Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Urban

  • one urban

  • Terms modified by Urban

  • urban adolescent
  • urban adult
  • urban area
  • urban brazil
  • urban center
  • urban centre
  • urban child
  • urban china
  • urban city
  • urban classroom
  • urban community
  • urban consumer
  • urban context
  • urban core
  • urban counterpart
  • urban county
  • urban culture
  • urban design
  • urban development
  • urban difference
  • urban ecology
  • urban economics
  • urban economy
  • urban ecosystem
  • urban education
  • urban emergency department
  • urban environment
  • urban ethnography
  • urban expansion
  • urban fabric
  • urban form
  • urban fringe
  • urban geography
  • urban governance
  • urban gradient
  • urban growth
  • urban habitat
  • urban heat island
  • urban hierarchy
  • urban hospital
  • urban household
  • urban identity
  • urban impact
  • urban inequality
  • urban issues
  • urban land
  • urban land cover
  • urban land use
  • urban landscapes
  • urban life
  • urban location
  • urban locations
  • urban market
  • urban middle class
  • urban migration
  • urban neighborhood
  • urban ones
  • urban pattern
  • urban phenomenon
  • urban place
  • urban planning
  • urban policy
  • urban politics
  • urban pollution
  • urban poor
  • urban population
  • urban poverty
  • urban problem
  • urban process
  • urban regeneration
  • urban regime
  • urban region
  • urban regions
  • urban renewal
  • urban research
  • urban residence
  • urban resident
  • urban restructuring
  • urban sample
  • urban school
  • urban school child
  • urban school district
  • urban services
  • urban setting
  • urban settlement
  • urban site
  • urban size
  • urban society
  • urban sociology
  • urban space
  • urban stream
  • urban structure
  • urban studies
  • urban swedish population
  • urban system
  • urban teaching hospital
  • urban theory
  • urban university
  • urban user
  • urban village
  • urban violence
  • urban waste
  • urban watershed
  • urban woman
  • urban youth

  • Selected Abstracts


    JunJie Wu
    ABSTRACT This paper develops a spatially explicit model to examine how urban and suburban communities evolve differently with changes in local economic fundamentals such as rising income or falling commuting costs in the metropolitan area. The model highlights the importance of environmental amenities and the economy of scale in the provision of public services as determinants of urban spatial structure. Results suggest that urban sprawl, income segregation, and jurisdictional disparities are driven by the same economic conditions and thus tend to co-exist. Rising incomes or falling commuting costs for high-income households in a metropolitan area tend to increase land prices and public services in every community, while rising incomes or falling commuting costs for low-income households can have the opposite effects. [source]


    Chris B. Coulter
    ABSTRACT: Water quality and nonpoint source (NPS) pollution are important issues in many areas of the world, including the Inner Bluegrass Region of Kentucky where urban development is changing formerly rural watersheds into urban and mixed use watersheds. In watersheds where land use is mixed, the relative contributions of NPS pollution from rural and urban land uses can be difficult to separate. To better understand NPS pollution sources in mixed use watersheds, surface water samples were taken at three sites that varied in land use to examine the effect of land use on water quality. Within the group of three watersheds, one was predominately agriculture (Agricultural), one was predominately urban (Urban), and a third had relatively equal representation of both types of land uses (Mixed). Nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), total suspended solids (TSS), turbidity, pH, temperature, and streamflow were measured for one year. Comparisons are made among watersheds for concentration and fluxes of water quality parameters. Nitrate and orthophosphate concentrations were found to be significantly higher in the Agricultural watershed. Total suspended solids, turbidity, temperature, and pH, were found to be generally higher in the Urban and Mixed watersheds. No differences were found for streamflow (per unit area), total phosphorus, and ammonium concentrations among watersheds. Fluxes of orthophosphate were greater in the Agricultural watershed that in the Urban watershed while fluxes of TSS were greater in the Mixed watershed when compared to the Agricultural watershed. Fluxes of nitrate, ammonium, and total phosphorus did not vary among watersheds. It is apparent from the data that Agricultural land uses are generally a greater source of nutrients than the Urban land uses while Urban land uses are generally a greater source of suspended sediment. [source]


