Uptake Rate (uptake + rate)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Uptake Rate

  • co2 uptake rate
  • oxygen uptake rate
  • photosynthetic co2 uptake rate
  • specific oxygen uptake rate


  • Selected Abstracts


    DIEL RHYTHM OF ALGAL PHOSPHATE UPTAKE RATES IN P-LIMITED CYCLOSTATS AND SIMULATION OF ITS EFFECT ON GROWTH AND COMPETITION1

    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 4 2002
    Chi-Yong Ahn
    Oscillations in the phosphate (Pi) uptake rates for three species of green algae were examined in a P-limited cyclostat. For Ankistrodesmus convolutus Corda and Chlorella vulgaris Beyerinck, the Pi uptake rates increased during the daytime and decreased at night. In contrast, Chlamydomonas sp. exhibited the opposite uptake pattern. Cell densities also oscillated under a light:dark cycle, dividing at a species-specific timing rather than continuously. In general, the cell densities exhibited an inverse relationship with the Pi uptake rates. A competition experiment between A. convolutus and C. vulgaris in a P-limited cyclostat resulted in the dominance of C. vulgaris, regardless of the relative initial cell concentrations. Chlorella vulgaris also dominated in a mixed culture with Chlamydomonas sp., irrespective of the initial seeding ratio and dilution rate. However, Chlamydomonas sp. and A. convolutus coexisted in the competition experiment with gradual decrease of Chlamydomonas sp. when equally inoculated. Mathematical expressions of the oscillations in the Pi uptake rate and species-specific cell division gate were used to develop a simulation model based on the Droop equation. The simulation results for each of the species conformed reasonably well to the experimental data. The results of the competition experiments also matched the competition simulation predictions quite well, although the experimental competition was generally more delayed than the simulations. In conclusion, the model simulation that incorporated the effect of diel rhythms in nutrient uptake clearly demonstrated that species diversity could be enhanced by different oscillation patterns in resource uptake, even under the condition of limitation by the same resource. [source]


    Addition of activated carbon to batch activated sludge reactors in the treatment of landfill leachate and domestic wastewater

    JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY & BIOTECHNOLOGY, Issue 8 2001
    zgr Akta
    Abstract Leachate from a municipal landfill was combined with domestic wastewater and was treated in batch activated sludge systems. The effectiveness and applicability of the addition of Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC) to activated sludge reactors was investigated. Isotherm tests were carried out with PAC in order to estimate the extent of adsorption of organic matter onto PAC. Then, in activated sludge reactors COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) removal and nitrification were studied both in the absence and presence of PAC for comparison purposes. In both cases, Oxygen Uptake Rates (OUR) were measured with respect to time in order to investigate substrate removal and change in microbial activity. Addition of PAC to activated sludge increased COD removal by removing mainly the non-biodegradable fraction in leachate. The COD decreases in batch reactors were best expressed by a first-order kinetic model that incorporated this non-biodegradable leachate fraction. With added PAC, nitrification was also enhanced. But in all of the batch runs a significant accumulation of NO2 -N took place, indicating that the second step of nitrification was still inhibited. 2001 Society of Chemical Industry [source]


    Growth in epiphytic bromeliads: response to the relative supply of phosphorus and nitrogen

    PLANT BIOLOGY, Issue 1 2010
    G. Zotz
    Abstract Insufficient nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) frequently limit primary production. Although most nutrient studies on vascular epiphytes have focused on N uptake, circumstantial evidence suggests that P rather than N is the most limiting element for growth in this plant group. We directly tested this by subjecting a total of 162 small individuals of three bromeliad species (Guzmania monostachia, Tillandsia elongata, Werauhia sanguinolenta) to three N and three P levels using a full-factorial experimental design, and determined relative growth rates (RGR) and nutrient acquisition over a period of 11 weeks. Both N and P supply had a significant effect on RGR, but only tissue P concentrations were correlated with growth. Uptake rates of N and P, in contrast, were not correlated with RGR. Increased nutrient supply led to an up to sevenfold increase in tissue P concentration compared to natural conditions, while concentrations of N hardly changed or even decreased. All treatment combinations, even at the lowest experimental P supply, led to decreased N:P ratios. We conclude that P is at least as limiting as N for vegetative function under natural conditions in these epiphytic bromeliads. This conclusion is in line with the general notion of the prevalence of P limitation for the functioning of terrestrial vegetation in the tropics. [source]


    When is high-Ca2+ microdomain required for mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake?,

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 1 2009
    A. Spt
    Abstract Ca2+ release from IP3 -sensitive stores in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) induced by Ca2+ -mobilizing agonists generates high-Ca2+ microdomains between ER vesicles and neighbouring mitochondria. Here we present a model that describes when such microdomains are required and when submicromolar [Ca2+] is sufficient for mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake. Mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake rate in angiotensin II-stimulated H295R adrenocortical cells correlates with the proximity between ER vesicles and the mitochondrion, reflecting the uptake promoting effect of high-Ca2+ peri-mitochondrial microdomains. Silencing or inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) or inhibition of the novel isoforms of protein kinase C enhances mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and abolishes the positive correlation between Ca2+ uptake and ER-mitochondrion proximity. Inhibition of protein phosphatases attenuates mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and also abolishes its positive correlation with ER-mitochondrion proximity. We postulate that during IP3 -induced Ca2+ release, Ca2+ uptake is confined to ER-close mitochondria, because of the simultaneous activation of the protein kinases. Attenuation of Ca2+ uptake prevents Ca2+ overload of mitochondria and thus protects the cell against apoptosis. On the other hand, all the mitochondria accumulate Ca2+ at a non-inhibited rate during physiological Ca2+ influx through the plasma membrane. Membrane potential is higher in ER-distant mitochondria, providing a bigger driving force for Ca2+ uptake. Our model explains why comparable mitochondrial Ca2+ signals are formed in response to K+ and angiotensin II (equipotent in respect to global cytosolic Ca2+ signals), although only the latter generates high-Ca2+ microdomains. [source]


