Urban Design (urban + design)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

New Patterns in Urban Design

Brian McGrath
Abstract Brian McGrath and VictoriaMarshall discern the newly resilient urban patterns that are emerging in the meta-city, shifting and adjusting to changing local and global conditions. Based on smart infrastructure, self-sufficiency and hybrid local models, highly adaptive design patterns take the form of responsive micropatches rather than overarching masterplans. As demonstrated by the featured projects, ,pattern recognition', sensory mapping techniques and sensitivity to a city's ecosystem are becoming essential tools to the urban designer. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Parametricism: A New Global Style for Architecture and Urban Design

Patrik Schumacher
Abstract Though parametricism has its roots in the digital animation techniques of the mid-1990s, it has only fully emerged in recent years with the development of advanced parametric design systems. Patrik Schumacher explains why parametricism has become the dominant, single style for avant-garde practice today and why it is particularly suited to large-scale urbanism as exemplified by a series of competition-winning masterplans by Zaha Hadid Architects. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Interactive Urban Design as Event: Christian Moeller

Lucy Bullivant
Abstract Once a practising architect, engaged in the offices of Gunter Behnisch, Christian Moeller was attracted away from the conventional route of the profession by the stimulation and opportunities of the 1980s art scene. In this profile by Lucy Bullivant, the now professor of media arts/design at UCLA describes his aptitude for the accessible, and why he prefers ,temporary fireworks' and experiment in his interactive practice over permanent installations. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The architecture of ethnic logic: Exploring the Meaning of the Built Environment in the ,Mixed' City Of Lod , Israel

Haim Yacobi
This article analyses the evolution of the built environment in Israel's ,mixed cities' in Israel; sites shaped by the logic of ethno,nationalism, and characterized by patterns of segregation between the Jewish dominant majority and the Arab subordinate minority. The paper investigates the changes and dynamics of the urban landscape from the British Mandate period to recent times, focusing on the interrelations between ideology and architecture in its wider sense, i.e. referring to the practices of urban design and planning. The production of urban landscapes in Israeli ,mixed cities', I will argue, is a result of the social construction of an ethnic logic, and thus cannot be seen as autonomous from the existing socio,political context. Rather, I would propose, the architecture of the ,mixed city' reflects on one hand, and shapes on the other the struggle over identity, memory and belonging, rooted in urban colonialism discourse. Empirically, this paper focuses on the city of Lod/Lydda where as in other previously Palestinian cities, a strategy of colonization had been implemented, forming the city,s central planning policy since the Mandate period. The paper analyzes in detail various aspects and sites of this process, and explores the role of planners and architects in the construction of a sense of place in tangible as well as discursive levels, which are often neglected in the body of knowledge that deals with urban,ethnic conflicts. [source]

After the Public Realm: Spaces of Representation, Transition and Plurality

Malcolm Miles
This essay questions the privileging of the design of public over domestic spaces and buildings in architecture and urban design, and their education, and the identification of public space with a public realm seen as the location of democracy. It cites the case made by Doreen Massey that the division of public and private realms is gendered, allowing men the freedom of public affairs whilst confining women to domesticity; and argues that a dualism of public and private space ignores a third area of transitional spaces which affect patterns of urban sociation. The case of redevelopment in El Raval, Barcelona, demonstrates that public space may be, today, part of an anti-democratic strategy of gentrification. But, if public space constructs a gendered public realm as imposition, there remains, as Hannah Arendt contends, a need for locations of social mixing in which difference is visible. What, if not public space, enables this? [source]

The Cultural Politics of Aerial Vision: Le Corbusier in Brazil (1929)

Adnan Morshed
The early twentieth-century invention of the airplane brought on a cultural euphoria that influenced the works and writings of urbanists, architects, artists, and science-fiction writers during the 1920s and 1930s. Le Corbusier's urban design for Rio de Janeiro,which he sketched, so he claimed, from an airplane,offers a visual basis to study how the aesthetic experience of flight was translated spatially, visually, and politically into his design of the future city. The polemics informing Le Corbusier's aerial "discovery" of South American geography revealed that there was a new empowerment in the act of looking from above, and that the spatial characteristics of his subsequent design interventions evoked that empowerment. [source]

The Ecological Facades of Patrick Blanc

Matthew Gandy
Abstract The urban geographer Matthew Gandy explores the work of French botanist Patrick Blanc, who applies his scientific knowledge and preoccupations to urban design. After his invention of the mur végetal (green wall), a botanical and structural system for greening buildings, in 1988, Blanc's work has gone on to transcend the creation of merely living walls. Through his landscape schemes Blanc has recognised the city's rich potential for verdant metamorphosis, transforming fern- and moss-covered streets and buildings into unlikely ravines or rainforests. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Weisz + Yoes (WXY architecture + urban design)

Jayne Merkel
Abstract Few small avant-garde practices have an impact on visitors to New York like that of WXY, as the firm is sometimes called. Theirs is particularly surprising since, as Jayne Merkel notes, they have only completed a handful of freestanding buildings. But this mid-career husband-and-wife team of Claire Weisz and Mark Yoes - and their new partner, Layng Pew, whom they met at Yale 20 years ago - are changing the face of Times Square and redesigning historic Battery Park at the southern tip of Manhattan where ferries leave for the Statue of Liberty and Ellis Island. These heavily used public places are only the most recent ones that they have inventively improved over the last decade and a half. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Designing the Gastronomic Quarter

Susan Parham
Abstract Throughout the world, urban gastronomic quarters, centred on fresh-food markets, have been pulled back from the brink of extinction. Susan Parham explains how movements like Slow Food and Slow Cities in Italy, and the international demand for organic produce, have started to challenge the global food network of production and consumption. The growing revitalisation of urban quarters around produce markets not only serves customers seeking fresh produce, food products and lively cafés and restaurants, but also offers valuable lessons in urban design. [source]

How to reach the ,hard-to-reach': the development of Participatory Geographic Information Systems (P-GIS) for inclusive urban design in UK cities

AREA, Issue 2 2010
Steve Cinderby
Sustainable development and successful urban regeneration ideally require engagement with the affected communities. Existing methods employed by policymakers and planners often fail to reach significant segments of communities, the so-called ,hard-to-reach'. This paper describes the development of an innovative participatory GIS methodology specifically aimed at overcoming the barriers to engagement experienced by these groups. The application of the method is illustrated with reference to three recent case studies carried out in UK cities. The paper will then discuss the novelty of this approach in comparison with other participatory engagement techniques. The ethical implications of the technique are also discussed. [source]

A place to play: Socioeconomic and spatial factors in children's physical activity

Jenny Ziviani
Background and aims:,Concerns about physical inactivity in children and growing levels of obesity are expressed by politicians, health economists and those involved with the health and well-being of children. As this has the potential to be a major health issue, the aim of this investigation was to explore any contributing socioenvironmental considerations. Methods and results:,Census-matched survey data were analysed from 318 parents of 6- to 7-year-old children, revealing that family socioeconomic status (SES) influenced the places where children engaged in physical activity. Children from low SES backgrounds spent significantly more time playing close to their homes, and their families were less able to afford access to commercial physical-activity facilities, than those from middle and high SES families. Although neighbourhood-based activities are generally associated with more spontaneous free play, such activities may not provide the same opportunities for supervision and physical skill building available through commercial-based activities. Conclusions:,Given that access to ,enriching' physical-activity spaces may be limited by the capacity to pay, these findings have implications for professionals such as occupational therapists who can take on a role in advocating for equity in access and promotion of a more engaging urban design. Dialogue with urban planners is central to this process. [source]