    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 11 2006
    David L. Kok
    Background: At least one-third of primary breast cancers in Australia are discovered by population-based mammographic screening. The aim of this study was to determine whether there were any differences in the surgical treatment of women diagnosed with breast cancer by BreastScreen Victoria between urban and rural populations and to investigate temporal changes in their pattern of care. Methods: An analysis of women diagnosed with breast cancer (invasive and non-invasive) by BreastScreen Victoria from 1993 to 2000 was conducted. Descriptive analyses of the proportion of women undergoing each surgical treatment type over time were carried out. Logistic regression was used to assess the effect of urban,rural residence on each treatment outcome while accounting for possible confounding factors. Results: Rural women with invasive breast cancer were less likely to undergo breast-conserving surgery (BCS) compared with urban women (odds ratio, 0.42; 95% confidence interval, 0.35,0.50). The same was also true for rural women with ductal carcinoma in situ (odds ratio, 0.53; 95% confidence interval, 0.29,0.96). This difference was independent of patient and tumour characteristics, including tumour size, surgeon caseload, patient's age and socioeconomic status. It also persisted over time despite a steady overall increase in use of BCS for both invasive and non-invasive cancers over the study period. Conclusions: Among Victorian women with screen-detected breast cancer, urban women consistently had higher rates of BCS compared with rural women despite increased overall adoption of BCS. Reasons for this disparity are still unclear and warrant further investigation. [source]


    Andrew May
    Melbourne; suburbia; urban history This article draws on preliminary research into the social history of Melbourne, on the ways that suburban life in the post-World War II era provides both explanation and counterweight to persistently negative stereotypes of suburbia. Over recent decades, suburban histories have been eschewed in favour of historical reconsiderations of the inner city or the bush. The history of the Australian suburb, particularly since 1945, is yet to be written. Oral history and municipal archives will be crucial to the writing of such histories. The article suggests several research pathways, including intergenerational life stories, a wider scale of geographical analysis, and a subtler reading of cultural conformity and social differentiation. [source]


    Mohammad Z. Ansari
    ABSTRACT Objective:,Effective and timely care for congestive cardiac failure (CCF) should reduce the risks of hospitalisation. The purpose of this study is to describe variations in rates of hospital admissions for CCF in Victoria as an indicator of the adequacy of primary care services. Detailed analyses identify trends in hospitalisations, urban/rural differentials and variations by the Primary Care Partnerships (PCP). Setting:,Acute care hospitals in Victoria. Design:,Routine analyses of age and sex standardised admission rates of CCF in Victoria using the Victorian Admitted Episodes Dataset from 1993,1994 to 2000,2001. Subjects:,All patients admitted to acute care hospitals in Victoria with the principal diagnosis of CCF between 1993,1994 and 2000,2001. Results:,There were 8359 admissions for CCF in Victoria with an average of 7.37 bed days in 2000,2001. There was a significantly higher admission rate for CCF in rural areas compared to metropolitan in 2000/2001 ,(2.53/1000 (2.44,2.62) and 1.80/1000 (1.75,1.85)) , respectively. Small area analyses identified 17 PCP (14 of which were rural) with significantly higher admission rate ratios of CCF compared to Victoria. Conclusion:,Small area analyses of CCF have identified significant gaps in the management of CCF in the community. This may be a reflection of deficit in primary care availability, accessibility, or appropriateness. Detailed studies may be needed to determine the relative importance of these factors in Victoria for targeting specific interventions at the PCP level. What does this study add?:,Congestive cardiac failure is a major public health problem. In Australia, there is a lack of studies identifying long-term hospitalisation trends of CCF, as well as small area analyses, especially in regard to rural and urban variations. This study has identified significant variations over an eight year period in admission rates of CCF in rural and urban Victoria. Small area analyses (e.g. at the level of primary care partnerships) have identified rural communities with significantly higher admission rates of CCF compared to the Victorian average. For the first time in Australia, this study has provided a new approach for generating evidence on quality of primary care services in rural and urban areas, and offers opportunities for targeting public health and health services interventions that can decrease access barriers, improve the adequacy of primary care, and reduce demand on the hospital system in Victoria. [source]

    Reasons for variation in coverage in the NHS cervical screening programme

    CYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 6 2001
    C. E. McGAHAN
    Reasons for variation in coverage in the NHS cervical screening programme In order to investigate reasons for variation in coverage of cervical screening, data from standard Department of Health returns were obtained for all Health Authorities for 1998/1999. Approximately 80% of the variation between health authorities is explained by differences in age distribution and area classification. Considerable differences between Health Authority and Office of National Statistics (ONS) population figures in City and Urban (London) areas for the age group 25,29 years and for City (London) for age group 30,34 years, suggest an effect of list inflation in these groups. Coverage as a performance indicator may be more accurately represented using the age range 35,64 years. Using this narrower age range, the percentage of health authorities meeting the 80% 5-year coverage target increases from 87% to 90%. [source]

