Urban Center (urban + center)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Cities, Tax Revenues, and a State's Fiscal Future: The Value of Major Urban Centers

Competition among core cities or urban centers and suburban and rural areas besets numerous states. The competition often occurs amid a political environment in which suburban and rural areas enjoy a political majority in the state legislature, a majority that directs state investments to their areas. With Ohio as a case study, the issues that have created the urban,suburban,rural trichotomy are reviewed and an analysis of the tax returns, by area, to state investments is presented. The findings illustrate that urban centers produce more tax dollars per dollar of state investment than other areas, implying that state underinvestment in urban areas harms overall state tax revenues. [source]

Performance of Buildings under Earthquakes in Barcelona, Spain

Alex H. Barbat
The seismic hazard in the area of the city is described by means of the reduced 5% damped elastic response spectrum. Obtaining fragility curves for the most important building types of an urban center requires an important amount of information about the structures and the use of nonlinear structural analysis tools. The information on the buildings of Barcelona was obtained by collecting, arranging, improving, and completing the database of the housing and current buildings. The buildings existing in Barcelona are mainly of two types: unreinforced masonry structures and reinforced concrete buildings with waffled slab floors. In addition, the Arc-View software was used to create a GIS tool for managing the collected information to develop seismic risk scenarios. This study shows that the vulnerability of the buildings is significant and therefore, in spite of the medium to low seismic hazard in the area of the city, the expected seismic risk is considerable. [source]

Alcohol consumption in homicide victims in the city of São Paulo

ADDICTION, Issue 12 2009
Gabriel Andreuccetti
ABSTRACT Aims To assess the association between alcohol use and victimization by homicide in individuals autopsied at the Institute of Legal Medicine in São Paulo, Brazil. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Excessive consumption of alcohol is a serious public health issue and a major factor in triggering violent situations, which suggests a strong association between alcohol ingestion and becoming a victim of homicide. Participants Data from 2042 victims of homicides in 2005 were obtained from medical examiner reports. Measurements The victim's gender, age, ethnicity and blood alcohol concentration (BAC) were collected. The method of death and homicide circumstances, as well as the date, time and place of death were also studied. Findings Alcohol was detected in blood samples of 43% of the victims, and mean BAC levels were 1.55 ± 0.86 g/l. The prevalence of positive BAC levels was higher among men (44.1%) than women (26.6%), P < 0.01. Firearms caused most of the deaths (78.6%), and alcohol consumption was greater among victims of homicide by sharp weapons (P < 0.01). A greater proportion of victims with positive BAC were killed at weekends compared to weekdays (56.4 and 38.5%, respectively; P < 0.01), and the correlation between homicide rates and the average BAC for the central area of the city was positive (rs = 0.90; P < 0.01). Conclusions These results highlight alcohol as a contributing factor for homicide victimization in the greatest urban center in South America, supporting public strategies and future research aiming to prevent homicides and violence related to alcohol consumption. [source]

Stable carbon isotope signature of ancient maize agriculture in the soils of Motul de San José, Guatemala

Elizabeth A. Webb
Soil profiles collected from a 2.5-km transect radiating from the Maya center of Motul de San José were analyzed for the stable carbon-isotope composition of their soil organic matter. The residues of maize (Zea mays), the only C4 plant known to have been cultivated in this area by the ancient Maya, impart a carbon-isotope signature to the underlying soil organic matter reservoir that is distinct from that produced by the native C3 forest vegetation. The varying turnover rates of the humic acid and humin fractions of the soil organic matter allowed us to distinguish between the presence of modern and ancient maize residues in these soils, and to delineate the lateral extent of maize cultivation at this ancient Maya site. The strongest isotopic evidence of maize residues is preserved in the soils surrounding the peripheral settlement of Chäkokot and at one locality within the urban center of Motul de San José. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Occult hepatitis B virus infection in a North American adult hemodialysis patient population

HEPATOLOGY, Issue 5 2004
Gerald Y. Minuk
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections continue to occur in adult hemodialysis units. A possible contributing factor is the presence of occult HBV (serum hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg] negative but HBV DNA positive). Two hundred forty-one adult hemodialysis patients were screened for occult HBV. HBV DNA testing was performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with 2 independent primer sets (core promoter and surface). Two (0.8%) of the 241 patients were HBsAg positive. Of the remaining 239 HBsAg-negative patients, 9 (3.8%) were HBV DNA positive. Viral loads in these individuals were low (102 -104 viral copies/mL). Seven of the 9 (78%) were nt 587 mutation (sG145R mutant) positive. Demographic, biochemical, and HBV serological testing did not help to identify those with occult HBV. In conclusion, the prevalence of occult HBV in adult hemodialysis patients in this North American urban center is approximately 4 to 5 times higher than standard HBsAg testing would suggest. The majority of these infections are associated with low viral loads and a high prevalence of the sG145R mutant. Finally, the demographic, biochemical, and/or serological features of HBV DNA,positive subjects do not distinguish these individuals from the remainder of the dialysis patient population. (HEPATOLOGY 2004; 40:1072,1077.) [source]

