Urban Migration (urban + migration)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

In Situ Urbanization in Rural China: Case Studies from Fujian Province

Yu Zhu
In most parts of the developing world, the urbanization process has been dominated by rural,urban migration and the growth of existing cities. However, case-studies in China's Fujian Province suggest that this process can also be achieved mainly by in situ transformation in rural areas. Such in situ transformation of rural areas has been driven mainly by two forces, the development of township and village enterprises (TVEs) and the inflow of foreign investment; and facilitated by the relevant policies adopted by the Chinese government since 1978. The former has been very effective in the transformation of rural employment structure, while the latter has brought many physical changes to the previously rural landscape. Being mutually complementary, these two ways of rural transformation have not only benefited and urbanized the rural areas, but kept many farmers in their hometowns, replacing the dominant role of rural,urban migration and the growth of existing cities in the urbanization process. [source]

Lifetime urban/rural residence, social support and late-life depression in Korea

Jae-Min Kim
Abstract Background Population ageing and rural,urban migration are accelerating in many non-Western nations. This study aimed to investigate: (i) the association between lifetime urban/rural residence and late-life depression in Korea and (ii) modification of associations between depression and social support by lifetime residence. Methods 1204 urban/rural residents aged 65+were interviewed and GMS-AGECAT diagnoses made. Previous areas of residence were recorded and social support deficits quantified. Results Depression was present in 9% and 21% of the rural and urban samples respectively. For the urban sample, depression was not associated with earlier urban/rural residence. Social support deficits were most strongly associated with depression in people with a lifetime rural residence, followed by urban residents with a rural birthplace. Conclusions Prevalence rates of depression were increased in the urban sample regardless of previous urban/rural residence. Reduced social support was particularly strongly associated with depression in people with a rural upbringing. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Healthcare for Older Persons, A Country Profile: Nigeria

Bola O. Akanji PhD
The Nigerian population is undergoing demographic transition, with an increasing population of older people. Nuclear and extended family members traditionally care for older persons at home. We have observed changes in home living conditions due to reduced family size, and urban migration for economic reasons are likely to affect the care of older people. The inadequately funded healthcare system has placed little emphasis on the care of older people because there are more-pressing health problems and funding for older people is limited. This paper advocates improved attention to the health needs of older people through improved budgetary allocation, revision of the training curriculum of all cadres of health staff to include geriatrics, and utilization of primary healthcare facilities. [source]

Land under pressure: soil conservation concerns and opportunities for Ethiopia

B. G. J. S. Sonneveld
Abstract This paper evaluates the future impact of soil degradation on national food security and land occupation in Ethiopia. It applies a spatial optimization model that maximizes national agricultural revenues under alternative scenarios of soil conservation, land accessibility and technology. The constraints in the model determine whether people remain on their original site, migrate within their ethnically defined areas or are allowed a transregional migration. Key to this model is the combination of a water erosion model with a spatial yield function that gives an estimate of the agricultural yield in its geographical dependence of natural resources and population distribution. A comparison of simulated land productivity values with historical patterns shows that results are interpretable and yield more accurate outcomes than postulating straightforward reductions in yield or land area for each geographic entity. The results of the optimization model show that in absence of soil erosion control, the future agricultural production stagnates and results in distressing food shortages, while rural incomes drop dramatically below the poverty line. Soil conservation and migration support a slow growth, but do not suffice to meet the expected food demand. In a transregional migration scenario, the highly degraded areas are exchanged for less affected sites, whereas cultivation on already substantially degraded soils largely continues when resettlement is confined to the original ethnic,administrative entity. A shift to modern technology offers better prospects and moderates the migration, but soil conservation remains indispensable, especially in the long term. Finally, an accelerated growth of non-agricultural sectors further alleviates poverty in the countryside, contributing to higher income levels of the total population and, simultaneously, relieving the pressure on the land through rural,urban migration. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Reservoir resettlement in China: past experience and the Three Gorges Dam

Li Heming
This paper reviews involuntary resettlement resulting from dam-building, which has been ignored relative to the dominant focus of migration research in China, rural to urban migration. Reservoir resettlement in China has a long history, often of misery and hardship for those displaced. Relocatees affected by the Three Gorges Project (1994,2009) on the Yangtze River face a similar situation. In China priority has been given to building the dam to provide electricity, flood control and navigation. Less attention has been paid to the problems of the people affected by the reservoir inundation. The rural population forced to relocate and rural-urban migrants in general have been discriminated against by national policies. [source]


This paper constructs a simple rural-urban migration model that explicitly incorporates the interactions between the individual's migration decision, the risk of incurring an infectious disease and unemployment. We show that providing a subsidy for health investment in urban regions in the form of medical aid does not improve individual welfare. This is because it induces further urban migration, increases the risk of infection and unemployment, and offsets completely the positive cost-reduction effect. [source]