    Cytoplasmic fatty acid-binding protein facilitates fatty acid utilization by skeletal muscle

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 4 2003
    J. F. C. Glatz
    Abstract The intracellular transport of long-chain fatty acids in muscle cells is facilitated to a great extent by heart-type cytoplasmic fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP). By virtue of the marked affinity of this 14.5-kDa protein for fatty acids, H-FABP dramatically increases their concentration in the aqueous cytoplasm by non-covalent binding, thereby facilitating both the transition of fatty acids from membranes to the aqueous space and their diffusional transport from membranes (e.g. sarcolemma) to other cellular compartments (e.g. mitochondria). Striking features are the relative abundance of H-FABP in muscle, especially in oxidative muscle fibres, and the modulation of the muscular H-FABP content in concert with the modulation of other proteins and enzymes involved in fatty acid handling and utilization. Newer studies with mice carrying a homozygous or heterozygous deletion of the H-FABP gene show that, in comparison with wild-type mice, hindlimb muscles from heterozygous animals have a markedly lowered (,66%) H-FABP content but unaltered palmitate uptake rate, while in hindlimb muscles from homozygous animals (no H-FABP present) palmitate uptake was reduced by 45%. These findings indicate that H-FABP is present in relative excess and plays a substantial, but merely permissive role in fatty acid uptake by skeletal muscles. [source]


    The role of moisture cycling in the weathering of a quartz chlorite schist in a tropical environment: findings of a laboratory simulation

    EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS, Issue 4 2005
    Tony Wells
    Abstract Long-term weathering of a quartz chlorite schist via wetting and drying was studied under a simulated tropical climate. Cubic rock samples (15 mm 15 mm 15 mm) were cut from larger rocks and subjected to time-compressed climatic conditions simulating the tropical wet season climate at the Ranger Uranium Mine in the Northern Territory, Australia. Fragmentation, moisture content and moisture uptake rate were monitored over 5000 cycles of wetting and drying. To determine the impact of climatic variables, five climatic regimes were simulated, varying water application, temperature and drying. One of the climatic regimes reproduced observed temperature and moisture variability at the Ranger Uranium Mine, but over a compressed time scale. It is shown that wetting and drying is capable of weathering quartz chlorite schist with changes expected over a real time period of decades. While wetting and drying alone does produce changes to rock morphology, the incorporation of temperature variation further enhances weathering rates. Although little fragmentation occurred in experiments, significant changes to internal pore structure were observed, which could potentially enhance other weathering mechanisms. Moisture variability is shown to lead to higher weathering rates than are observed when samples are subjected only to leaching. Finally, experiments were conducted on two rock samples from the same source having only subtle differences in mineralogy. The samples exhibited quite different weathering rates leading to the conclusion that our knowledge of the role of rock type and composition in weathering is insufficient for the accurate determination of weathering rates. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Toxicokinetics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Eisenia andrei (Oligochaeta) using spiked soil

    ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY & CHEMISTRY, Issue 4 2000
    Tjalling Jager
    Abstract The accumulation of four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons ([PAHs]; phenanthrene, pyrene, fluoranthene, and ben-zo[a]pyrene) was tested in the earthworm Eisenia andrei in a spiked artificial soil medium. A typical peak in the body residues was observed for all PAHs around day 7, which could not be explained from changes in the total soil concentration. It is argued that the most likely cause of this peak is a decrease in the concentration in pore water, the main bioavailable phase for earthworms. This decrease is caused by biodegradation while the low rate of mass transfer from the solid state precludes replenishment. To describe the data, bioavailability was assumed to decline exponentially in time, but the shape of the accumulation curves suggests a more abrupt change. Estimates of the uptake rate (k1) are similar for all PAHs when expressed on soil solution basis (approximately 2,000 L/kg/d); the elimination rate (k2) shows a decrease with Kow as expected, but the values tend to be slightly lower than literature data. The dynamic bioconcentration factors (k1/k2) agree well with an equilibrium partitioning between soil water and the phases inside the organism. [source]


    TK/TD dose,response modeling of toxicity

    ENVIRONMETRICS, Issue 5 2007
    Munni Begum
    Abstract In environmental cancer risk assessment of a toxic chemical, the main focus is in understanding induced target organ toxicity that may in turn lead to carcinogenicity. Mathematical models based on systems of ordinary differential equations with biologically relevant parameters are tenable methods for describing the disposition of chemicals in target organs. In evaluation of a toxic chemical, dose,response assessment often addresses only toxicodynamics (TD) of the chemical, while its toxicokinetics (TK) do not enter into consideration. The primary objective of this research is to integrate both TK and TD in evaluation of toxic chemicals while performing dose,response assessment. Population models, with hierarchical setup and nonlinear predictors, for TK concentration and TD effect measures are considered. A one-compartment model with biologically relevant parameters, such as organ volume, uptake rate and excretion rate, or clearance, is used to derive the TK predictor while a two parameter Emax model is used as a predictor for TD measures. Inference of the model parameters with nonnegative and assay's Limit of Detection (LOD) constraints was carried out by Bayesian approaches using Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Characterization of DNA transport in the thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus HB27

