women over 80 years versus younger women. Methods 1225 consecutive women with urodynamic stress incontinence had a synthetic midurethral sling (955 retropubic, 270 transobturator) at our institution between 1999 and 2007. Ninety one percent (n,=,1112) of the patients were interviewed via phone call with a structured questionnaire and were included in the analysis. The mean follow-up was 50,±,24 months (range 12,114). Comparison between elderly (,80 years, n,=,96) and younger patients (<80 years, n,=,1016) was performed. Results The overall subjective cure rate was 85% (elderly 81%, younger 85%, ,=,0.32). There was no significant difference in cure rate between retropubic and transobturator sling in the elderly group (82% vs. 79.3%, P,=,0.75). The bladder perforation rate was similar between the two groups (3%). The hospitalization time was significantly longer in the elderly (1.6,±,1.7 days vs. 0.7,±,1.1 days, P<0.001). However, major perioperative complications were uncommon (1%). Of the patients who had an isolated sling procedure, 37% of the elderly and 9% of the young patients failed their 1st trial of void (P,<,0.001). However, the long-term rate of voiding difficulty was similar between the two groups (elderly 8% vs. young 6%, P,=,0.21). The rate of de novo urge incontinence was similar between the two groups (7%). Conclusion Retropubic and transobturator slings in women older than 80 years are effective and safe but are associated with an increased risk of transient postoperative voiding difficulty. Neurourol. Urodynam. 29:1262,1266, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Comparison of ambulatory versus conventional urodynamics in females with urinary incontinence,,

    Fulya Dokmeci
    Abstract Aims We planned to compare the diagnostic accuracy of conventional urodynamics (UD) and ambulatory UD for the detection of detrusor over activity (DOA) and/or urodynamic stress incontinence (USI) in women presenting with urinary incontinence. Methods We prospectively enrolled 44 women with urinary incontinence and performed both urodynamic (UD) studies after they completed the UDI-6 questionnaire. During ambulatory UD one micturition cycle was recorded. According to responses for individual items on the UDI-6, patients were divided into three groups to define incontinence type irrespective of scoring. Results Mean age was 52.2 and mean duration of the symptoms was 4.94 years. The ambulatory UD detected an underlying pathophysiology of urinary incontinence (77.3%) in significantly more women than the conventional UD (6.8%) (P,=,0.001). Among women with stress incontinence, 56% had USI on the ambulatory UD and none had abnormalities on the conventional UD (P,=,0.002). Seventy-two percent of women with mixed symptoms had abnormal findings (USI and/or DOA) on the ambulatory UD and 9% had abnormal findings on the conventional UD (P,=,0.001). Conclusions Our findings suggest that ambulatory UD done in a clinical setting during one micturition cycle with unstandardized provocative activities detects an underlying pathophysiology (urge incontinence, stress incontinence, mixed incontinence) more often than conventional UD in supine position Conventional UD has a higher false-negative rate in diagnosis of DOA and/or USI compared to ambulatory UD. Neurourol. Urodynam. 29:518,521, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Tolterodine causes measurable restoration of urethral sensation in women with urge urinary incontinence,,

    Kimberly Kenton
    Abstract Introduction & Hypothesis Determine if treatment of urge incontinence with tolterodine results in changes in bladder and/or urethral sensation using Current Perception Threshold (CPT) testing. Methods Women with ,1 incontinence episode on 7-day diary were treated with 4 mg of long-acting tolterodine for 2-months. At baseline and 2-months, participants had CPT testing of the urethral and bladder at 3 frequencies 2000, 250, and 5 Hz. Baseline and post-treatment measures were compared using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test. Results Seventeen women underwent baseline CPT testing. Four discontinued medication due to side effects and did not have repeated testing. Urethral CPT at 250 Hz was lower after treatment (median 1.3 [Interquartile range .69--2.1] and .75 [.45--1.2], p,=,.003) and at 5 Hz trended toward a significant decrease (1.1 [1--1.9] and .84 [.32--1.1], p,=,.06). Conclusions Urethral sensitivity improves after 2-months of tolterodine, suggesting it may restore urethral sensory nerves in addition to known motor effects. Neurourol. Urodynam. 29:555,557, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Post void dribbling: Incidence and risk factors,