    From Urban to Rural: Lessons for Microfinance from Argentina

    Mark Schreiner
    The recent success of microfinance for the urban self-employed contrasts with decades of failure on the part of public development banks for small farmers. This article describes the ways in which rural microfinance organisations have tried to adapt the lessons of urban microfinance to manage the risks and control the costs of the supply of financial services in rural areas. It then asks whether the lessons of urban microfinance are likely to apply in the poorest rural areas of Argentina. The article concludes that microfinance is unlikely to improve access to small loans and small deposits for many of the rural poor in Argentina; distances are too great, farmers too specialised, and wages too high. Improved access depends not on targeting loans by government decree but on strengthening institutions that support financial markets. [source]

    Unrecognized Misplacement of Endotracheal Tubes in a Mixed Urban to Rural Emergency Medical Services Setting

    Michael E. Jemmett MD
    Abstract Objective: To determine the rate of unrecognized endotracheal tube misplacement when performed by emergency medical services (EMS) personnel in a mixed urban and rural setting. Methods: The authors conducted a prospective, observational analysis of out-of-hospital endotracheal intubations (EIs) performed by EMS personnel serving a mixed urban, suburban, and rural population. From July 1, 1998, to August 30, 1999, emergency physicians assessed and recorded the position of out-of-hospital EIs using auscultation, direct laryngoscopy, infrared CO 2 detectors, esophageal detector devices, and chest x-ray. The state EMS database also was reviewed to determine the number of EIs involving patients transported to the authors' medical center and paramedic assessment of success for these encounters. Results: A total of 167 out-of-hospital EIs were recorded, of which 136 (81%) were deemed successful by EMS personnel. Observational forms were completed for 109 of the 136 patients who arrived intubated to the emergency department. Of the studied patients, 12% (13 of 109) were found to have misplaced endotracheal tubes. For the patients with unrecognized improperly placed tubes, 9% (10 of 109) were in the esophagus, 2% (2 of 109) were in the right main stem, and 1% (1 of 109) were above the cords. Paramedics serving urban and suburban areas did not perform significantly better (p < 0.05) than intermediate-level providers serving areas that are more rural. Conclusions: The incidence of unrecognized misplacement of endotracheal tubes by EMS personnel may be higher than most previous studies, making regular EMS evaluation and the out-of-hospital use of devices to confirm placement imperative. The authors were unable to show a difference in misplacement rates based on provider experience or level of training. [source]

    Susceptibility of black fly larvae (Diptera: Simuliidae) to lawn-care insecticides individually and as mixtures

    Jay P. Overmyer
    Abstract Urban and suburban watersheds have the potential to be highly impacted by chemicals, especially insecticides to control insect pests on lawns, ornamental plants, and home gardens. Three of the most common lawn-care insecticides detected in urban watersheds, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, and malathion, have been evaluated using an acute orbital shaker toxicity test to determine their respective concentrations that produce 50% mortality (LC50) in Simulium vittatum Zetterstedt cytospecies IS-7 larvae. Results of the 48-h LC50 tests show chlorpyrifos to be the most toxic to black fly larvae (LC50 = 0.28 ,g/L) followed by carbaryl (LC50 = 23.72 ,g/L) and malathion (LC50 = 54.20 ,g/L). These insecticides were also tested as binary and ternary mixtures using the toxic unit (TU) approach. Toxicity was shown to be greater than additive for the ternary mixture of chlorpyrifos,carbaryl,malathion (LC50 = 0.56 TU) and the binary mixtures of chlorpyrifos,malathion (LC50 = 0.72 TU) and carbaryl-malathion (LC50 = 0.78 TU). The binary combination of chlorpyrifos and carbaryl was shown to be additive (LC50 = 0.98 TU). These results indicate that aquatic invertebrate populations in urban and suburban streams may experience a higher-than-expected increase in toxicity-related effects when all three chemicals are present in the waterway. [source]

    Behavioural Syndromes in Urban and Rural Populations of Song Sparrows

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 7 2010
    Jackson Evans
    Animals in urban habitats are often noticeably bold in the presence of humans. Such boldness may arise due to habituation, as urban animals learn, through repeated exposure, that passing humans do not represent a threat. However, there is growing research suggesting that: (1) inherent traits, as opposed to learned behaviour, influence which species invade urban habitats, and (2) individuals exhibit individual personality traits that limit behavioural flexibility, with the possible result that not all individuals would be able to demonstrate an appropriate level of boldness in urban environments. As a result, perhaps only birds with inherently bold personalities could successfully settle in an area of high human disturbance, and further, we might also expect to see the existence of behavioural syndromes, where boldness is correlated with variation in other behavioural traits such as aggression. In this study, we examined boldness and territorial aggression in urban and rural populations of song sparrows. We found that urban birds were bolder towards humans and that urban birds also showed higher levels of territorial aggression. We also found an overall correlation between boldness and territorial aggression, suggesting that urban boldness may be part of a behavioural syndrome. However, we see no correlation between boldness and aggression in the urban population, and thus, more work is needed to determine the mechanisms accounting for high levels of boldness and aggression urban song sparrows. [source]