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 18 2006
    Cornelia Schwarzenlander
    Horizontal gene transfer has been a major force for genome plasticity over evolutionary history, and is largely responsible for fitness-enhancing traits, including antibiotic resistance and virulence factors. In particular, for adaptation of prokaryotes to extreme environments, lateral gene transfer seems to have played a crucial role. Recently, by performing a genome-wide mutagenesis approach with Thermus thermophilus HB27, we identified the first genes in a thermophilic bacterium for the uptake of free DNA, a process called natural transformation. Here, we present the first data on the biochemistry and bioenergetics of the DNA transport process in this thermophile. We report that linear and circular plasmid DNA are equally well taken up with a high maximal velocity of 1.5 g DNA(mg protein),1min,1, demonstrating an extremely efficient binding and uptake rate of 40 kbs,1cell,1. Uncouplers and ATPase inhibitors immediately inhibited DNA uptake, providing clear evidence that DNA translocation in HB27 is an energy-dependent process. DNA uptake studies with genomic DNA of Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya revealed that Thermus thermophilus HB27 takes up DNA from members of all three domains of life. We propose that the extraordinary broad substrate specificity of the highly efficient Thermus thermophilus HB27 DNA uptake system may contribute significantly to thermoadaptation of Thermus thermophilus HB27 and to interdomain DNA transfer in hot environments. [source]


    Modelling the relationship between a pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea) and its phytotelma community: mutualism or parasitism?

    FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY, Issue 4 2008
    N. Mouquet
    Summary 1To improve our understanding of the relationship between the pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea) and the phytotelma community inhabiting its leaves we built an exploratory, mechanistic model based on stochiometric constraints on carbon and nitrogen associated with prey decomposition. 2Our theoretical results suggest that the phytotelma community is acting as a mineralizing system producing nitrogen for the plant. This is confirmed by data collected in the field and in the literature, that show the amount of nitrogen produced by the decomposition of prey is sufficiently high to be considered as a major source of nitrogen for the plant. 3In our model, nitrogen yield is higher if the phytotelma community is restricted to bacteria alone than when the full food web is present. Nitrogen availability is negatively affected by bacterivores (rotifers and protozoa mostly) and positively affected by a cascading effect of mosquito larvae. 4When sedimentation rate is high, mosquitoes have a global positive effect on nitrogen production because they indirectly reduce the amount of nitrogen lost through sedimentation more than they export nitrogen through pupation. On the other hand, when sedimentation rate is low there is a hump-shaped relationship between the uptake rate of bacterivores by mosquito larvae and the nitrogen yield in the plant. 5We conclude that plant,bacteria and plant,mosquito interactions are predominantly mutualistic, whereas plant,bacterivore interactions are predominantly parasitic. Our work also illustrates how ecosystem properties (here nitrogen production by the phytotelma community) can be understood as a function of trophic complexity and can be seen as a product of selection at the scale of a community. [source]


    Will photosynthesis of maize (Zea mays) in the US Corn Belt increase in future [CO2] rich atmospheres?

    GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, Issue 6 2004
    An analysis of diurnal courses of CO2 uptake under free-air concentration enrichment (FACE)
    Abstract The C4 grass Zea mays (maize or corn) is the third most important food crop globally in terms of production and demand is predicted to increase 45% from 1997 to 2020. However, the effects of rising [CO2] upon C4 plants, and Z. mays specifically, are not sufficiently understood to allow accurate predictions of future crop production. A rainfed, field experiment utilizing free-air concentration enrichment (FACE) technology in the primary area of global corn production (US Corn Belt) was undertaken to determine the effects of elevated [CO2] on corn. FACE technology allows experimental treatments to be imposed upon a complete soil,plant,atmosphere continuum with none of the effects of experimental enclosures on plant microclimate. Crop performance was compared at ambient [CO2] (354 , mol mol,1) and the elevated [CO2] (549 ,mol mol,1) predicted for 2050. Previous laboratory studies suggest that under favorable growing conditions C4 photosynthesis is not typically enhanced by elevated [CO2]. However, stomatal conductance and transpiration are decreased, which can indirectly increase photosynthesis in dry climates. Given the deep soils and relatively high rainfall of the US Corn Belt, it was predicted that photosynthesis would not be enhanced by elevated [CO2]. The diurnal course of gas exchange of upper canopy leaves was measured in situ across the growing season of 2002. Contrary to the prediction, growth at elevated [CO2] significantly increased leaf photosynthetic CO2 uptake rate (A) by up to 41%, and 10% on average. Greater A was associated with greater intercellular [CO2], lower stomatal conductance and lower transpiration. Summer rainfall during 2002 was very close to the 50-year average for this site, indicating that the year was not atypical or a drought year. The results call for a reassessment of the established view that C4 photosynthesis is insensitive to elevated [CO2] under favorable growing conditions and that the production potential of corn in the US Corn Belt will not be affected by the global rise in [CO2]. [source]


    2,4,6-Trichlorophenol and phenol removal in methanogenic and partially-aerated methanogenic conditions in a fluidized bed bioreactor

    JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY & BIOTECHNOLOGY, Issue 10 2005
    Claudio Garibay-Orijel
    Abstract A fluidized bed bioreactor (FBBR) was operated for more than 575 days to remove 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (TCP) and phenol (Phe) from a synthetic toxic wastewater containing 80 mg L,1 of TCP and 20 mg L,1 of Phe under two regimes: Methanogenic (M) and Partially-Aerated Methanogenic (PAM). The mesophilic, laboratory-scale FBBR consisted of a glass column (3 L capacity) loaded with 1 L of 1 mm diameter granular activated carbon colonized by an anaerobic consortium. Sucrose (1 g COD L,1) was used as co-substrate in the two conditions. The hydraulic residence time was kept constant at 1 day. Both conditions showed similar TCP and Phe removal (99.9 + %); nevertheless, in the Methanogenic regime, the accumulation of 4-chlorophenol (4CP) up to 16 mg L,1 and phenol up to 4 mg L,1 was observed, whereas in PAM conditions 4CP and other intermediates were not detected. The specific methanogenic activity of biomass decreased from 1.01 0.14 in M conditions to 0.19 0.06 mmolCH4 h,1 gTKN,1 in PAM conditions whereas the specific oxygen uptake rate increased from 0.039 0.008 in M conditions to 0.054 0.012 mmolO2 h,1 gTKN,1, which suggested the co-existence of both methanogenic archaea and aerobic bacteria in the undefined consortium. The advantage of the PAM condition over the M regime is that it provides for the thorough removal of less-substituted chlorophenols produced by the reductive dehalogenation of TCP rather than the removal of the parent compound itself. Copyright 2005 Society of Chemical Industry [source]


    The use of 3,3,,4,,5-tetrachlorosalicylanilide as a chemical uncoupler to reduce activated sludge yield

    JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY & BIOTECHNOLOGY, Issue 2 2004
    Ying Xu Chen
    Abstract To determine whether chemical additions can be used to reduce sludge production in biological wastewater treatment, 3,3,,4,,5-tetrachlorosalicylanilide (TCS) was added to activated sludge cultures as a metabolic uncoupler. Batch tests confirmed that TCS is an effective chemical uncoupler in reducing the sludge yield at concentrations greater than 1.0 mg dm,3; a TCS concentration of 1.0 mg dm,3 reduced sludge yield by approximately 50%. Substrate removal capability and effluent nitrogen concentration were not affected adversely by the presence of TCS when dosed every other day in a range of 2.0,3.6 mg dm,3 during the 40-day operation of activated sludge batch cultures. Such sludge growth reduction was associated with the enhancement of microbial activities in terms of the specific oxygen uptake rate and dehydrogenase activity. Sludge settleability of the treated and control samples was qualitatively comparable and not significantly different. Filamentous bacteria continued to grow in sludge flocs only in the control reactor at the end of the 40-day trial. These results suggest that TCS treatment of activated sludge systems may reduce excess sludge yield. Copyright 2003 Society of Chemical Industry [source]


    A structured model for the simulation of bioreactors under transient conditions

    AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 11 2009
    Jrme Morchain
    Abstract Modeling the transient behavior of continuous culture is of primary importance for the scale-up of biological processes. Spatial heterogeneities increase with the reactor size and micro-organisms have to cope with a fluctuating environment along their trajectories within the bioreactor. In this article, a structured model for bioreactions expressed in terms of biological extensive variables is proposed. A biological variable is introduced to calculate the growth rate of the population. The value is updated on the basis of the difference between the composition in the liquid and biotic phase. The structured model is able to predict the transient behavior of different continuous cultures subject to various drastic perturbations. This performance is obtained with a minimum increase in the standard unstructured model complexity (one additional time constant). In the final part, the consequences of decoupling the growth rate from the substrate uptake rate are discussed. 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2009 [source]


    Kinetics of adsorption of 2-CEES and HD on impregnated silica nanoparticles under static conditions

    AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 5 2009
    Amit Saxena
    Abstract Silica nanoparticles of high surface area (887.3 m2/g) were synthesized using aerogel route and, thereafter, impregnated with those reactive chemicals, which have already been proven to be effective against sulfur mustard (HD). Thus, developed adsorbents were tested for their potential by conducting studies on kinetics of adsorption of 2-chloroethylethyl sulfide (2-CEES) and HD under static conditions. Kinetics of adsorption was studied using linear driving force model and Fickian diffusion model. The kinetic parameters such as equilibration constant, equilibration capacity, diffusional exponent, and adsorbate-adsorbent interaction constant were also determined. Trichloroisocyanuric acid impregnated silica nanoparticles (10% w/w) showed the maximum uptake of 2-CEES (1824 mg/g) and HD (1208 mg/g). Values of diffusional exponent indicated the mechanisms to be Fickian and anomalous. Chemical interaction seemed to be another mechanism involved in the toxicant uptake rate. Hydrolysis, dehydrochlorination, and oxidation reactions were found to be the route of degradation of toxicants. 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 2009 [source]


    The suppressed expression and functional activity of hepatic P-glycoprotein in rats with protein,calorie malnutrition

    JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES, Issue 7 2003
    Young-Mi Lee
    Abstract The effect of protein,calorie malnutrition (PCM) on the expression and functional activity of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the liver of rats was examined. Control protein diets and protein-restricted diets were fed to Sprague-Dawley rats for 4 weeks, and the expression of P-gp in the liver (Western blot), in vitro uptake of a representative substrate of P-gp, daunomycin, into canalicular liver plasma membrane (cLPM) vesicles, and in vivo canalicular excretion of daunomycin were compared between the control and PCM rats. The expression of P-gp in the cLPM vesicles was decreased (22%, p,<,0.05) by PCM. Consistent with this result, the in vitro uptake rate (Vmax) was decreased (35%, p,<,0.05) by PCM, with constant affinity (Km), for the carrier-mediated uptake of daunomycin into cLPM vesicles, resulting in a 33% (p,<,0.05) decrease in the intrinsic uptake clearance (CLint). The in vivo canalicular excretion clearance (CLexc) of daunomycin was also decreased by 79% (p,<,0.01) in PCM rats, but the degree was more severe than would be expected from the 22% decrease in the expression of P-gp and the 33% decrease in the uptake of daunomycin (CLint). The hepatic level of adenosine 5,-triphosphate, which was decreased by 60% (p,<,0.01) in PCM rats, might have contributed to this severe decrease in CLexc. In summary, the canalicular excretion of P-gp substrates, such as daunomycin, might be reduced in patients with PCM via a mechanism involving the suppression of the expression of P-gp. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 92:1323,1330, 2003 [source]