    Tova Ablove
    Abstract Aims The primary aim of this study was to determine the incidence of post void dribbling (PVD) in women being evaluated for pelvic floor dysfunction. The secondary aim was to identify other conditions present in women with symptoms of PVD. Materials and Methods 163 consecutive women with complaints of PVD who underwent urodynamic testing were studied. Testing was performed to evaluate women scheduled for surgery for incontinence, irritative bladder, urinary retention and pelvic organ prolapse. Subjects completed a medical history and voiding diary. A complete pelvic exam was performed. Patients were questioned regarding symptoms of PVD, stress incontinence, urge incontinence and insensible urine loss. Menopausal status, hormone replacement therapy status, age, body mass index, residual urine volume, genital hiatus length, and evidence of pelvic organ prolapse were recorded. Maximal urethral closure pressure, urethral length, pressure transmission ratio, and documentation of detrusor overactivity or urodynamic stress incontinence were determined by urodynamic testing. Results 42% of patients had symptoms of PVD. The incidence of PVD decreased with age. In pre- and peri-menopausal women, there was an association between PVD and urge incontinence. In post-menopausal women, there was an association between age, body mass index, and genital hiatus length. Conclusions There was a significant correlation between PVD and urge incontinence in pre-menopausal patients. The overall incidence and causes of PVD relative to age require further study. Body mass index and genital hiatus length may play an important role in PVD, especially in post-menopausal women. Neurourol. Urodynam. 29:432,436, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Bladder control, urgency, and urge incontinence: Evidence from functional brain imaging,

    Derek Griffiths
    Abstract Aim To review brain imaging studies of bladder control in subjects with normal control and urge incontinence; to define a simple model of supraspinal bladder control; and to propose a neural correlate of urgency and possible origins of urge incontinence. Methods Review of published reports of brain imaging relevant to urine storage, and secondary analyses of our own recent observations. Results In a simple model of normal urine storage, bladder and urethral afferents received in the periaqueductal gray (PAG) are mapped in the insula, forming the basis of sensation; the anterior cingulate gyrus (ACG) provides monitoring and control; the prefrontal cortex makes voiding decisions. The net result, as the bladder fills, is inhibition of the pontine micturition center (PMC) and of voiding, together with gradual increase in insular response, corresponding to increasing desire to void. In urge-incontinent subjects, brain responses differ. At large bladder volumes and strong sensation, but without detrusor overactivity (DO), most cortical responses become exaggerated, especially in ACG. This may be both a learned reaction to previous incontinence episodes and the neural correlate of urgency. The neural signature of DO itself seems to be prefrontal deactivation. Possible causes of urge incontinence include dysfunction of prefrontal cortex or limbic system, suggested by weak responses and/or deactivation, as well as abnormal afferent signals or re-emergence of infantile reflexes. Conclusions Bladder control depends on an extensive network of brain regions. Dysfunction in various parts may contribute to urge incontinence, suggesting that there are different phenotypes requiring different treatments. Neurourol. Urodynam. 27:466,474, 2008. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Are there differences between women with urge predominant and stress predominant mixed urinary incontinence?,

    Jack B. Lewis
    Abstract Objective We sought to determine if there are differences in clinical and urodynamic parameters between women with urge predominant and those with stress predominant mixed urinary incontinence (MUI). Methods Charts of 99 female patients with complaints of MUI were reviewed. Patients were divided into two groups based on the subjective predominance of either stress incontinence (MSUI) or urge incontinence (MUUI). All patients completed a subjective evaluation including an AUA Symptom Index, Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI-6), and Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ-7). Objective non-invasive measures included physical exam, 48-hr voiding diary, and a 24-hr pad test. Videourodynamics studies (VUDS), performed in all patients, were reviewed and the presence and characteristics of detrusor overactivity (DO) and stress incontinence were noted. Results There were no significant differences between groups with respect to symptom scores. MUUI patients had significantly higher pad usage, and lower maximum and average voided volumes than MSUI patients. They were also more likely to have lower urodynamic bladder capacities and demonstrable DO (70% vs. 26%) on VUDS with contractions occurring at lower bladder volumes and with higher amplitude. MSUI patients were more likely to have demonstrable SUI on physical examination (63% vs. 16%) and on VUDS (100% vs. 61%). Conclusions There do appear to be differences in clinical and urodynamic parameters between patients with stress predominant and urge predominant MUI. These may help to determine which component of the mixed incontinence is more problematic. Neurourol. Urodynam. 26:204,207, 2007. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Predicting implantation with a neuromodulator using two different test stimulation techniques: A prospective randomized study in urge incontinent women,