Agrarian Transformation and Rural Diversity in Globalizing East Asia

Atsushi Kitahara
Abstract:, In East Asia the rural society is not a society based upon agricultural industry anymore and the peasant society with its long history has been disappearing. The occupation and income sources of rural inhabitants have diversified and among them those who specialized in farming are the minority. There is a shortage of rural labor, which used to be abundant in the past, and presently it is not as easy to hire the farm workers. The reason for the diversification of the rural occupations is, to put it simply, because people cannot live merely on farm income. Indeed the farm operation costs have become more expensive due to labor saving techniques, but the livelihood costs have become more expensive due the new uniform lifestyle standards from globalization. Electric machines and education are the typical of these increased costs. The background of this rural change is industrialization and urbanization in the context of globalization and its strong impact is penetrating into the rural society through the regional urban center as the relay point of the global mechanism. This change is different based upon the location of each rural society. Generally, rural societies around a big urban center enjoy opportunities for the younger generation, but remote areas have serious problems with few employment opportunities and a smaller youth population. To reproduce and sustain the regional society as a whole, it is necessary to attract younger people and make them stay. We should plan to develop a variety of industries and the resultant diversified work opportunities in the broader region beyond the narrowly demarcated village and community. Subsistence and commercial agriculture might merely be a part of such diversity. [source]

Community life as a motive for migration from the urban center to the rural periphery in Israel

Sara Arnon
A white house topped by a red roof, set in a garden, surrounded by a lawn dotted with trees and shrubs,this is not just a child's naive drawing. It is the aspiration of many in the modern world, Israelis among them. This case study deals with the inner migration of families, mainly from the urban center of Israel, to rural communities in its northern periphery. It is also an opportunity to examine counter-urbanization characteristics and motivations, which contribute to our understanding of the role of community in this process. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Aspen succession and nitrogen loading: a case for epiphytic lichens as bioindicators in the Rocky Mountains, USA

Paul C. Rogers
Abstract Question: Can lichen communities be used to assess short- and long-term factors affecting seral quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) communities at the landscape scale? Location: Bear River Range, within the Rocky Mountains, in northern Utah and southern Idaho, USA. Method: Forty-seven randomly selected mid-elevation aspen stands were sampled for lichens and stand conditions. Plots were characterized according to tree species cover, basal area, stand age, bole scarring, tree damage, and presence of lichen species. We also recorded ammonia emissions with passive sensors at 25 urban and agricultural sites throughout an adjacent populated valley upwind of the forest stands. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS) ordination was used to evaluate an array of 20 variables suspected to influence lichen communities. Results: In NMS, forest succession explained most variance in lichen composition and abundance, although atmospheric nitrogen from local agricultural and urban sources also significantly influenced the lichen communities. Abundance of nitrophilous lichen species decreased with distance from peak ammonia sources and the urban center in all aspen succession classes. One lichen, Phaeophyscia nigricans, was found to be an effective bioindicator of nitrogen loading. Conclusions: Lichen communities in this landscape assessment of aspen forests showed clear responses to long-term (stand succession) and short-term (nitrogen deposition) influences. At the same time, several environmental factors (e.g. tree damage and scarring, distance to valley, topography, and stand age) had little influence on these same lichen communities. We recommend further use of epiphytic lichens as bioindicators of dynamic forest conditions. [source]

Massively parallel 454 sequencing indicates hyperdiverse fungal communities in temperate Quercus macrocarpa phyllosphere

A. Jumpponen
Summary ,,This study targeted the fungal communities in the phyllosphere of Quercus macrocarpa and compared the fungal species richness, diversity and community composition among trees located within and outside a small urban center using recently developed 454 sequencing and DNA tagging. ,,The results indicate that the fungal phyllosphere communities are extremely diverse and strongly dominated by ascomycetes, with Microsphaeropsis [two Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs); 23.6%], Alternaria (six OTUs; 16.1%), Epicoccum (one OTU; 6.0%) and Erysiphe (two OTUs; 5.9%) as the most abundant genera. ,,Although the sequencing effort averaged 1000 reads per tree and detected nearly 700 distinct molecular OTUs at 95% internal transcribed spacer 1 similarity, the richness of the hyperdiverse phyllosphere communities could not be reliably estimated as nearly one-half of the molecular OTUs were singletons. ,,The fungal communities within and outside the urban center differed in richness and diversity, which were lower within the urban development. The two land-use types contained communities that were distinct and more than 10% of the molecular OTUs differed in their frequency. [source]