    Adolescents' music preferences and personality characteristics

    Marc J. M. H. Delsing
    Abstract The present paper examined the structure of Dutch adolescents' music preferences, the stability of music preferences and the relations between Big-Five personality characteristics and (changes in) music preferences. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of music-preference data from 2334 adolescents aged 12,19 revealed four clearly interpretable music-preference dimensions: Rock, Elite, Urban and Pop/Dance. One thousand and forty-four randomly selected adolescents from the original sample filled out questionnaires on music preferences and personality at three follow-up measurements. In addition to being relatively stable over 1, 2 and 3-year intervals, music preferences were found to be consistently related to personality characteristics, generally confirming prior research in the United States. Personality characteristics were also found to predict changes in music preferences over a 3-year interval. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Relationship Quality and Changes in Depressive Symptoms Among Urban, Married African Americans, Hispanics, and Whites

    FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 3 2009
    Jay Fagan
    Bivariate analyses showed that continuously married urban African American, non-Hispanic White, and Hispanic fathers and mothers reporting greater marital support and less relational control experienced a decrease in depressive symptoms. Multiple regression showed a stronger association between concurrent marital support and decreased depressive symptoms for mothers than fathers. African American and Hispanic fathers reporting higher levels of spousal relationship support when children were infants reported a larger decrease in depressive symptoms when children were age 3 compared to non-Hispanic Whites. Relationship control at age 3 was positively related to increased depressive symptoms among all groups except African American fathers and White mothers. African American and Hispanic fathers with marital problems may need additional support services. [source]

    Epidemiologic Analysis of an Urban, Public Emergency Department's Frequent Users

    Joshua H. Mandelberg BA
    Abstract. Objectives: To determine how the demographic, clinical, and utilization characteristics of emergency department (ED) frequent users differ from those of other ED patients. Methods: A cross-sectional and retrospective cohort study was performed using a database of all 348,858 visits to the San Francisco General Hospital ED during a five-year period (July 1, 1993, to June 30, 1998). A "frequent user" visited the ED five or more times in a 12-month period. Results: Frequent users constituted 3.9% of ED patients but accounted for 20.5% of ED visits. The relative risk (RR) of frequent use was high among patients who were homeless (RR = 4.5), African American (RR = 1.8), and Medi-Cal sponsored (RR = 2.1). Frequent users were more likely to be seen for alcohol withdrawal (RR = 4.4), alcohol dependence (RR = 3.4), and alcohol intoxication (RR = 2.4). Frequent users were also more likely to visit for exacerbations of chronic conditions, including sickle cell anemia (RR = 8.0), renal failure (RR = 3.6), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (RR = 3.3). They were less likely to visit for all forms of trauma (RR = 0.43). Survival analysis showed that only 38% of frequent users for one year remained frequent users the next year. However, 56% of frequent users for two consecutive years remained frequent users in the third year. Conclusions: Frequent use of the ED reflects the urban social problems of homelessness, poverty, alcohol abuse, and chronic illness. Frequent use of the ED shows a high rate of decline from one year to the next. This rate of decline slows after the first year and suggests the existence of a smaller group of chronic frequent users. [source]

    J.G. Granö and Edgar Kant: Teacher and Pupil, Colleagues and Friends

    Olavi Granö
    Abstract This paper is adapted from an address given at the plenary session of the conference 'From Native and Landscape Research to Urban and Regional Studies, held in Tartu on 23 August, 2002, to mark the birthdays of J.G. Granö (120 years.) and Edgar Kant (100 years). The Finnish geographer J.G. Granö was Professor of Geography at the University of Tartu from 1919 to 1923, a period during which that university became the birthplace of many original geographical ideas. Edgar Kant was beginning his studies at that time, and a link was forged between the two scholars which lasted until Granö's death in 1956. The nature of this interaction and its significance for the history of geographical studies are discussed. [source]

    Jobs, Houses, and Trees: Changing Regional Structure, Local Land-Use Patterns, and Forest Cover in Southern Indiana