    Kristy M. Borawski MD
    Abstract Aims The purpose of this study was to determine whether a percutaneous needle electrode (PNE) technique or a surgical first stage lead placement (FSLP) better predicted whether a patient would progress to implantation of a pulse generator (IPG) in older urge incontinent women. Methods Thirty subjects ,55 years with refractory urge incontinence who had been selected to undergo a test stimulation procedure were randomized to either PNE or FSLP. Thirteen underwent PNE placement and seventeen underwent FSLP placement. If during the test stimulation period subjects had greater than 50% improvement in their incontinence parameters they qualified for permanent lead and/or IPG implantation of the Interstim® device. Results Twenty-one subjects (70%) responded to the test stimulation and underwent implantation, 15/17 (88%) in the FSLP group and 6/13 (46%) in the PNE group. Subjects who were randomized to the FSLP group were significantly more likely to proceed to implantation of the IPG (P,=,0.02) than those in the PNE group. There was no significant difference in demographics, pre-test stimulation incontinence parameters or post-stimulation visual analog pain scores between the randomized groups or between test stimulation responders and non-responders. When comparing FSLP and PNE responders, there was no significant difference in the percent improvement in 24-hr pad weight, daily pad usage, or daily incontinence. Conclusion FSLP better predicted progression to implantation of the IPG than a test stimulation with a PNE in an older urge incontinent cohort. Neurourol. Urodynam. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Sacral nerve stimulation for voiding dysfunction: One institution's 11-year experience,

    Suzette E. Sutherland
    Abstract Aim The purpose of this study was to review our institution's 11-year experience with SNS for the treatment of refractory voiding dysfunction. Dating back to 1993, it covers a span of time which describes the evolution of SNS as it includes PNE trials, non-tined (bone-anchored or fascial-anchored) leads, percutaneous tined leads with two-staged procedures, and even percutaneous pudendal trials. Methods A retrospective review was performed on SNS patients who received an implantable pulse generator (IPG) in our practice from 12/1993 to 12/2004. After Institutional Review Board approval, consents for chart review were obtained from 104 patients, representing 44% of this neuromodulatory patient population. Results Of our population, 87% were female and 13% were male. Average age at implant was 50 years,±,13.4 years. Duration of symptoms before implantation was 116 months (range 9,600 months). Eighty percent were implanted for a predominant complaint of urinary urgency and frequency (U/F). Overall, 22% had U/F only, 38% had concomitant urge incontinence (UI), and 20% had concomitant mixed incontinence (MI). Twenty percent were treated for non-obstructive urinary retention (UR), with half of these associated with a neurogenic etiology. Additionally, 46.2% had pelvic pain, 58.6% had bowel complaints, and 51% reported sexual dysfunction. In patients with U/F, mean voiding parameters as described by pre-implant voiding diaries revealed the following: 12.4 (±5.1) voids per 24 hr; 2.3 (±1.8) voids per night; 5.0 (±4.7) leaks per 24 hr; and 2.3 (±2.6) pads per 24 hr. Statistically significant improvements post-implantation were noted with mean decreases in the following: 4.3 voids per 24 hr; 1.0 void per night; 4.4 leaks per 24 hr; and 2.3 pads per 24 hr (all P,<,0.05). In the UR group a statistically significant improvement post-implantation was noted only in voids per night, with a mean decrease of 0.8 (P,<,0.05). With a mean follow up of 22 months (range 3,162 months), sustained subjective improvement was >50%, >80%, and >90% in 69%, 50%, and 35% of patients, respectively. By quality of life survey, 60.5% of patients were satisfied and 16.1% were dissatisfied with current urinary symptoms. Only 13% (14 patients) abandoned therapy, making up a significant portion of those dissatisfied with current urinary symptoms. Good overall lead durability was seen (mean 22 months, range 1,121 months), with the first successful lead proving to be the most durable (mean 28 months, range 1.4,120 months). Lead durability decreased progressively with subsequent trials. Overall, 53% of patients experienced at least one reportable event (RE) attributable to either lead or IPG. A total of 126 REs were noted, with 97% mild-to-moderate in severity. REs included lack of efficacy, loss of efficacy, infection, hematoma/seroma, migration, pain, undesirable change in sensation, and device malfunction. In this population, 47.1% of leads were tined while 52.9% were non-tined. Tined leads had an overall lower RE rate as compared to non-tined leads: 28% and 73%, respectively. Conclusions SNS is an effective method for treating certain types of voiding dysfunction. Although 53% of patients experienced at least one RE, 97% were mild-to-moderate and did not appear to affect the continued use of this therapy. With improved technology, such as percutaneous tined leads, the RE rate is decreasing. Further analyses of subsets of this population are currently underway. Neurourol. Urodynam. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Management of refractory urinary urge incontinence following urogynecological surgery with sacral neuromodulation,,