    RAPID AMMONIUM- AND NITRATE-INDUCED PERTURBATIONS TO CHL a FLUORESCENCE IN NITROGEN-STRESSED DUNALIELLA TERTIOLECTA (CHLOROPHYTA),

    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 2 2003
    Erica B. Young
    When NH4+ or NO3, was supplied to NO3, -stressed cells of the microalga Dunaliella tertiolecta Butcher, immediate transient changes in chl a fluorescence were observed over several minutes that were not seen in N-replete cells. These changes were predominantly due to nonphotochemical fluorescence quenching. Fluorescence changes were accompanied by changes in photosynthetic oxygen evolution, indicating interactions between photosynthesis and N assimilation. The magnitude of the fluorescence change showed a Michaelis-Menten relationship with half-saturation concentration of 0.5 ,M for NO3, and 10 ,M for NH4+. Changes in fluorescence responses were characterized in D. tertiolecta both over 5 days of N starvation and in cells cultured at a range of NO3, -limited growth rates. Variation in responses was more marked in starved than in limited cells. During N starvation, the timing and onset of the fluorescence responses were different for NO3, versus NH4+ and were correlated with changes in maximum N uptake rate during N starvation. In severely N-starved cells, the major fluorescence response to NO3, disappeared, whereas the response to NH4+ persisted. N-starved cells previously grown with NH4+ alone showed fluorescence responses with NH4+ but not NO3, additions. The distinct responses to NO3, and NH4+ may be due to the differences between regulation of the uptake mechanisms for the two N sources during N starvation. This method offers potential for assessing the importance of NO3, or NH4+ as an N source to phytoplankton populations and as a diagnostic tool for N limitation. [source]


    DIEL RHYTHM OF ALGAL PHOSPHATE UPTAKE RATES IN P-LIMITED CYCLOSTATS AND SIMULATION OF ITS EFFECT ON GROWTH AND COMPETITION1

    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 4 2002
    Chi-Yong Ahn
    Oscillations in the phosphate (Pi) uptake rates for three species of green algae were examined in a P-limited cyclostat. For Ankistrodesmus convolutus Corda and Chlorella vulgaris Beyerinck, the Pi uptake rates increased during the daytime and decreased at night. In contrast, Chlamydomonas sp. exhibited the opposite uptake pattern. Cell densities also oscillated under a light:dark cycle, dividing at a species-specific timing rather than continuously. In general, the cell densities exhibited an inverse relationship with the Pi uptake rates. A competition experiment between A. convolutus and C. vulgaris in a P-limited cyclostat resulted in the dominance of C. vulgaris, regardless of the relative initial cell concentrations. Chlorella vulgaris also dominated in a mixed culture with Chlamydomonas sp., irrespective of the initial seeding ratio and dilution rate. However, Chlamydomonas sp. and A. convolutus coexisted in the competition experiment with gradual decrease of Chlamydomonas sp. when equally inoculated. Mathematical expressions of the oscillations in the Pi uptake rate and species-specific cell division gate were used to develop a simulation model based on the Droop equation. The simulation results for each of the species conformed reasonably well to the experimental data. The results of the competition experiments also matched the competition simulation predictions quite well, although the experimental competition was generally more delayed than the simulations. In conclusion, the model simulation that incorporated the effect of diel rhythms in nutrient uptake clearly demonstrated that species diversity could be enhanced by different oscillation patterns in resource uptake, even under the condition of limitation by the same resource. [source]


    Genotypic variation of potato for phosphorus efficiency and quantification of phosphorus uptake with respect to root characteristics

    JOURNAL OF PLANT NUTRITION AND SOIL SCIENCE, Issue 5 2009
    Tesfaye Balemi
    Abstract Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), an important food crop, generally requires a high amount of phosphate fertilizer for optimum growth and yield. One option to reduce the need of fertilizer is the use of P-efficient genotypes. Two efficient and two inefficient genotypes were investigated for P-efficiency mechanisms. The contribution of root traits to P uptake was quantified using a mechanistic simulation model. For all genotypes, high P supply increased the relative growth rate of shoot, shoot P concentration, and P-uptake rate of roots but decreased root-to-shoot ratio, root-hair length, and P-utilization efficiency. Genotypes CGN 17903 and CIP 384321.3 were clearly superior to genotypes CGN 22367 and CGN 18233 in terms of shoot,dry matter yield and relative shoot-growth rate at low P supply, and therefore can be considered as P-efficient. Phosphorus efficiency of genotype CGN 17903 was related to higher P-utilization efficiency and that of CIP 384321.3 to both higher P-uptake efficiency in terms of root-to-shoot ratio and intermediate P-utilization efficiency. Phosphorus-efficient genotypes exhibited longer root hairs compared to inefficient genotypes at both P levels. However, this did not significantly affect the uptake rate and the extension of the depletion zone around roots. The P inefficiency of CGN 18233 was related to low P-utilization efficiency and that of CGN 22367 to a combination of low P uptake and intermediate P-utilization efficiency. Simulation of P uptake revealed that no other P-mobilization mechanism was involved since predicted uptake approximated observed uptake indicating that the processes involved in P transport and morphological root characterstics affecting P uptake are well described. [source]


    Root traits associated with nutrient exploitation following defoliation in three coexisting perennial grasses in a semi-arid savanna