    GROWTH AND CHANGE, Issue 3 2003
    Darla K. Munroe
    Land-use and -cover change is a topic of increasing concern as interest in forest and agricultural land preservation grows. Urban and residential land use is quickly replacing extractive land use in southern Indiana. The interaction between land quality and urban growth pressures is also causing secondary forest growth and forest clearing to occur jointly in a complex spatial pattern. It is argued that similar processes fuel the abandonment of agricultural land leading to private forest regrowth, changes in topography and land quality, and declining real farm product prices. However, the impact of urban growth and development on forests depends more strongly on changes in both the residential housing and labor markets. Using location quotient analysis of aggregate employment patterns, and the relationship between regional labor market changes, the extent of private forest cover was examined from 1967 to 1998. Then an econometric model of land-use shares in forty southern Indiana counties was developed based on the net benefits to agriculture, forestland, and urban uses. To test the need to control explicitly for changes in residential demand and regional economic structure, a series of nested models was estimated. Some evidence was found that changing agricultural profitability is leading to private forest regrowth. It was also uncovered that the ratio of urban to forest land uses is better explained by incorporating measures of residential land value and industrial concentration than simply considering population density alone. [source]

    The ,Terrible Wednesday' of Pentecost: Confronting Urban and Princely Discourses in the Bruges Rebellion of 1436,1438

    HISTORY, Issue 305 2007
    On 22 May 1437 a violent disturbance of the social order occurred in Bruges. Philip the Good, duke of Burgundy, only narrowly escaped with his life, while Jean de Villiers, lord of L'Isle-Adam, was killed. Contradictory and competing accounts of these events have survived which illustrate princely and urban discourses on the Bruges rebellion of 1436,8. Careful analysis of these sources reveals that the social and political struggles between the centralizing dukes of Burgundy and their powerful and autonomous Flemish cities reflected a discursive struggle for the representation of political events. [source]

    Prevalence and correlates of late-life depression compared between urban and rural populations in Korea

    Jae-Min Kim
    Abstract Background The aetiology of late-life depression has received relatively little research in developing countries. Urban and rural populations have rarely been sampled in the same study. Objectives To investigate demographic factors associated with depression and depressive symptoms in an urban and rural sample of older Korean people. Methods A community survey of residents aged 65 or over was conducted in an urban and a rural area within Kwangju, South Korea. The Korean Form of the Geriatric Depression Scale (KGDS) was administered. Associations with demographic, socio-economic factors and cognitive function (MMSE) were investigated for depression categorised according to a previously validated cut-off. Results The sample comprised 485 urban-dwelling and 649 rural-dwelling participants. No difference was found between urban and rural samples for prevalence rates of depression. However associations with independent variables varied between the areas. In the urban sample, increased age, low education, manual occupation and current rented accommodation were independently associated with depression. Only low education was associated with depression in the rural sample. The interaction with sample area was strongest for age (p,<,0.01) and persisted after further adjustment for cognitive function. Conclusions Adverse socio-economic status was strongly associated with depression and appeared to operate across the life-course. While no evidence was found for urban,rural differences in prevalence rates of depression, factors associated with depression differed between these populations. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The International Journal of Urban and Regional Research: An Editorial Statement

    First page of article [source]

    International Journal of Urban and Regional Research

    Article first published online: 19 MAR 200
    First page of article [source]

    Ultrastructure and embryonic development of a syconoid calcareous sponge

    Dafne I. Eerkes-Medrano
    Abstract. Recent molecular data suggest that the Porifera is paraphyletic (Calcarea+Silicea) and that the Calcarea is more closely related to the Metazoa than to other sponge groups, thereby implying that a sponge-like animal gave rise to other metazoans. One ramification of these data is that calcareous sponges could provide clues as to what features are shared among this ancestral metazoan and higher animals. Recent studies describing detailed morphology in the Calcarea are lacking. We have used a combination of microscopy techniques to study the fine structure of Syconcoactum Urban 1905, a cosmopolitan calcareous sponge. The sponge has a distinct polarity, consisting of a single tube with an apically opening osculum. Finger-like chambers, several hundred micrometers in length, form the sides of the tube. The inner and outer layers of the chamber wall are formed by epithelia characterized by apical,basal polarity and occluding junctions between cells. The outer layer,the pinacoderm,and atrial cavity are lined by plate-like cells (pinacocytes), and the inner choanoderm is lined by a continuous sheet of choanocytes. Incurrent openings of the sponge are formed by porocytes, tubular cells that join the pinacoderm to the choanoderm. Between these two layers lies a collagenous mesohyl that houses sclerocytes, spicules, amoeboid cells, and a progression of embryonic stages. The morphology of choanocytes and porocytes is plastic. Ostia were closed in sponges that were vigorously shaken and in sponges left in still water for over 30 min. Choanocytes, and in particular collar microvilli, varied in size and shape, depending on their location in the choanocyte chamber. Although some of the odd shapes of choanocytes and their collars can be explained by the development of large embryos first beneath and later on top of the choanocytes, the presence of many fused collar microvilli on choanocytes may reflect peculiarities of the hydrodynamics in large syconoid choanocyte chambers. The unusual formation of a hollow blastula larva and its inversion through the choanocyte epithelium are suggestive of epithelial rather than mesenchymal cell movements. These details illustrate that calcareous sponges have characteristics that allow comparison with other metazoans,one of the reasons they have long been the focus of studies of evolution and development. [source]