The Urge to Merge: A Multiple-Case Study

Martha Golensky
The authors undertook a comparative study of three recent mergers of nonprofit organizations in a Midwestern urban center, within the context of political-economy theory. The research explored the impact of the same environmental factor, managed care, on the initial decisions by organizational leaders and the effects of these early decisions on subsequent actions taken to implement the merger. The study tested the authors' model of the motivations for merging, which proposes that the relationship between the decision-making style of the leadership and the internal and external resources of the prospective partners determines whether the merger is driven primarily by mission, practicality, stability, or fear. Although the findings provide initial support for the hypotheses derived from the model, a demonstration of the differences in the approach to the merger by each organization indicated that other factors emerged as important driving forces during the various phases of the process. [source]

Prospective experience with integrated prenatal screening and first trimester combined screening for trisomy 21 in a large Canadian urban center

Nanette Okun
Abstract Objectives To evaluate the performance of integrated prenatal screening (IPS) and first trimester combined screening (FTS) for trisomy 21 in a large Canadian urban center. Method Prospective data collection on women having FTS at one center from 1 November 2003 to 31 December 2005, or IPS at another from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2005. A positive screen was defined as adjusted risk for trisomy 21 , 1/200 at term or nuchal translucency , 3.5 mm. Results 32 227 and 14 487 women were screened in the IPS and FTS programs, respectively. Detection rates (DRs) and positive rates (PRs) for trisomy 21 were 88.4% (95% CI: 81.6,91.5) and 3.3% (95% CI: 3.1,3.5) for IPS, and 83.9% (95% CI: 74.7,93.0) and 4.0% (95% CI: 3.7,4.3) for FTS. DR adjusted for viability bias was 85.2% for IPS and 78.6% for FTS. Applying both the screens to the 78 134 women who submitted prenatal screens in Ontario in 2005, thereby eliminating the effect of differences in the distribution of maternal age between screens, gave a DR (corrected for viability bias) and PR of 81 and 3.1% for IPS, and 76 and 3.4% for FTS. Conclusions Both IPS and FTS perform well and are feasible in a practical clinical setting. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Cyber Bullying Behaviors Among Middle and High School Students

Faye Mishna
Little research has been conducted that comprehensively examines cyber bullying with a large and diverse sample. The present study examines the prevalence, impact, and differential experience of cyber bullying among a large and diverse sample of middle and high school students (N = 2,186) from a large urban center. The survey examined technology use, cyber bullying behaviors, and the psychosocial impact of bullying and being bullied. About half (49.5%) of students indicated they had been bullied online and 33.7% indicated they had bullied others online. Most bullying was perpetrated by and to friends and participants generally did not tell anyone about the bullying. Participants reported feeling angry, sad, and depressed after being bullied online. Participants bullied others online because it made them feel as though they were funny, popular, and powerful, although many indicated feeling guilty afterward. Greater attention is required to understand and reduce cyber bullying within children's social worlds and with the support of educators and parents. [source]

The Vermont Model for Rural HIV Care Delivery: Eleven Years of Outcome Data Comparing Urban and Rural Clinics

Christopher Grace MD
Abstract Context: Provision of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care in rural areas has encountered unique barriers. Purpose: To compare medical outcomes of care provided at 3 HIV specialty clinics in rural Vermont with that provided at an urban HIV specialty clinic. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study. Findings: Over an 11-year period 363 new patients received care, including 223 in the urban clinic and 140 in the rural clinics. Patients in the 2 cohorts were demographically similar and had similar initial CD4 counts and viral loads. There was no difference between the urban and rural clinic patients receiving Pneumocystis carinii prophylaxis (83.5% vs 86%, P= .38) or antiretroviral therapy (96.8% vs 97.5%, P= .79). Both rural and urban cohorts had similar decreases in median viral load from 1996 to 2006 (3,876 copies/mL to <50 copies/mL vs 8,331 copies/mL to <50 copies/mL) and change in percent of patients suppressed to <400 copies/mL (21.4%-69.3% vs 16%-71.4%, P= .11). Rural and urban cohorts had similar increases in median CD4 counts (275/mm3 -350/mm3 vs 182 cells/mm3 -379/mm3). A repeated measures regression analysis showed that neither fall in viral load (P= .91) nor rise in CD4 count (P= .64) were associated with urban versus rural site of care. Survival times, using a Cox proportional hazards model, were similar for urban and rural patients (hazard ratio for urban = 0.80 [95% CI, 0.39-1.61; P= .53]). Conclusions: This urban outreach model provides similar quality of care to persons receiving care in rural areas of Vermont as compared to those receiving care in the urban center. [source]


CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 1 2000
In order to extend the study of community social disorganization and crime beyond its exclusive focus on large urban centers, we present an analysis of structural correlates of arrest rates for juvenile violence in 264 nonmetropolitan counties of four states. Findings support the generality of social disorganization theory: Juvenile violence was associated with rates of residential instability, family disruption, and ethnic heterogeneity. Though rates of poverty were not related to juvenile violence, this is also in accord with social disorganization theory because, unlike urban settings, poverty was negatively related to residential instability. Rates of juvenile violence varied markedly with population size through a curvilinear relationship in which counties with the smallest juvenile populations had exceptionally low arrest rates. Analyses used negative binomial regression (a variation of Poisson regression) because the small number of arrests in many counties meant that arrest rates would be ill suited to least-squares regression. [source]


Roy Ryder
ABSTRACT. Like the North American frontier, Ecuador's Amazonian margin has advanced in periodic waves. But the impetus has been extremely varied, interlacing periods of socioeconomic crisis with times of prosperity. Recent events in eastern Ecuador confirm that urbanization is a fundamental component of frontier development in South America. The urbanization process is not a sign, however, of regional economic strength. Capital gains at the periphery are transferred to the nation's core region. Even the larger boom towns display little functional specialization; they are, instead, precariously dependent on employment in the public-service sector. Nonetheless, urban centers in the Ecuadorian Amazon continue to grow and to drain surrounding rural areas of younger and more educated individuals. [source]

Labor Migration between Developing Countries: The Case of Paraguay and Argentina,

Emilio A. Parrado
Despite the historical and numerical importance of international migration between Paraguay and Argentina, the socioeconomic forces affecting the dynamics of the flow remain largely unexplored. This article contributes to the understanding of migration movements between the Latin American countries by analyzing patterns of labor migration from two Paraguayan communities to Argentina. The analysis separates the process of migration into four segments representing different migration decisions that Paraguayan men face throughout their life course: first trip, first return, recurrent trips, and duration of additional trips. Results confirm that Paraguayan migration to Argentina is closely related to individual characteristics and wealth, the extent of migrant networks and experience, and changes in macroeconomic conditions. The relative importance of these factors on migration varies depending on the aspect of migration under consideration. More generally, the analysis shows that unlike migration between Mexico and the United States, Paraguayan migrants to Argentina tend to be positively selected with respect to educational attainment and skills. This reflects the higher transferability of skills between the two countries and the absence of large urban centers attracting internal migrants in Paraguay. In addition, results show that migration between Paraguay and Argentina is very responsive to fluctuations in macroeconomic conditions, particularly income differentials and peso over-valuation. Government policies oriented towards the regulation of migration flows in the Southern Cone should pay closer attention to the impact of macroeconomic fluctuations on migration decisions, especially in the context of the Mercosur agreement. [source]

Health as a Context for Social and Gender Activism: Female Volunteer Health Workers in Iran

Homa Hoodfar
Having reversed its pronatalist policies in 1988, the Islamic Republic of Iran implemented one of the most successful family planning programs in the developing world. This achievement, particularly in urban centers, is largely attributable to a large women-led volunteer health worker program for low-income urban neighborhoods. Research in three cities demonstrates that this successful program has had a host of unintended consequences. In a context where citizen mobilization and activism are highly restricted, volunteers have seized this new state-sanctioned space and successfully negotiated many of the familial, cultural, and state restrictions on women. They have expanded their mandate from one focused on health activism into one of social, if not political, activism, highlighting the ways in which citizens blur the boundaries of state and civil society under restrictive political systems prevalent in many of the Middle Eastern societies. [source]

Life and death in a civitas capital: Metabolic disease and trauma in the children from late Roman Dorchester, Dorset