    Jonathan S. Starkman
    Abstract Aims We sought to explore our patient outcomes utilizing sacral neuromodulation in the management of refractory urinary urge incontinence following urogynecological surgical procedures. Methods A total of 25 women with urinary urge incontinence following urogynecological surgery were selected for SNS therapy and retrospectively analyzed. All patients completed a comprehensive urological evaluation. Clinical data was recorded to determine outcomes and identify parameters that would be predictive of response to neuromodulation. Outcomes were determined via subjective patient questionnaire and graded as follows: significant response (,80% improvement), moderate response (,50% and <80% improvement), and poor response (<50% response). Results Nineteen patients had a previous pubovaginal sling (10 with concomitant pelvic prolapse repair), 3 a previous retropubic suspension, and 3 a transperitoneal vesicovaginal fistula repair. Urethrolysis was performed in 4 patients to alleviate bladder outlet obstruction prior to sacral neuromodulation. Mean patient age was 59.8 years and length of follow-up was 7.2 months. Twenty-two women (88%) had the IPG placed during a Stage 2 procedure. Twenty patients maintained at least a 50% improvement in clinical symptoms at last follow-up and 6 patients were continent. Overall, the number of pads/day improved from 4.2 to 1.1 (P,<,0.001). There were no significant differences in response to neuromodulation based upon age, duration of symptoms, type of surgery, or urodynamic parameters. Conclusion Sacral neuromodulation appears to be an effective therapy in patients with refractory urge incontinence following urogynecological surgery. Larger prospective studies with longer follow-up are needed to assess the durability of this therapeutic modality. Neurourol. Urodynam. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Transobturator tape (TOT): Two years follow-up,

    Saad Juma
    Abstract Aims The aim of this study is to report the functional results, patient satisfaction, and morbidity of the Transobturator tape procedure (TOT) in the treatment of stress incontinence (SUI). Methods One hundred and thirty patients were prospectively evaluated with history, physical examination, quality of life questionnaire including Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ), urogenital distress inventory (UDI), and analog global satisfaction scale (GSS), and urodynamic studies. Results One hundred and seventeen patients (90%) had history of SUI, and 78 (60%) had urge incontinence. Pads/day (PPD) used was 2.48,±,2.42, and the score of IIQ 16.13,±,7.86, UDI 10.95,±,3.4, and GSS 1.41,±,1.67. All patients underwent TOT using the ObTapeÔ. Hospital stay was 0.84,±,0.76 days and catheter duration was 1.42,±,2.08 days. At a follow-up of 16.85,±, 4.68 months, 13 patients (10%) have recurrent SUI, 21 (16.15%) persistent urge incontinence, and 1 (1.92%) de novo urge incontinence. The mean PPD is 0.15,±,0.56, IIQ 1.47,±,5.14, UDI 3.28,±,3.09, and GSS 8.29,±,1.64. Two patients (1.52%) developed urethral obstruction, five (3.84%) had vaginal extrusion of the tape, and two (1.52%) had intra-operative bladder perforation. Conclusions These results demonstrate the safety and efficacy of the TOT. The short hospitalization and catheterization, low incidence of de novo urge incontinence and obstructive voiding offers a distinct advantage over existing techniques. No significant difference in outcome between patients with VLPP ,60 cm H2O, and patients with VLPP >60 cm H2O was observed. Neurourol. Urodynam. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The tension free vaginal tape operation for women with mixed incontinence: Do preoperative variables predict the outcome?

