Urban Cities (urban + city)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts


CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 3 2004
Industrial restructuring marks the removal of a manufacturing and production-based economy in urban areas, which had served as a catalyst in concentrating disadvantage and polarizing labor markets since the 1970s. Although scholars have established a relationship between concentrated disadvantage , poverty, joblessness, racial residential segregation , and urban violence in cross-sectional studies, this literature has yet to estimate whether economic restructuring contributed to the change in urban homicide over time. Modeling this relationship requires an analytical strategy that incorporates specific indicators of (race and gender) polarized labor markets, separate from indicators of urban disadvantage, on disaggregated homicides while taking into account the growing dependency of urban cities on formal social control (via police presence and rise in incarceration). In this study I provide a theoretical rationale for linking industrial restructuring to urban homicide. Using a multivariate strategy to capture the shift in labor market forces and disaggregated homicides from 1980 to 1990, I also estimate the impact of this relationship. The results provide evidence of the industrial ship and documents both the decline in Manufacturing jobs for black males and black females and a growth in the service sector opportunities for white males only. I also find that industrial restructuring had a unique impact on disaggregated homicide beyond what has previously been established in cross-sectional studies. [source]

General medical practitioners in Pakistan fail to educate patients adequately about complications of diabetes

A major cause of concern for a developing country
Abstract The prevalence of diabetes in Pakistan is one of the highest reported worldwide. Proper education of patients regarding strategies to prevent complications of diabetes is an essential component of good management of diabetes. We conducted this study to determine the approach of general practitioners towards the management of diabetes. We carried out a cross-sectional survey of 100 randomly selected GPs from urban cities of Pakistan. A rigorously developed questionnaire was administered and contained questions on (1) diagnostic criteria, (2) health education, and management of a patient by non-pharmacological and (3) pharmacological treatment, and (4) appropriate referral of the patients to specialists. In total, 100 GPs were approached, and all consented to enrol; 70% were male. The average number of patients seen at each clinic was 30 patients per day. Only 38% of the GPs used the correct level of fasting blood glucose (,126mg/dl) as the cut-off for diagnosing diabetes. The majority of GPs did not adequately educate their patients. Only 65% of the GPs interviewed gave advice about exercise, 38% about weight reduction, 26% about foot care, 26% about the complications, 9% about insulin use, 20% about hypoglycaemic events, and 23% about smoking cessation. It was concluded that GPs in Pakistan under-diagnose and under-educate patients with diabetes. Our findings highlight the need for appropriate diagnosis and management of diabetes, and prevention of its complications. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Rural-urban differences in generation of Chinese and Western exemplary persons: The case of China

Xia Chen
Chinese adolescents in urban cities (Beijing, Chengdu) and rural towns (Wei Shan Zhuang, Zheng Xing) generated Chinese and Western exemplary persons and rated the values these exemplary persons represent. The results showed that the tendency to differentiate Chinese culture from Western culture was greater among urban (vs rural) Chinese. Specifically, only urban Chinese consistently attributed Chinese moral values (more than other types of values) to self-generated Chinese exemplary persons and Western moral values (more than other types of values) to self-generated Western exemplary persons. Because urban Chinese have more frequent exposure to foreign cultures, our results suggest that frequent exposure to foreign cultures can lead to enhanced perceptions of cultural differences. [source]

Utilization of parenting groups and consultation services as parenting support services by Japanese mothers of 18 month old children

Abstract Aim:, To clarify the factors related to the utilization of parenting groups and consultation services by mothers with children aged 18 months. Methods:, This was a cross-sectional study using a self-report questionnaire survey at health examinations in five health centers of an urban city in Tokyo, Japan, from July to September 2003. The final study population was comprised of the 371 mothers who provided information on both demographics and the utilization of services. Results:, Of these 371 mothers, 166 participated in parenting groups since the birth of their 18 month old child. Logistic regression analyses indicated the following factors related to such participation: past experience in the use of services provided by the local government, trust in the specific group, and worries about their children. Participation in the parenting groups was not related to child-rearing anxiety or mental health status. The participants indicated that the groups provided friends and child-rearing information and alleviated stress. Worries about children and past experience in the use of public services would enhance the utilization of services. Conclusion:, It is essential for service-providers to offer services specific to the situation or desires of mothers. Mothers might need both consultation services and support groups to reinforce the mother,child relationship, for social support, and to freely discuss worries with both professionals and peers. [source]

Geographical patterns of human diet derived from stable-isotope analysis of fingernails

Gabriela B. Nardoto
Abstract Carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of human fingernails were measured in 490 individuals in the western US and 273 individuals in southeastern Brazil living in urban areas, and 53 individuals living in a moderately isolated area in the central Amazon region of Brazil and consuming mostly locally grown foods. In addition, we measured the carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of common food items to assess the extent to which these isotopic signatures remain distinct for people eating both omnivorous and vegetarian diets and living in different parts of the world, and the extent to which dietary information can be interpreted from these analyses. Fingernail ,13C values (mean standard deviation) were ,15.4 1.0 and ,18.8 0.8, and ,15N values were 10.4 0.7 and 9.4 0.6, for southeastern Brazil and western US populations, respectively. Despite opportunities for a "global supermarket" effect to swamp out carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in these two urbanized regions of the world, differences in the fingernail isotope ratios between southeastern Brazil and western US populations persisted, and appeared to be more associated with regional agricultural and animal production practices. Omnivores and vegetarians from Brazil and the US were isotopically distinct, both within and between regions. In a comparison of fingernails of individuals from an urban city and isolated communities in the Amazonian region, the urban region was similar to southeastern Brazil, whereas individuals from isolated nonurban communities showed distinctive isotopic values consistent with their diets and with the isotopic values of local foods. Although there is a tendency for a "global supermarket" diet, carbon and nitrogen isotopes of human fingernails hold dietary information directly related to both food sources and dietary practices in a region. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2006. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]