    Urban and industrial water use in the Krishna Basin, India,

    Daniel J. Van Rooijen
    Bassin Krishna; utilisation urbaine de l'eau; utilisation industrielle de l'eau; modélisation Abstract Regional urbanization and industrial development require water that may put additional pressure on available water resources and threaten water quality in developing countries. In this study we use a combination of census statistics, case studies, and a simple model of demand growth to assess current and future urban and industrial water demand in the Krishna Basin in southern India. Water use in this "closed" basin is dominated by irrigation (61.9 billion cubic metres (BCM) yr,1) compared to a modest domestic and industrial water use (1.6 and 3.2 BCM yr,1). Total water diversion for non-irrigation purposes is estimated at 7,8% of available surface water in the basin in an average year. Thermal power plants use the majority of water used by industries (86% or 2.7 BCM yr,1), though only 6.8% of this is consumed via evaporation. Simple modelling of urban and industrial growth suggests that non-agricultural water demand will range from 10 to 20 BCM by 2030. This is 14,28% of basin water available surface water for an average year and 17,34% for a year with 75% dependable flow. Although water use in the Krishna Basin will continue to be dominated by agriculture, water stress, and the fraction of water supplies at risk of becoming polluted by urban and industrial activity, will become more severe in urbanized regions in dry years. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. L'urbanisation régionale et le développement industriel demandent de l'eau, ce qui peut augmenter la pression sur les ressources en eau disponibles dans les pays en développement. Dans cette étude nous utilisons une combinaison de données de recensement, des études de cas et un modèle simple de croissance de la demande pour évaluer la demande en eau urbaine et industrielle actuelle et future dans le bassin Krishna en Inde du sud. Les usages de l'eau dans ce bassin « fermé » sont dominés par l'irrigation (61.9 milliards de m3/an) alors que les usages domestiques et industriels sont modestes (1.6 et 3.2 milliards de m3/an). L'eau utilisée en dehors de l'irrigation est estimée à 7 ,8% de l'eau de surface disponible dans le bassin en année moyenne. Les centrales thermiques utilisent la plus grosse partie de l'eau allouée aux industries (86% ou 2.7 milliards de m3/an) bien que seulement 6.8% de cette quantité soit consommé par évaporation. Une modélisation simple de la croissance urbaine et industrielle suggère que la demande non-agricole d'eau variera de 10 à 20 milliards de m3/an d'ici à 2030. C'est 14,28% de l'eau de surface disponible du bassin en année moyenne et 17,34% de l'écoulement garanti à 75%. Bien que l'utilisation de l'eau dans le bassin Krishna continue à être dominée par l'agriculture, la tension sur l'eau peut devenir plus sévère en année sèche dans les régions urbanisées avec en outre le risque d'une pollution par l'activité urbaine et industrielle. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Effect of an In-Home Occupational and Physical Therapy Intervention on Reducing Mortality in Functionally Vulnerable Older People: Preliminary Findings

    Laura N. Gitlin PhD
    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of a multicomponent intervention on mortality and the role of control-oriented strategy use as the change mechanism. DESIGN: Two-group randomized design with survivorship followed for 14 months. Participants were randomized to intervention or a no-treatment control group. SETTING: Urban, community-living older people. PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred nineteen people aged 70 and older with functional difficulties. INTERVENTION: Occupational therapy and physical therapy sessions involving home modifications, problem solving, and training in energy conservation, safe performance, balance, muscle strength, and fall recovery techniques. MEASUREMENTS: Survival time was number of days between baseline interview and date of death or final interview if date unknown. Control-oriented strategy use was measured using eight items. RESULTS: Intervention participants exhibited a 1% rate of mortality, compared with a 10% rate for no-treatment control participants (P=.003, 95% confidence interval=2.4,15.04%). At baseline, those who subsequently died had more days hospitalized and lower control-oriented strategy use 6 months before study enrollment than survivors. No intervention participants with previous days hospitalized (n=31) died, whereas 21% of control group counterparts did (n=35; P=.001). Although intervention participants with low and high baseline control strategy use had lower mortality risk than control participants, mortality risk was lower for intervention participants with low strategy use at baseline (P=.007). CONCLUSION: An occupational and physical therapy intervention to ameliorate functional difficulties may reduce mortality risk in community-dwelling older people overall and benefit those most compromised. Instruction in control-oriented strategies may account for the intervention's protective effects on survivorship. [source]