    Sigurd Kulseng-Hanssen
    Abstract Aims The aims of our study were (1) to investigate subjective and objective outcomes after tension free vaginal tape (TVT) operations in mixed incontinent women, (2) to detect if preoperative subjective and objective variables predict the outcome, and (3) to evaluate whether the surgical outcome is different for women who preoperatively find stress incontinence, urge incontinence, or urge and stress incontinence equally the predominant bother. Methods A prospective cohort study was performed on 450 mixed incontinent women. A short-form disease-specific validated questionnaire, 24-hr pad test, standardized stress test, residual urine, and maximum urinary flow were used before and after a TVT operation. "Cure" was defined as a condition where the women were very satisfied with the TVT operation and had negative stress- and 24 hr pad tests. Results Preoperatively 69% had stress incontinence, 7% urge incontinence, and 24% urge and stress incontinence equally as the predominant bother. Cure rates were 80%, 52%, and 60%, respectively, in these groups. Postoperatively 43% of the women had no urge incontinence, while 49% were less, and only 8% were more bothered by urge incontinence. A higher preoperative urge incontinence index was correlated with significantly higher postoperative bother for all indices and leakage during 24-hr pad test. Conclusions Mixed incontinent women with predominant stress incontinence had a better cure rate than those with predominant urge incontinence and those who were equally bothered by urge and stress incontinence. This point needs to be addressed when informing mixed incontinent women before a TVT operation. Neurourol. Urodynam. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    A new minimally invasive procedure for pudendal nerve stimulation to treat neurogenic bladder: Description of the method and preliminary data

    Michele Spinelli
    Pudendal nerve stimulation has beneficial effects on numerous pelvic floor function impairments such as urinary and/or fecal incontinence, retention, and constipation. In preceding literature the implant technique required a fairly complex and invasive surgery, although recent advances with percutaneous placement of the lead through an introducer have made the procedure much less invasive. We performed staged procedure similar to that of sacral neuromodulation (SNM) to place tined lead near the pudendal nerve, using neurophysiological guidance that allowed accurate pudendal nerve stimulation through either perineal or posterior approach. We have named this approach chronic pudendal nerve stimulation (CPNS). Methods Fifteen neurogenic patients (eight male, seven female) with symptoms of urge incontinence due to neurogenic overactive bladder underwent CPNS. All patients had complete neurophysiological and urodynamic evaluation at baseline and follow-up and were asked to complete voiding and bowel diary for 7 days. Results During screening, average number of incontinent episodes per day decreased from 7,±,3.3 to 2.6,±,3.3 (P,<,0.02, paired t -test). Eight patients became continent, two improved by more than 88% (from 9 to 1 daily incontinence episode) and two patients reduced the number of incontinence episodes by 50%. The implantable pulse generator (IPG) was subsequently implanted in those 12 patients. Three patients without improvement did not continue to second stage. In implanted patients with 6 months follow-up, urodynamic evaluation showed an objective improvement in the maximum cystometric capacity which increased from 153.3,±,49.9 to 331.4,±,110.7 ml (P,<,0.01, paired t -test). The maximum pressure decreased from 66,±,24.3 to 36.8,±,35.9 cmH2O (P,=,0.059, paired t -test). Eight patients reported significant improvement in bowel function. Conclusion Chronic pundedal nerve stimulation is feasible. Neurophysiological guidance is mandatory to place the lead near the pudendal nerve either using perineal or posterior approach. Further studies must be carried out to identify the best stimulation parameters and to verify the long term results. Neurourol. Urodynam. 24:305,309, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Relationship between urinary symptoms reported in a postal questionnaire and urodynamic diagnosis