    OIKOS, Issue 2 2001
    C. A. Busso
    Experiments were conducted to evaluate root traits associated with nutrient exploitation following defoliation in three coexisting perennial grasses in a semi-arid savanna. Root length density was determined within soil cores directly beneath plants, nitrogen uptake was evaluated by excised-root assay with (15NH4)2SO4, and mycorrhizal root colonization was estimated by observation of root segments. Root length density was lowest for Bouteloua curtipendula, intermediate for Eriochloa sericea, and highest for Aristida purpurea indicating that root length density was a more important trait for the mid-seral than the late-seral species. Rates of 15N uptake were greatest in the least grazing tolerant late-seral species, E. sericea, intermediate in the mid-seral species, A. purpurea, and lowest in the most grazing tolerant late-seral species, B. curtipendula. Two successive defoliations reduced 15N uptake 60% in the late-seral species with the greatest uptake rate (E. sericea), but not in species with lowest uptake rates (B. curtipendula). Root length colonization was consistently high (33,61%) in all three species suggesting that these C4 perennial grasses may function as obligate mycotrophs. Contrasting responses among the two late-seral species indicate that the least grazing tolerant species, E. sericea, appears best adapted for nutrient exploitation while the most grazing tolerant species, B. curtipendula, appears best adapted for efficient nutrient retention. Contrasting responses of nitrogen uptake to short-term defoliation parallel the population responses of these two coexisting late-seral species to long-term herbivory. These data indicate that herbivory may shift interspecific competitive interactions by mediating nutrient exploitation and that a trade-off may exist between nutrient exploitation and herbivory tolerance in these species. [source]


    Ecophysiological and morphological parameters related to survival in grass species exposed to an extreme climatic event

    PHYSIOLOGIA PLANTARUM, Issue 4 2005
    Ann Milbau
    An experiment was performed to elucidate interspecific differences in survival time of grass species subjected to an extreme climatic event. We exposed eight grass species to a simulated heat wave in the field (,free air' temperature increase at 11C above ambient) combined with drought. We determined whether interspecific differences in survival time were related to the responses of the species to the imposed stress or could be explained by their ecophysiological or morphological characteristics in unstressed conditions. Surprisingly, there was no effect of specific leaf area, but species with a higher total leaf area survived longer. This may arise from a greater water reserve in the plant as a whole, which could delay the desiccation of the meristem, or from reduced evaporation due to a higher leaf area index. Species in which the decrease in light-saturated stomatal conductance (gs) and photosynthetic CO2 uptake rate (Amax) was strongly related to the decrease in soil water availability (measured as soil relative water content and stress duration) survived longer than species in which gs and Amax likewise declined but responded more to daily fluctuations in irradiance, temperature, and vapor pressure deficit during the heat wave. We, therefore, hypothesize that interspecific differences in stress survival time might be related to the extent to which stomata react to changes in soil water conditions relatively to changes in other environmental and physiological factors. The results suggest that resistance to extremes is governed by other mechanisms than resistance to moderate drought. [source]


    Control of Nitrate Uptake by Phloem-Translocated Glutamine in Zea mays L. Seedlings

    PLANT BIOLOGY, Issue 4 2002
    P. Pal'ove-Balang
    Abstract: The putative role of glutamine, exported from leaves to roots, as a negative feedback signal for nitrate uptake was investigated in Zea mays L. seedlings. Glutamine (Gln) was supplied by immersion of the tip-cut leaves in a concentrated solution. Nitrate (NO3,) uptake was measured by its depletion in amino acid-free medium. The treatment with Gln resulted in a strong inhibition of nitrate uptake rate, accompanied by a significant enrichment of amino compounds in root tissue. The effect of N-availability on NO3, uptake was determined in split-root cultures. The plants were subjected to complete or localized N supply. Inducible NO3, uptake systems were also induced in N-deprived roots when the opposite side of the root system was supplied with KNO3. The inhibitory effect of Gln was unaffected by localized N supply on one side of the split-root. The potential role of Gln in the shoot-to-root control of NO3, uptake is discussed. [source]


    Would transformation of C3 crop plants with foreign Rubisco increase productivity?

    PLANT CELL & ENVIRONMENT, Issue 2 2004
    A computational analysis extrapolating from kinetic properties to canopy photosynthesis
    ABSTRACT Genetic modification of Rubisco to increase the specificity for CO2 relative to O2 (,) would decrease photorespiration and in principle should increase crop productivity. When the kinetic properties of Rubisco from different photosynthetic organisms are compared, it appears that forms with high , have low maximum catalytic rates of carboxylation per active site (kcc). If it is assumed that an inverse relationship between kcc and , exists, as implied from measurements, and that an increased concentration of Rubisco per unit leaf area is not possible, will increasing , result in increased leaf and canopy photosynthesis? A steady-state biochemical model for leaf photosynthesis was coupled to a canopy biophysical microclimate model and used to explore this question. C3 photosynthetic CO2 uptake rate (A) is either limited by the maximum rate of Rubisco activity (Vcmax) or by the rate of regeneration of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate, in turn determined by the rate of whole chain electron transport (J). Thus, if J is limiting, an increase in , will increase net CO2 uptake because more products of the electron transport chain will be partitioned away from photorespiration into photosynthesis. The effect of an increase in , on Rubisco-limited photosynthesis depends on both kcc and the concentration of CO2 ([CO2]). Assuming a strict inverse relationship between kcc and ,, the simulations showed that a decrease, not an increase, in , increases Rubisco-limited photosynthesis at the current atmospheric [CO2], but the increase is observed only in high light. In crop canopies, significant amounts of both light-limited and light-saturated photosynthesis contribute to total crop carbon gain. For canopies, the present average , found in C3 terrestrial plants is supra-optimal for the present atmospheric [CO2] of 370 mol mol,1, but would be optimal for a CO2 concentration of around 200 mol mol,1, a value close to the average of the last 400 000 years. Replacing the average Rubisco of terrestrial C3 plants with one having a lower and optimal , would increase canopy carbon gain by 3%. Because there are significant deviations from the strict inverse relationship between kcc and ,, the canopy model was also used to compare the rates of canopy photosynthesis for several Rubiscos with well-defined kinetic constants. These simulations suggest that very substantial increases (> 25%) in crop carbon gain could result if specific Rubiscos having either a higher , or higher kcc were successfully expressed in C3 plants. [source]