    Urban-Rural Differences in a Memory Disorders Clinical Population

    Sarah B. Wackerbarth PhD
    OBJECTIVES: To compare patient characteristics and family perceptions of patient function at one urban and one rural memory disorders clinic. DESIGN: Secondary, cross-sectional data analyses of an extant clinical database. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: First time visits (n = 956) at two memory disorders clinics. MEASUREMENTS: Patient and family-member demographics and assessment results for the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), activities of daily living (ADLs), the Memory Change and Personality Change components of the Blessed Dementia Rating Scale, and the Revised Memory and Behavior Problems Checklist. RESULTS: In both clinics, patients and family members were more likely female. The typical urban clinic patient was significantly more likely to be living in a facility and more educated than the typical rural patient. Urban and rural patients did not show significant differences in age- and education-adjusted MMSE scores or raw ADL/IADL ratings, but the urban family members reported more memory problems, twice as many personality changes, more-frequent behavior problems, and more adverse reactions to problems. CONCLUSION: Physicians who practice in both urban and rural areas can anticipate differences between patients, and their families, who seek a diagnosis of memory disorders. Our most important finding is that despite similarities in reported functional abilities, urban families appear to be more sensitive to and more distressed by patients' cognitive and behavioral symptoms than rural families. These differences may reflect different underlying needs, and should be explored in further research. [source]

    Potential Autonomous Selfing in Gesneria citrina (Gesneriaceae), a Specialized Hummingbird Pollinated Species with Variable Expression of Herkogamy

    Xin-Sheng Chen
    Abstract Species with mixed mating systems often demonstrate variable expression of breeding system characteristics and thus represent the opportunity to understand the factors and mechanisms that promote both outcrossed and selfed seed production. Here, we investigate variation in levels of herkogamy (variation in stigma-anther separation distance) in a Puerto Rican population of hummingbird pollinated Gesneria citrina Urban. There is significant variation in herkogamy levels among individuals of this species and stigma-anther separation is negatively associated with the ability to set fruits and seeds in the absence of pollinators. The variation in levels of herkogamy may represent a mechanism to ensure the production of some self-fertilized progeny in the absence of hummingbird pollinators. We also describe a novel breeding system in G. citrina, where stamens elongate over time to reach stigma height, but stamen elongation is accelerated by pollination. These results suggest that once the flowers are pollinated, stamen elongation may favor increased pollen removal and siring success, while the reduction in stigma-anther distance no longer imposes the risk of interference between male and female functions. We discuss our findings of breeding system variation in the context of pollination system evolution in an island setting (Antillean islands). [source]

    Dental Service Utilization among Urban and Rural Older Adults in China , A Brief Communication

    Bei Wu PhD
    Abstract Objectives: China's health care system is bifurcated in nature between rural and urban areas. In addition, there is a huge gap in socioeconomic status between rural and urban residents. The purpose of the study was to examine the factors related to dental visits among elders in rural and urban areas of Shanghai, China. Methods: Using a stratified random sampling method, a cross-sectional, face-to-face survey was conducted among elders aged 60 years and above in Shanghai during 2003-04. A total of 1,044 older respondents were included in the sample. Results: There was a significant urban and rural difference in dental visit rates over the 12-month period of the study. Results from the logistic regression analysis suggested that residing in urban areas was a significant positive factor related to dental visits. In addition, being younger, being able to pay out-of-pocket medical expenses, having had regular medical checkups, having a higher number of limitations because of chronic conditions, and being more concerned about eating a healthy diet were associated with increased odds of dental visits. Conclusions: Results suggest that urban,rural differences, as reflected in the socioeconomic status gap, disparity in medical insurance coverage, and access to dental care, have a significant impact on the use of dental services by Chinese elders. Individual sociodemographic characteristics, health status, and health attitude are important explanatory variables. [source]

    Urban, Suburban, and Exurban Sprawl in the Rocky Mountain West: Evidence from Regional Adjustment Models,