    G. Matharu
    Abstract Aims To describe the relationship between symptoms reported in a self-completed postal questionnaire and urinary disorders based on urodynamic investigation. Methods The study population was selected from women aged 40 years or over living in the community, who responded to a postal questionnaire. Following assessment and appropriate conservative interventions, those with a pre-defined level of severity of symptoms were offered urodynamic investigation. Logistic regression examined the association between urinary symptoms and the urodynamic diagnoses of detrusor overactivity (DO) and urodynamic stress incontinence (USI). Results Four hundred eighty-eight women completed urodynamic investigation; 29.1% (142/488) were found to have DO, 33.6% (164/488) USI, 20.7% (101/488) mixed incontinence, and 16.6% (81/488) no urodynamic abnormality. Stress incontinence (SI) and urge incontinence (UI) were included in the risk model for USI. SI reported monthly or more was associated with increased risk of USI, and UI reported weekly or more with decreased risk (sensitivity 76.9%; specificity 56.3%; positive predictive value (PPV) 67.8%). For DO, strong or overwhelming urgency, UI monthly or more, and nocturia once a night or more were all significantly associated with an increased risk while reporting of SUI monthly or more reduced the risk (sensitivity 63.1%; specificity 65.1%; PPV 63.1%). Conclusions Urinary symptoms reported in a postal questionnaire are able to predict urodynamic diagnoses with moderate accuracy. These models may be useful tools with which to categorize urinary disorders for epidemiological study and, with further development, allocate first line treatment. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Stop test or pressure-flow study?

    Measuring detrusor contractility in older females
    Abstract Aims Impaired detrusor contractility is common in older adults. One aspect, detrusor contraction strength during voiding, can be measured by the isovolumetric detrusor pressure attained if flow is interrupted mechanically (a stop test). Because interruption is awkward in practice, however, simple indices or nomograms based on measurements made during uninterrupted voiding are an appealing alternative. We investigated whether such methods, originally developed for males, might be applicable in female subjects, and attempted to identify a single best method. Methods We compared stop-test isovolumetric pressures with estimates based on pressure-flow studies in a group of elderly women suffering from urge incontinence. Measurements were made pre- and post-treatment with placebo or oxybutynin, allowing investigation of test,retest reliability and responsiveness to small changes of contractility. Results Existing methods of estimating detrusor contraction strength from pressure-flow studies, including the Schäfer contractility nomogram and the projected isovolumetric pressure PIP, greatly overestimate the isovolumetric pressure in these female patients. A simple modification provides a more reliable estimate, PIP1, equal to pdet.Qmax,+,Qmax (with pressure in cmH2O and Qmax in ml/sec). Typically PIP1 ranges from 30 to 75 cmH2O in this population of elderly urge-incontinent women. PIP1, however, is less responsive to a small change in contraction strength than the isovolumetric pressure measured by mechanical interruption. Conclusions The parameter PIP1 is simple to calculate from a standard pressure-flow study and may be useful for clinical assessment of detrusor contraction strength in older females. For research, however, a mechanical stop test still remains the most reliable and responsive method. The Schäfer contractility nomogram and related parameters such as DECO and BCI are not suitable for use in older women. Neurourol. Urodynam. 23:184,189, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Surgical complications and medium-term outcome results of tension-free vaginal tape: A prospective study of 313 consecutive patients

    Ishai Levin
    Abstract Objective A prospective study was undertaken to examine the incidence of surgical complications and medium-term outcomes of tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) surgery in a large, heterogeneous group of stress-incontinent women. Methods Surgery was tailored according to preoperative clinical and urodynamic findings: stress-incontinent women underwent TVT surgery, whereas those with concomitant urogenital prolapse underwent combined TVT and prolapse repair. Post-operatively the patients were scheduled for evaluation at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months, and annually thereafter. All underwent urodynamics at 3 months post-operatively. Results Three hundred and thirteen consecutive patients were prospectively studied. The mean follow-up period was 21.4,±,13.5 months. Sixteen (5.1%) cases of intravesical passage of the prolene tape occurred in our series, two of which were diagnosed at 3 and 15 months post-operatively. Eight (2.5%) patients had post-operative voiding difficulties, necessitating catheterization for more than 7 days. However, transvaginal excision of the tape was required in one case only. Vaginal erosion of the tape was diagnosed in four (1.3%) patients, all of whom were successfully treated by local excision of the eroded tape. Outcome analysis was restricted to 241 consecutive patients with at least 12 months of follow-up. Subjectively, 16 (6.6%) patients had persistent mild stress urinary incontinence, although urodynamics revealed asymptomatic sphincteric incontinence in 17 (7%) other patients. De-novo urge incontinence developed post-operatively in 20 (8.3%) patients. Conclusions The TVT procedure is associated with good medium-term cure rates, however, it is not free of troublesome complications and the patients should be informed accordingly. Only well-trained surgeons, familiar with pelvic anatomy, surgical alternatives, and endoscopic techniques should perform the operation. Neurourol. Urodynam. 23:7,9, 2004. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Measuring the sensations of urge and bladder filling during cystometry in urge incontinence and the effects of neuromodulation