    Wood/plastic composites co-extruded with multi-walled carbon nanotube-filled rigid poly(vinyl chloride) cap layer

    POLYMER INTERNATIONAL, Issue 5 2010
    Shan Jin
    Abstract Wood/plastic composites (WPCs) can absorb moisture in a humid environment due to the hydrophilic nature of the wood in the composites, making products susceptible to microbial growth and loss of mechanical properties. Co-extruding a poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)-rich cap layer on a WPC significantly reduces the moisture uptake rate, increases the flexural strength but, most importantly, decreases the flexural modulus compared to uncapped WPCs. A two-level factorial design was used to develop regression models evaluating the statistical effects of material compositions and a processing condition on the flexural properties of co-extruded rigid PVC/wood flour composites with the ultimate goal of producing co-extruded composites with better flexural properties than uncapped WPCs. Material composition variables included wood flour content in the core layer and carbon nanotube (CNT) content in the cap layer of the co-extruded composites, with the processing temperature profile for the core layer as the only processing condition variable. Fusion tests were carried out to understand the effects of the material compositions and processing condition on the flexural properties. Regression models indicated all main effects and two powerful interaction effects (processing temperature/wood flour content and wood flour content/CNT content interactions) as statistically significant. Factors leading to a fast fusion of the PVC/wood flour composites in the core layer, i.e. low wood flour content and high processing temperature, were effective material composition and processing condition parameters for improving the flexural properties of co-extruded composites. Reinforcing the cap layer with CNTs also produced a significant improvement in the flexural properties of the co-extruded composites, insensitive to the core layer composition and the processing temperature condition. Copyright 2009 Society of Chemical Industry [source]


    Prenatal diagnostic procedures used in pregnancies with congenital malformations in 14 regions of Europe

    PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS, Issue 11 2004
    Ester Garne
    Abstract Objective To investigate outcomes of ultrasound investigations (US) and invasive diagnostic procedures in cases of congenital malformations (CM), and to compare the use of invasive prenatal test techniques (amniocentesis (AC) versus chorionic villus sampling (CVS)) among European populations. Design Analysis of data from population-based registries of CM. Subjects 25 400 cases of CM recorded by 14 EUROCAT registries covering a total population of 1 013 352 births 1995,99. Results US were performed in 91% of cases, and positively detected CM in 35% of cases. AC was performed in 24% of the cases and CVS in 3% of cases. Thirty-eight percent of invasive tests gave positive results. Fifty-two percent of cases with maternal age , 35 years had an invasive test performed compared to 20% of cases with younger mothers. Considerable variation was found between registries in the uptake rate of invasive tests in cases with older maternal age and on the use of invasive tests with only four regions employing CVS techniques in at least a third of the cases having invasive tests. For chromosomal anomalies US gave positive results in 46% of cases with maternal age < 35 years with US performed and in 36% of cases with maternal age , 35 years with US performed. Conclusion Prenatal US was performed in 91% of all pregnancies with CM but the test was only positive in a third of the cases. There was large regional variation in the uptake rate of invasive tests with maternal age of 35 years or more. For every CVS carried out there were nine AC tests. US is an important tool in the prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal anomalies in Europe. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Mitochondrial proline oxidation is affected by hyperosmotic stress in durum wheat seedlings

    ANNALS OF APPLIED BIOLOGY, Issue 1 2010
    M. Soccio
    The important role of plant mitochondria in the adaptation to environmental stresses at subcellular level has recently emerged. In particular, an important mitochondrial mechanism involved in the resistance to environmental stresses is the inhibition of proline oxidation. In order to study this physiological mechanism, we used both washed and purified durum wheat (Triticum durum) mitochondria (DWM) isolated from early seedlings germinated in two different NaCl solutions leading to either moderate or severe damage to growth. To assess the contribution of the osmotic component of stress, a parallel investigation was performed using hyperosmotic mannitol solutions. Comparison of the oxygen uptake rate in the course of proline oxidation, with that of the malate plus glutamate substrate pair and that of succinate showed that an early inhibition of proline oxidation occurs under stress. The drop of the proline-dependent oxygen uptake rate was as a result of a heavy inhibition of proline dehydrogenase (ProDH); on the other hand, malate plus glutamate-dependent and succinate-dependent oxidations were less inhibited, being the maintenance of oxygen uptake rate not dependent on alternative oxidase (AOX) pathway; in fact, DWM-AOX activity did not show any increase under our experimental stress conditions. The selective inhibition of proline oxidation should be considered a mitochondrial adaptation to stress rather than damage to mitochondrial oxidative properties. This result was achieved by means of a novel approach based on the comparison between oxygen uptake rates of washed and purified organelles. [source]


    Effects of a 60 Hz magnetic field on photosynthetic CO2 uptake and early growth of radish seedlings

