Uptake Process (uptake + process)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Study of the MR relaxation of microglia cells labeled with Gd-DTPA-bearing nanoparticles

Emeline Julie Ribot
Abstract Therapies involving cells as vehicles need to visualize in situ the trafficking of the cells concerned. This cellular imaging can be driven by cell contrast agent-based nanoparticle internalization and non-invasive MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) detection. Here, microglial cells, that would transport a suicide gene to a glioma, were incubated for different times, with various concentrations of silica nanoparticles on which numerous Gd-DTPA were grafted. The goal of this study was to investigate the repartition of cell-associated particles. MRI was used to quantitatively follow the particle uptake process. Fluorescence microscopy images showed that, although most of the nanoparticles were internalized, some remained adsorbed on the extracellular membrane surface. The cells were then submitted to various treatments: glycine to release bound nanoparticles and/or ultrasound to destroy the cell membranes. The R1 relaxation rates were measured at 4.7 T. R1 was maximal for 4,h of incubation, decreased after 8,h and remained stable for the 24 following hours. The magnetic resonance signal of ultrasonicated and glycine-treated cells made it possible to quantify the loss of bound nanoparticles after 8,h. Nevertheless, this release did not prevent cell detection since the internalized nanoparticles are enough concentrated to visualize the labeled cells even after 4 days of cell growth. These results highlight the compartmentalization of nanoparticles in microglia and the evolution of the MR signal of the labeled cells. This study could be of importance to interpret in vivo the MR signal changes that could occur after administration of such nanoparticle-labeled cells in therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Visualisation of the uptake of two model xenobiotics into bean leaves by confocal laser scanning microscopy: diffusion pathways and implication in phloem translocation

Dr Zhiqian Liu
Abstract The diffusion of two fluorescent dyes, Oregon Green 488 (Oregon Green) and Rhodamine B into the leaves of broad bean (Vicia faba L) plants was studied to simulate the foliar uptake process of pesticides. The uptake rate of these model xenobiotics into bean foliage was measured using a standard leaf surface wash-off method. Diffusion into leaf tissues was visualised in vivo by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The moderately lipophilic dye (Rhodamine B) showed faster uptake than the hydrophilic one (Oregon Green), despite the former being a larger molecule. While no distinct channels or domains for preferential entry of any of the dyes could be detected in the cuticle layer by CLSM, two different diffusion patterns were identified for the movement of these two dyes after traversing the cuticle. Upon desorption from the cuticle, Rhodamine B diffused extensively into the vacuole of the epidermal cells. Further transport of this dye from the epidermal cells to the mesophyll cells was not observed. In contrast, Oregon Green was found in the epidermal cell walls and cytoplasm, and was also present in the mesophyll cells. Examination of the petioles of the treated leaves revealed that, once absorbed, Oregon Green moved readily out of the treated leaf, whereas Rhodamine B did not show any phloem translocation. It is proposed that these two different diffusion characters may be responsible for the contrasting phloem mobility of the two xenobiotics. The results are discussed in relation to the current knowledge on the uptake, translocation and efficacy of pesticides as influenced by their properties. Copyright © 2004 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Sugar Metabolic Analysis of Suspensions of Plant Cells Using an FT-IR/ATR Method

Atsushi Hashimoto
A simple, rapid and accurate evaluation of the sugar uptake rate of suspended plant cells from culture media was developed with the predicted sugar contents measured by mid-infrared spectroscopy using a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer equipped with an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) accessory. We performed plant cell cultivation with Nicotiana tabacum cv. Bright Yellow No.2 (TBY-2) in culture media, which had various combinations of glucose, fructose and sucrose concentrations at the initial stage, and measured simultaneously each sugar content in the medium by the FT-IR/ATR method. By applying a logistic function to the predicted sugar contents and cell density in the medium during cultivation, the specific sugar uptake rates by the suspended TBY-2 cells were easily and continuously obtained. Thus the kinetic sugar uptake phenomena by the TBY-2 cells were well confirmed overall using the developed method. Additionally it was found that the fraction of sucrose of the initial total sugar content might kinetically affect the sugar uptake process and cell growth. Also, the relationship between the nondimensional cell density and sucrose content could be classified into three groups on the basis of the initial fraction of sucrose. [source]

Characterization of an anandamide degradation system in prostate epithelial PC-3 cells: synthesis of new transporter inhibitors as tools for this study

Lidia Ruiz-Llorente
The response of anandamide is terminated by a carrier-mediated transport followed by degradation catalyzed by the cloned enzyme fatty acid amidohydrolase (FAAH). In this study, we provide biochemical data showing an anandamide uptake process and the expression of FAAH in human prostate. Anandamide was accumulated in PC-3 cells by a saturable and temperature-dependent process. Kinetic studies of anandamide uptake, determined in the presence of cannabinoid and vanilloid antagonists, revealed apparent parameters of KM=4.7±0.2 ,M and Vmax=3.3±0.3 pmol min,1 (106 cells),1. The accumulation of anandamide was moderately inhibited by previously characterized anandamide transporter inhibitors (AM404, UCM707 and VDM11) but was unaffected by inhibitors of other lipid transport systems (phloretin or verapamil) and moderately affected by the FAAH inhibitor methyl arachidonyl fluorophosphonate. The presence of FAAH in human prostate epithelial PC-3 cells was confirmed by analyzing its expression by Western blot and measuring FAAH activity. To further study the structural requirements of the putative carrier, we synthesized a series of structurally different compounds 1,8 and evaluated their capacity as uptake inhibitors. They showed different inhibitory capacity in PC-3 cells, with (9Z,12Z)- N -(fur-3-ylmethyl)octadeca-9,12-dienamide (4, UCM119) being the most efficacious, with maximal inhibition and IC50 values of 49% and 11.3±0.5 ,M, respectively. In conclusion, PC-3 cells possess a complete inactivation system for anandamide formed by an uptake process and the enzyme FAAH. These results suggest a possible physiological function of anandamide in the prostate, reinforcing the role of endocannabinoid system as a neuroendocrine modulator. British Journal of Pharmacology (2004) 141, 457,467. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0705628 [source]