    Sarah Oliver
    Abstract Aims: As urge and urgency contribute greatly to a patient's symptoms, it follows that sensory evaluation combined with noninvasive neuromodulation during urodynamics may provide new criteria for improving patient selection for an implantable stimulator. The purpose of this research was to develop and validate an objective measure of bladder sensations during filling cystometry and then to apply this technique to evaluate the effects of neuromodulation on the sensations of urge measured in this way. Methods: In study 1 a new patient-activated keypad device was tested during urodynamics to measure bladder sensations according to a 0,4 scale and validated by using a technique adapted from a standard psychophysical sensory threshold testing method. In study 2 the effects of pudendal afferent nerve stimulation on measured sensations of urge were assessed during cystometry with patients as their own controls. Forty-three patients diagnosed with idiopathic detrusor instability were studied; 10 participated in study 1 and 35 in study 2. Results: The new device gave reliable and repeatable measures of sensations with statistically significant differences in bladder volume at each of the urge levels tested (Wilcoxon matched pairs test). Neuromodulation suppressed urinary urge in 89% of the 35 patients. This effect was associated with a statistically significant increase in bladder volume at all urge levels. Conclusions: A new patient operated key-pad device provided a reliably objective measure of sensations of urge during urodynamics without the need for prompting. Neuromodulation using noninvasive pudendal afferent stimulation suppressed these sensations whilst increasing bladder volume. Neurourol. Urodynam. 22:7,16, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The risk of lower urinary tract symptoms five years after the first delivery,

    Lars Viktrup
    Abstract Aim of the study To estimate the prevalence and 5-year incidence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) after the first delivery and to evaluate the impact of pregnancy per se and delivery per se on long-lasting symptoms. Materials and methods A longitudinal cohort study of 305 primiparae questioned a few days, 3 months, and 5 years after their delivery. The questionnaire used was tested and validated, and the questions were formulated according to the definitions of the International Continence Society (ICS). Maternal, obstetric, and neonatal data concerning every delivery and objective data concerning surgeries during the observation period were obtained from the records. From the sample of 278 women (91%) who responded 5 years after their first delivery, three subpopulations were defined: 1) women without initial LUTS before or during the first pregnancy or during the puerperal period, 2) women with onset of LUTS during the first pregnancy, and 3) women with onset of LUTS during the first puerperium. The risk of LUTS 5 years after the first delivery was examined using bivariate analyses. The obstetric variables in the bivariate tests with a significant association with long-lasting urinary incontinence were entered into a multivariate logistic regression. Results The prevalence of stress and urge incontinence 5 years after first delivery was 30% and 15%, respectively, whereas the 5-year incidence was 19% and 11%, respectively. The prevalence of urgency, diurnal frequency, and nocturia 5 years after the first delivery was 18%, 24%, and 2%, respectively, whereas the 5-year incidence was 15%, 20%, and 0.5%, respectively. The prevalence of all LUTS except nocturia increased significantly during the 5 years of observation. The risk of long-lasting stress and urge incontinence was related to the onset and duration of the symptom after the first pregnancy and delivery in a dose-response,like manner. Vacuum extraction at the first delivery was used significantly more often in the group of women with onset of stress incontinence during the first puerperium, whereas an episiotomy at the first delivery was performed significantly more often in the group of women with onset of stress incontinence in the 5 years of observation. The prevalence of urgency and diurnal frequency 5 years after the first delivery was not increased in women with symptom onset during the first pregnancy or puerperium compared with those without such symptoms. The frequency of nocturia 5 years after the first delivery was too low for statistical analysis. Conclusion The first pregnancy and delivery may result in stress and urge incontinence 5 years later. Women with stress and urge incontinence 3 months after the first delivery have a very high risk of long-lasting symptoms. An episiotomy or a vacuum extraction at the first delivery seems to increase the risk. Subsequent childbearing or surgery seems without significant contribution. Long-lasting urgency, diurnal frequency, or nocturia cannot be predicted from onset during the first pregnancy or puerperium. Neurourol. Urodynam. 21:2,29, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Involuntary detrusor contractions: Correlation of urodynamic data to clinical categories