    BIOELECTROMAGNETICS, Issue 8 2004
    Akira Yano
    Abstract Photosynthetic CO2 uptake rate and early growth parameters of radish Raphanus sativus L. seedlings exposed to an extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF MF) were investigated. Radish seedlings were exposed to a 60 Hz, 50 ,Trms (root mean square) sinusoidal magnetic field (MF) and a parallel 48 ,T static MF for 6 or 15 d immediately after germination. Control seedlings were exposed to the ambient MF but not the ELF MF. The CO2 uptake rate of ELF MF exposed seedlings on day 5 and later was lower than that of the control seedlings. The dry weight and the cotyledon area of ELF MF exposed seedlings on day 6 and the fresh weight, the dry weight and the leaf area of ELF MF exposed seedlings on day 15 were significantly lower than those of the control seedlings, respectively. In another experiment, radish seedlings were grown without ELF MF exposure for 14 d immediately after germination, and then exposed to the ELF MF for about 2 h, and the photosynthetic CO2 uptake rate was measured during the short term ELF MF exposure. The CO2 uptake rate of the same seedlings was subsequently measured in the ambient MF (control) without the ELF MF. There was no difference in the CO2 uptake rate of seedlings exposed to the ELF MF or the ambient MF. These results indicate that continuous exposure to 60 Hz, 50 ,Trms sinusoidal MF with a parallel 48 ,T static MF affects the early growth of radish seedlings, but the effect is not so severe that modification of photosynthetic CO2 uptake can be observed during short term MF exposure. Bioelectromagnetics 25:572,581, 2004. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Involvement of an influx transporter in the blood,brain barrier transport of naloxone

    BIOPHARMACEUTICS AND DRUG DISPOSITION, Issue 4 2010
    Toyofumi Suzuki
    Abstract Naloxone, a potent and specific opioid antagonist, has been shown in previous studies to have an influx clearance across the rat blood,brain barrier (BBB) two times greater than the efflux clearance. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the influx transport of naloxone across the rat BBB using the brain uptake index (BUI) method. The initial uptake rate of [3H]naloxone exhibited saturability in a concentration-dependent manner (concentration range 0.5,M to 15,mM) in the presence of unlabeled naloxone. These results indicate that both passive diffusion and a carrier-mediated transport mechanism are operating. The in vivo kinetic parameters were estimated as follows: the Michaelis constant, Kt, was 2.990.71,mM; the maximum uptake rate, Jmax, was 0.4770.083,mol/min/g brain; and the nonsaturable first-order rate constant, Kd, was 0.1600.044,ml/min/g brain. The uptake of [3H]naloxone by the rat brain increased as the pH of the injected solution was increased from 5.5 to 8.5 and was strongly inhibited by cationic H1 -antagonists such as pyrilamine and diphenhydramine and cationic drugs such as lidocaine and propranolol. In contrast, the BBB transport of [3H]naloxone was not affected by any typical substrates for organic cation transport systems such as tetraethylammonium, ergothioneine or L -carnitine or substrates for organic anion transport systems such as p -aminohippuric acid, benzylpenicillin or pravastatin. The present results suggest that a pH-dependent and saturable influx transport system that is a selective transporter for cationic H1 -antagonists is involved in the BBB transport of naloxone in the rat. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Storage and growth of denitrifiers in aerobic granules: Part II. model calibration and verification

    BIOTECHNOLOGY & BIOENGINEERING, Issue 2 2008
    Bing-Jie Ni
    Abstract A mathematical model to describe the simultaneous storage and growth activities of denitrifiers in aerobic granules under anoxic conditions has been developed in an accompanying article. The sensitivity of the nitrate uptake rate (NUR) toward the stoichiometric and kinetic coefficients is analyzed in this article. The model parameter values are estimated by minimizing the sum of squares of the deviations between the measured and model-predicted values. The model is successfully calibrated and a set of stoichiometric and kinetic parameters for the anoxic storage and growth of the denitrifiers are obtained. Thereafter, the model established is verified with three set of experimental data. The comparison between the model established with the ASM1 model and ASM3 shows that the present model is appropriate to simulate and predict the performance of a granule-based denitrification system. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2008;99: 324,332. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]


    Modeling the partial nitrification in sequencing batch reactor for biomass adapted to high ammonia concentrations

    BIOTECHNOLOGY & BIOENGINEERING, Issue 1 2006
    V. Pambrun
    Abstract Partial nitrification has proven to be an economic way for treatment of industrial N-rich effluent, reducing oxygen and external COD requirements during nitrification/denitrification process. One of the key issues of this system is the intermediate nitrite accumulation stability. This work presents a control strategy and a modeling tool for maintaining nitrite build-up. Partial nitrification process has been carried out in a sequencing batch reactor at 30C, maintaining strong changing ammonia concentration in the reactor (sequencing feed). Stable nitrite accumulation has been obtained with the help of an on-line oxygen uptake rate (OUR)-based control system, with removal rate of 2 kg NH -N,,m,3/day and 90%,95% of conversion of ammonium into nitrite. A mathematical model, identified through the occurring biological reactions, is proposed to optimize the process (preventing nitrate production). Most of the kinetic parameters have been estimated from specific respirometric tests on biomass and validated on pilot-scale experiments of one-cycle duration. Comparison of dynamic data at different pH confirms that NH3 and NO should be considered as the true substrate of nitritation and nitratation, respectively. The proposed model represents major features: the inhibition of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria by its substrate (NH3) and product (HNO2), the inhibition of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria by free ammonia (NH3), the INFluence of pH. It appears that the model correctly describes the short-term dynamics of nitrogenous compounds in SBR, when both ammonia oxidizers and nitrite oxidizers are present and active in the reactor. The model proposed represents a useful tool for process design and optimization. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]