    John I. Carruthers
    Three interrelated questions motivate the research. How does the proliferation of urban, suburban, and exurban sprawl in the Rocky Mountain West relate to the population and employment growth process? Are population and employment endogenously determined there? And what does this imply for the sustainability of economic development in the region? Through a series of regional adjustment models, the empirical analysis links population and employment growth in the Rocky Mountain West to explicit spatial outcomes and delivers substantive evidence of endogeneity between the two. The results suggest that the long-term prosperity of the region depends on the preservation of the high quality of life it offers, and that greater intergovernmental coordination, careful infrastructure planning, and attention to the character of its economic structure may help to accomplish this. Future research should focus on looking deeper into certain explanatory variables used in this analysis and on developing a better picture of what the spatial equilibrium that regional adjustment models emulate may look like. [source]

    A Latent Growth Curve Analysis of the Structure of Aggression, Drug Use, and Delinquent Behaviors and Their Interrelations Over Time in Urban and Rural Adolescents

    Albert D. Farrell
    Latent growth curve analysis was used to examine the structure and interrelations among aggression, drug use, and delinquent behavior during early adolescence. Five waves of data were collected from 667 students at three urban middle schools serving a predominantly African American population, and from a more ethnically diverse sample of 950 students at four rural middle schools. One set of models focused on changes in individual behaviors; the other on changes in a global problem behavior factor. Models with separate growth trajectories for aggression, drug use, and delinquent behavior provided the best fit for both samples and revealed relations between initial levels of aggression and subsequent changes in the other behaviors. Boys and girls differed in their initial levels of these behaviors, but not their patterns of change. Differences in growth curve trajectories were found across samples. These findings have important implications for assessment and prevention of problem behaviors in adolescents. [source]

    Differences in the Correlates of Physical Activity Between Urban and Rural Canadian Youth

    Constantinos A. Loucaides PhD
    ABSTRACT Background:, Despite the benefits of physical activity (PA), a significant proportion of youth remains inactive. Studies assessing differences in the correlates of PA among urban and rural youth are scarce, and such investigations can help identify subgroups of the population that may need to be targeted for special intervention programs. The purpose of this study was to assess differences in the correlates of PA between Canadian urban and rural youth. Methods:, The sample consisted of 1398 adolescents from 4 urban schools and 1290 adolescents from 4 rural schools. Mean age of the participants was 15.6 ± 1.3 years. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to examine the association between self-reported PA and a number of demographic, psychological, behavioral, and social correlates. Results:, Common correlates between the 2 locations included gender (with girls being less active than boys) perceptions of athletic/physical ability, self-efficacy, interest in organized group activities, use of recreation time, and friends' and siblings' frequency of participation in PA. Active commuting to school and taking a physical education class were unique correlates of PA at the multivariate level in urban and rural students, respectively. Variance explained in PA ranged from 43% for urban school students to 38% for rural school students. Conclusions:, Although more similarities than discrepancies were found in the correlates of PA between the 2 geographical locations, findings from this study strengthen the policies that argue for a coordinated multisector approach to the promotion of PA in youth, which include the family, school, and community. [source]

    Prevalence and Degree of Childhood and Adolescent Overweight in Rural, Urban, and Suburban Georgia

    Richard D. Lewis
    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of OW and EOW in school-aged youths from 4 regions of Georgia. A 2-stage cluster sampling procedure was performed in 2002, with participation of 4th-, 8th- and 11th-grade students (N = 3114). Measured height and weight were used to determine body mass index (BMI) for age percentiles and data were weighted to estimate population prevalence of OW. A logistic regression model determined predictors of OW. The overall estimate of OW prevalence was 20.2% and highest in males (22.0%), non-Hispanic blacks (21.8%), "other races" (32.4%), and students residing in rural growth (23.7%) and rural decline (23.0%) areas. Overweight prevalence was similar among grades. The overall estimated EOW was 4.3 and highest in males (4.7), other races (5.6), non-Hispanic blacks (5.2), and students from rural growth (5.4) and rural decline (5.0) areas. Sex, race, location, and economic tier were significant predictors (= 0.02) of OW. The prevalence and severity of OW was higher in youths residing in Georgia than nationally. School health professionals, community leaders, and parents should provide support for updated school policies aimed at providing BMI surveillance and a school environment that encourages physical activity and healthy nutrition practices. (J Sch Health. 2006;76(4):126-132) [source]

    Philosophy Gone Urban: Reflections on Urban Restoration

    Avner De, Shalit
    First page of article [source]