    Lauri J. Romanzi
    Abstract Data regarding the prevalence and urodynamic characteristics of involuntary detrusor contractions (IDC) in various clinical settings, as well as in neurologically intact vs. neurologically impaired patients, are scarce. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether the urodynamic characteristics of IDC differ in various clinical categories. One hundred eleven consecutive neurologically intact patients and 21 consecutive neurologically impaired patients, referred for evaluation of persistent irritative voiding symptoms, were prospectively enrolled. All patients were presumed by history to have IDC, and underwent detailed clinical and urodynamic evaluation. Based on clinical evaluation, patients were placed into one of four categories according to the main presenting symptoms and the existence of neurological insult: 1) frequency/urgency; 2) urge incontinence; 3) mixed stress incontinence and irritative symptoms; and 4) neurogenic bladder. IDC was defined by detrusor pressure of ,,15,cm H2O whether or not the patient perceived the contraction; or <,15,cm H2O if perceived by the patient. Eight urodynamic characteristics of IDC were analyzed and compared between the four groups. IDC were observed in all of the neurologically impaired patients, compared with 76% of the neurologically intact patients (P,<,0.001). No correlation was found between amplitude of IDC and subjective report of urgency. All clinical categories demonstrated IDC at approximately 80% of cystometric capacity. Eighty-one percent of the neurologically impaired patients, compared with 97% of the neurologically intact patients, were aware of the IDC at the time of urodynamics (P,<,0.04). The ability to abort the IDC was significantly higher among continent patients with frequency/urgency (77%) compared with urge incontinent patients (46%) and neurologically impaired patients (38%). In conclusion, when evaluating detrusor overactivity, the characteristics of the IDC are not distinct enough to aid in differential diagnosis. However, the ability to abort IDC and stop incontinent flow may have prognostic implications, especially for the response to behavior modification, biofeedback, and pelvic floor exercise. Neurourol. Urodynam. 20:249,257, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Short-term clinical and quality-of-life outcomes in women treated by the TVT-Secur procedure

    Jeanette L. LIM
    Background:, The TVT-Secur (Ethicon, Somerville, NJ, USA) is a minimally invasive suburethral synthetic sling used in the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence. It claims to cause less postoperative pain and to enable performing in an office setting. However, this may be at the expense of a significant learning curve and a higher early failure rate. Aims:, To assess objectively the success rate of the TVT-Secur procedure in the ,U' configuration at six months. Secondary outcomes focussed on subjective success rates, complications, patient satisfaction and quality-of-life (QOL). Methods:, A prospective observational study was undertaken at two tertiary referral urogynaecology centres. A cohort of 42 consecutive patients with urodynamic stress incontinence who underwent the TVT-Secur procedure in the ,U' configuration between November 2006 and August 2007 were followed up for six months. Three standardised QOL questionnaires were completed preoperatively and at six months. A urogenital history, visual analogue score (VAS) for patient satisfaction, uroflow and urinary stress test were performed at six months. Results:, Recruitment was ceased prematurely because of a high number of early failures. Objective and subjective success rates at six months were 58.3% and 51.3% respectively. Complications included urinary tract infections, voiding difficulty, groin discomfort, haematoma, vaginal pain, tape erosion and intra-operative dislodgement of tape. Prevalence of de novo urge incontinence was 10.3%. Only symptom-specific QOL scores improved and only 48.6% indicated a high level satisfaction (VAS , 80%) with TVT-Secur. Conclusion:, On the basis of this limited study, we are hesitant to recommend the ,U' configuration of the TVT-Secur over its more established counterparts, the TVT and TVT-O. [source]