Mary E. Lewis
Abstract The impact that "Romanization" and the development of urban centers had on the health of the Romano-British population is little understood. A re-examination of the skeletal remains of 364 nonadults from the civitas capital at Roman Dorchester (Durnovaria) in Dorset was carried out to measure the health of the children living in this small urban area. The cemetery population was divided into two groups; the first buried their dead organized within an east,west alignment with possible Christian-style graves, and the second with more varied "pagan" graves, aligned north,south. A higher prevalence of malnutrition and trauma was evident in the children from Dorchester than in any other published Romano-British group, with levels similar to those seen in postmedieval industrial communities. Cribra orbitalia was present in 38.5% of the children, with rickets and/or scurvy at 11.2%. Twelve children displayed fractures of the ribs, with 50% of cases associated with rickets and/or scurvy, suggesting that rib fractures should be considered during the diagnosis of these conditions. The high prevalence of anemia, rickets, and scurvy in the Poundbury children, and especially the infants, indicates that this community may have adopted child-rearing practices that involved fasting the newborn, a poor quality weaning diet, and swaddling, leading to general malnutrition and inadequate exposure to sunlight. The Pagan group showed no evidence of scurvy or rib fractures, indicating difference in religious and child-rearing practices but that both burial groups were equally susceptible to rickets and anemia suggests a shared poor standard of living in this urban environment. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Cities, Tax Revenues, and a State's Fiscal Future: The Value of Major Urban Centers

Competition among core cities or urban centers and suburban and rural areas besets numerous states. The competition often occurs amid a political environment in which suburban and rural areas enjoy a political majority in the state legislature, a majority that directs state investments to their areas. With Ohio as a case study, the issues that have created the urban,suburban,rural trichotomy are reviewed and an analysis of the tax returns, by area, to state investments is presented. The findings illustrate that urban centers produce more tax dollars per dollar of state investment than other areas, implying that state underinvestment in urban areas harms overall state tax revenues. [source]

Quality of Care for Acute Myocardial Infarction in Rural and Urban US Hospitals

Laura-Mae Baldwin MD
ABSTRACT: Context: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a common and important cause of admission to US rural hospitals, as transport of patients with AMI to urban settings can result in unacceptable delays in care. Purpose: To examine the quality of care for patients with AMI in rural hospitals with differing degrees of remoteness from urban centers. Methods: This cohort study used data from the Cooperative Cardiovascular Project (CCP), including 4,085 acute care hospitals (408 remote small rural, 893 small rural, 619 large rural, and 2,165 urban) with 135,759 direct admissions of Medicare beneficiaries ages 65 and older for a confirmed AMI between February 1994 and July 1995. Outcomes included use of aspirin, reperfusion, heparin, and intravenous nitroglycerin during hospitalization; use of beta-blockers, aspirin, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors at discharge; avoidance of calcium channel blockers at discharge; and 30-day mortality. Findings: Substantial proportions of Medicare beneficiaries in both urban and rural hospitals did not receive the recommended treatments for AMI. Medicare patients in rural hospitals were less likely than urban hospitals' patients to receive aspirin, intravenous nitroglycerin, heparin, and either thrombolytics or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. Only ACE inhibitors at discharge was used more for patients in rural hospitals than urban hospitals. Medicare patients in rural hospitals had higher adjusted 30-day post-AMI death rates from all causes than those in urban hospitals (odds ratio for large rural 1.14 [1.10 to 1.18], small rural 1.24 [1.20 to 1.29], remote small rural 1.32 [1.23 to 1.41]). Conclusions: Efforts are needed to help hospital medical staffs in both rural and urban areas develop systems to ensure that patients receive recommended treatments for AMI. [source]

From Insurrectionary Worker to Contingent Citizen: restructuring labor markets and repositioning East Rand (South Africa) retail sector workers

CITY & SOCIETY, Issue 1 2003
Bridget Kenny
Cities in South Africa, engineered as they were through apartheid, have fundamentally defined experiences of work, residence, leisure, and collective organization of urban and rural dwellers alike. Within the distinctive spaces of urban centers, citizens encounter the more recent difficulties of global economic restructuring as well as the potential to create their own opposition to increased marginalization. Using workplace interviews and life histories conducted from 1998-2000 of retail sector workers on the East Rand, South Africa, this paper focuses on the changing "local labor market." From a focal point of an organized, democratic union movement linked to community anti-apartheid struggles, more recently the region has undergone de-industrialization exacerbated by increasing "flexibilized" service employment and directed investment to other centers, like Johannesburg's rapidly developing north. The article explores how East Rand worker-residents experience an increasingly contingent labor market through shifting identities as workers and as men and women. [South Africa, retail industry, East Rand, deindustrialization, labor markets, gender, globalization] [source]