Upwelling Intensity (upwelling + intensity)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Predicting population consequences of ocean climate change for an ecosystem sentinel, the seabird Cassin's auklet

Abstract Forecasting the ecological effects of climate change on marine species is critical for informing greenhouse gas mitigation targets and developing marine conservation strategies that remain effective and increase species' resilience under changing climate conditions. Highly productive coastal upwelling systems are predicted to experience substantial effects from climate change, making them priorities for ecological forecasting. We used a population modeling approach to examine the consequences of ocean climate change in the California Current upwelling ecosystem on the population growth rate of the planktivorous seabird Cassin's auklet (Ptychoramphus aleuticus), a demographically sensitive indicator of marine climate change. We use future climate projections for sea surface temperature and upwelling intensity from a regional climate model to forecast changes in the population growth rate of the auklet population at the important Farallon Island colony in central California. Our study projected that the auklet population growth rate will experience an absolute decline of 11,45% by the end of the century, placing this population on a trajectory toward extinction. In addition, future changes in upwelling intensity and timing of peak upwelling are likely to vary across auklet foraging regions in the California Current Ecosystem (CCE), producing a mosaic of climate conditions and ecological impacts across the auklet range. Overall, the Farallon Island Cassin's auklet population has been declining during recent decades, and ocean climate change in this century under a mid-level emissions scenario is projected to accelerate this decline, leading toward population extinction. Because our study species has proven to be a sensitive indicator of oceanographic conditions in the CCE and a powerful predictor of the abundance of other important predators (i.e. salmon), the significant impacts we predicted for the Cassin's auklet provide insights into the consequences that ocean climate change may have for other plankton predators in this system. [source]

Possible solar control on primary production along the Indian west coast on decadal to centennial timescale,

Siby Kurian
Abstract Using multiple geochemical proxies including specific biomarkers (dinosterol, phytol, stigmasterol and , -sitosterol) measured in a high-sedimentation rate core collected from the inner shelf (depth ,45,m) off Goa (India), we reconstruct surface productivity, which is mainly controlled by the monsoon upwelling in this region, during the last ca. 700 a. Surface productivity appears to have varied in tandem with the Konkan,Goa rainfall and sunspot activity during the instrumental period (last 250 a). The productivity proxies also covary with the total solar irradiance reconstructed for the period beyond the instrumental era, within the considerable uncertainty of the age model. This suggests that solar forcing may control coastal upwelling intensity and biological productivity in the eastern Arabian Sea on decadal to centennial timescales. During the late Anthropocene (last ca. 50 a), steep increases in all four biomarkers indicate greatly enhanced productivity in response to high solar irradiance as well as anthropogenic inputs of nutrients. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Changing marine productivity off northern Chile during the past 19,000 years: a multivariable approach

M. Mohtadi
Abstract A multivariable approach utilising bulk sediment, planktonic Foraminifera and siliceous phytoplankton has been used to reconstruct rapid variations in palaeoproductivity in the Peru,Chile Current System off northern Chile for the past 19,000,cal.,yr. During the early deglaciation (19,000,16,000,cal.,yr,BP), our data point to strongest upwelling intensity and highest productivity of the past 19,000,cal.,yr. The late deglaciation (16,000,13,000,cal.,yr,BP) is characterised by a major change in the oceanographic setting, warmer water masses and weaker upwelling at the study site. Lowest productivity and weakest upwelling intensity are observed from the early to the middle Holocene (13,000,4000,cal.,yr,BP), and the beginning of the late Holocene (<4000,cal.,yr,BP) is marked by increasing productivity, mainly driven by silicate-producing organisms. Changes in the productivity and upwelling intensity in our record may have resulted from a large-scale compression and/or displacement of the South Pacific subtropical gyre during more productive periods, in line with a northward extension of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and increased advection of Antarctic water masses with the Peru,Chile Current. The corresponding increase in hemispheric thermal gradient and wind stress induced stronger upwelling. During the periods of lower productivity, this scenario probably reversed. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst production in relation to upwelling intensity and lithogenic influx in the Cape Blanc region (off north-west Africa)

Ewa Susek
SUMMARY Fossil dinoflagellate cyst assemblages are increasingly used in paleoclimatic research to establish paleoenvi-ronmental reconstructions. To obtain reliable reconstructions, it is essential to know which physical factors influence the cyst production. Most information about the relationship between variations in physical parameters and cyst production is known from middle and higher latitudes. Information from the (sub)tropics is rare. To increase this information, the temporal variation in cyst assemblages from the upwelling area off north-west Africa (off Mauritania) has been compared to environmental conditions of the upper water column. Samples were collected by the sediment trap CB9, off north-west Africa (Cape Blanc, 2115,2,N, 2042,2,W) between 11 June 1998 and 7 November 1999 at 27.5-day intervals. Off Cape Blanc, upwelling occurs throughout the year with variable intensity. This region is also characterized by frequently occurring Saharan dust storms. Seasonal variations in dust input, upwelling intensity and sea surface temperature are reflected by the production of organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst assemblages. Several cyst taxa are produced throughout the sampling interval, with the highest fluxes at times of strongest upwelling relaxation and/or dust input (Echinidinium aculeatum Zonneveld, Echini-din ium delicatum Zonneveld, Echinidinium granulaturn Zonneveld, Echinidinium spp., Impagidinium aculeatum (Wall) Lentin et Williams, Impagidinium sphaeri-cum (Wall) Lentin et Williams, Protoperidinium americanum (Gran et Braarud) Balech, Protoperidinium stellatum (Wall in Wall et Dale) Rochon etal., Protoperidinium spp., Selenopemphix nephroides (Benedek) Benedek et Sarjeant and Selenopemphix quanta (Bradford) Matsuoka). Species such as, for example, Bitectatodinium spongium (Zonneveld) Zonneveld et Jurkschat and Impagidinium patulum (Wall) Stover et Evitt do not show any production pattern related to a particular season of the year or to specific environmental conditions in the upper water column. The production of cysts of Protoperidinium monospinum (Paulsen) Zonneveld et Dale is restricted to intervals with increased nutrient concentrations in upper waters when sea surface temperatures at the sampling site is below approximately 24C. [source]