Urban Land (urban + land)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by Urban Land

  • urban land cover
  • urban land use

  • Selected Abstracts

    Unstructured grid generation using LiDAR data for urban flood inundation modelling

    Ryota Tsubaki
    Abstract Inundation disasters, caused by sudden water level rise or rapid flow, occur frequently in various parts of the world. Such catastrophes strike not only in thinly populated flood plains or farmland but also in highly populated villages or urban areas. Inundation of the populated areas causes severe damage to the economy, injury, and loss of life; therefore, a proper management scheme for the disaster has to be developed. To predict and manage such adversity, an understanding of the dynamic processes of inundation flow is necessary because risk estimation is performed based on inundation flow information. In this study, we developed a comprehensive method to conduct detailed inundation flow simulations for a populated area with quite complex topographical features using LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data. Detailed geospatial information including the location and shape of each building was extracted from the LiDAR data and used for the grid generation. The developed approach can distinguish buildings from vegetation and treat them differently in the flow model. With this method, a fine unstructured grid can be generated representing the complicated urban land features precisely without exhausting labour for data preparation. The accuracy of the generated grid with different grid spacing and grid type is discussed and the optimal range of grid spacing for direct representation of urban topography is investigated. The developed method is applied to the estimation of inundation flows, which occurred in the basin of the Shin-minato River. A detailed inundation flow structure is represented by the flow model, and the flow characteristics with respect to topographic features are discussed. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Hemeroby, urbanity and ruderality: bioindicators of disturbance and human impact

    M. O. Hill
    Summary 1Species vary according to whether they benefit from or are harmed by disturbance and intensive human activity. This variation can be quantified by indices of disturbance and unnaturalness. 2An urban flora was characterized by comparing quadrat data from cities with several large data sets from the countryside. Existing scales of species response to disturbance and unnaturalness, ruderality (a plant's ability to survive in disturbed conditions) and hemeroby (a measure of human impact) were contrasted with derived scales based on the number of associated annuals and aliens and with ,urbanity', defined as the proportion of urban land in the vicinity of each quadrat. 3Species presence data were available from 26 710 quadrats distributed through Great Britain, with urban sites only in central England. Satellite imagery was used to measure the proportion of urban land cover in the vicinity of each quadrat; 2595 quadrats were located in 1-km squares having at least 40% cover of urban land. 4The 20 species having highest urbanity were all alien to Britain, comprising 12 neophytes and eight archaeophytes. 5Of the 20 most frequent species in quadrats situated in 1-km squares with at least 40% urban land cover, 18 were natives. The two exceptions were Artemisia vulgaris , an archaeophyte, and Senecio squalidus , a neophyte. 6Both ruderal and hemerobic species, as usually defined, include many non-urban arable species. The hemeroby scale of Kowarik (1990 ), designed for Berlin, does not work well in Britain. 7The proportion of associated annuals (annuality) and the proportion of associated neophytes (alien richness or xenicity) can be developed into good indices. The annuality scale is very well defined because annuals tend to occur with other annuals. Plants with high annuality are mostly arable weeds. 8Urban specialists in central England are, with a few exceptions, character-species of the phytosociological classes Artemisietea , Galio-Urticetea and Stellarietea . Most of them have numerous non-urban associates and they do not form a very well defined group. They have intermediate levels of annuality combined with relatively high levels of xenicity. 9While it is possible to develop indices of hemeroby, urbanity and ruderality, these concepts are relatively complicated. Annuality and xenicity are simpler measures that can complement Ellenberg values, but definitive values for Great Britain would require additional data from southern England. [source]


    James D. Wickham
    ABSTRACT: Bacterial contamination of surface waters is attributed to both urban and agricultural land use practices and is one of the most frequently cited reasons for failure to meet standards established under the Clean Water Act (CWA) (P.L. 92,500). Statewide modeling can be used to determine if bacterial contamination occurs predominantly in urban or agricultural settings. Such information is useful for directing future monitoring and allocating resources for protection and restoration activities. Logistic regression was used to model the likelihood of bacterial contamination using watershed factors for the state of Maryland. Watershed factors included land cover, soils, topography, hydrography, locations of septic systems, and animal feeding operations. Results indicated that bacterial contamination occurred predominantly in urban settings. Likelihood of bacterial contamination was highest for small watersheds with well drained and erodible soils and a high proportion of urban land adjacent to streams. The number of septic systems and animal feeding operations and the amount of agricultural land were not significant explanatory factors. The urban infrastructure tends to "connect" more of the watershed to the stream network through the creation of roads, storm sewers, and wastewater treatment plants. This may partly explain the relationship between urbanization and bacterial contamination found in this study. [source]

    Henry George's Political Critics

    Michael Hudson
    Twelve political criticisms of George were paramount after he formed his own political party in 1887: (1) his refusal to join with other reformers to link his proposals with theirs, or to absorb theirs into his own campaign; (2) his singular focus on ground rent to the exclusion of other forms of monopoly income, such as that of the railroads, oil and mining trusts; (3) his almost unconditional support of capital, even against labor; (4) his economic individualism rejecting a strong role for government; (5) his opposition to public ownership or subsidy of basic infrastructure; (6) his refusal to acknowledge interest-bearing debt as the twin form of rentier income alongside ground rent; (7) the scant emphasis he placed on urban land and owner-occupied land; (8) his endorsement of the Democratic Party's free-trade platform; (9) his rejection of an academic platform to elaborate rent theory; (10) the narrowness of his theorizing beyond the land question; (11) the alliance of his followers with the right wing of the political spectrum; and (12) the hope that full taxation of ground rent could be achieved gradually rather than requiring a radical confrontation involving a struggle over control of government. [source]