Signalization and cytoskeleton activity through myosin IB during the early steps of phagocytosis in Entamoeba histolytica: a proteomic approach

Sabrina Marion
Summary Phagocytosis of human cells is a crucial activity for the virulence of the human parasite Entamoeba histolytica. This protozoan invades and destroys the intestine by killing and phagocytosing epithelial cells, erythrocytes and cells from the immune system. In this study, we used magnetic beads covered with proteins from human serum as a model system to study the early events involved in phagocytosis by E. histolytica. We validated the system showing that the beads uptake triggered the activation of the actin-myosin cytoskeleton and involved a PI3-kinase as previously described for erythrophagocytosis. We purified early phagosomes from wild-type (WT) amoeba and from parasites that overproduced myosin IB (MyoIB+), the unique unconventional myosin of E. histolytica. The MyoIB+ cells exhibit a slower and more synchronized uptake process than the WT strain. Proteomic analysis by liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS) of the WT and MyoIB+ phagosomes allowed us to identify, for the first time, molecular actors involved in the early step of the uptake process. These include proteins involved in cytoskeleton activity, signalling, endocytosis, lytic activity and cell surface proteins. Interestingly, the proteins that we found specifically recruited on the phagosomes from the MyoIB+ strain were previously described in other eukarytotic cells, as involved in the regulation of cortical F-actin dynamics, such as ,-actinin and formins. This proteomics approach allows a step further towards the understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in phagocytosis in E. histolytica that revealed some interesting differences compared with phagocytosis in macrophages or Dictyostelium discoideum, and allowed to identify putative candidates for proteins linked to myosin IB activity during the phagocytic process [source]

Can Electrophilicity Act as a Measure of the Redox Potential of First-Row Transition Metal Ions?

Jan Moens
Abstract Previous contributions concerning the computational approach to redox chemistry have made use of thermodynamic cycles and Car,Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations to obtain accurate redox potential values, whereas this article adopts a conceptual density functional theory (DFT) approach. Conceptual DFT descriptors have found widespread use in the study of thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of a variety of organic and inorganic reactions. However, redox reactions have not received much attention until now. In this contribution, we prove the usefulness of global and local electrophilicity descriptors for the prediction of the redox characteristics of first row transition metal ions (from Sc3+|Sc2+ to Cu3+|Cu2+) and introduce a scaled definition of the electrophilicity based on the number of electrons an electrophile ideally accepts. This scaled electrophilicity concept acts as a good quantitative estimate of the redox potential. We also identify the first solvation sphere together with the metal ion as the primary active region during the electron uptake process, whereas the second solvation sphere functions as a non-reactive continuum region. [source]

Nigrostriatal denervation does not affect glutamate transporter mRNA expression but subsequent levodopa treatment selectively increases GLT1 mRNA and protein expression in the rat striatum

J.-C. Liévens
There is growing evidence that the loss of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurones induces an overactivity of the corticostriatal glutamatergic pathway which seems to be central to the physiopathology of parkinsonism. Moreover, glutamatergic mechanisms involving NMDA receptors have been shown to interfere with the therapeutical action of levodopa. Given the key role played by uptake processes in glutamate neurotransmission, this study examined the effects of nigrostriatal deafferentation and of levodopa treatment on the striatal expression of the glutamate transporters GLT1, GLAST and EAAC1 in the rat. No significant changes in striatal mRNA levels of these transporters were detected after either levodopa treatment (100 mg/kg; i.p., twice a day for 21 days) or unilateral lesion of the nigrostriatal pathway by intranigral 6-hydroxydopamine injection. In contrast, animals with the lesion subsequently treated with levodopa showed a selective increase (36%) in GLT1 mRNA levels in the denervated striatum versus controls. These animals also showed increased GLT1 protein expression, as assessed by immunostaining and western blotting. These data provide the first evidence that levodopa therapy may interfere with striatal glutamate transmission through change in expression of the primarily glial glutamate transporter GLT1. We further suggest that levodopa-induced GLT1 overexpression may represent a compensatory mechanism preventing neurotoxic accumulation of endogenous glutamate. [source]

Pathogen trafficking pathways and host phosphoinositide metabolism

Stefan S. Weber
Summary Phosphoinositide (PI) glycerolipids are key regulators of eukaryotic signal transduction, cytoskeleton architecture and membrane dynamics. The host cell PI metabolism is targeted by intracellular bacterial pathogens, which evolved intricate strategies to modulate uptake processes and vesicle trafficking pathways. Upon entering eukaryotic host cells, pathogenic bacteria replicate in distinct vacuoles or in the host cytoplasm. Vacuolar pathogens manipulate PI levels to mimic or modify membranes of subcellular compartments and thereby establish their replicative niche. Legionella pneumophila, Brucella abortus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Salmonella enterica translocate effector proteins into the host cell, some of which anchor to the vacuolar membrane via PIs or enzymatically turnover PIs. Cytoplasmic pathogens target PI metabolism at the plasma membrane, thus modulating their uptake and antiapoptotic signalling pathways. Employing this strategy, Shigella flexneri directly injects a PI-modifying effector protein, while Listeria monocytogenes exploits PI metabolism indirectly by binding to transmembrane receptors. Thus, regardless of the intracellular lifestyle of the pathogen, PI metabolism is critically involved in the interactions with host cells. [source]