Uptake Pattern (uptake + pattern)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Abundance and activity of Chloroflexi -type SAR202 bacterioplankton in the meso- and bathypelagic waters of the (sub)tropical Atlantic

ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, Issue 7 2008
Marta M. Varela
Summary The contribution of Chloroflexi -type SAR202 cells to total picoplankton and bacterial abundance and uptake of d - and l -aspartic acids (Asp) was determined in the different meso- and bathypelagic water masses of the (sub)tropical Atlantic (from 35N to 5S). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that the overall abundance of SAR202 was , 1 103 cells ml,1 in subsurface waters (100 m layer), increasing in the mesopelagic zone to 3 103 cells ml,1 and remaining fairly constant down to 4000 m depth. Overall, the percentage of total picoplankton identified as SAR202 increased from < 1% in subsurface waters to 10,20% in the bathypelagic waters. On average, members of the SAR202 cluster accounted for about 30% of the Bacteria in the bathypelagic waters, whereas in the mesopelagic and subsurface waters, SAR202 cells contributed < 5% to total bacterial abundance. The ratio of d -Asp : l -Asp uptake by the bulk picoplankton community increased from the subsurface layer (d -Asp : l -Asp uptake ratio , 0.03) to the deeper layers reaching a ratio of ,1 at 4000 m depth. Combining FISH with microautoradiography to determine the proportion of SAR202 cells taking up d -Asp versus l -Asp, we found that ,,30% of the SAR202 cells were taking up l -Asp throughout the water column while d -Asp was essentially not taken up by SAR202. This d -Asp : l -Asp uptake pattern of SAR202 cells is in contrast to that of the bulk bacterial and crenarchaeal community in the bathypelagic ocean, both sustaining a higher fraction of d -Asp-positive cells than l -Asp-positive cells. Thus, although the Chloroflexi -type SAR202 constitutes a major bathypelagic bacterial cluster, it does not contribute to the large fraction of d -Asp utilizing prokaryotic community in the meso- and bathypelagic waters of the North Atlantic, but rather utilizes preferentially l -amino acids. [source]


CO2 uptake patterns depend on water current velocity and shoot morphology in submerged stream macrophytes

FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 7 2006
HANNE DALSGAARD NIELSEN
Summary 1. The influence of current velocity on the pattern of photosynthetic CO2 uptake in three species of submerged stream macrophytes was described by analysing the grain density in autoradiographs of leaves exposed to 14CO2. 2. In Elodea canadensis, the CO2 uptake was approximately two-fold higher near the leaf periphery compared with the midrib section at high current velocity, whereas at low current velocity the area of relatively high CO2 uptake expanded from the leaf periphery towards the midrib and basal sections of the leaves. 3. In Potamogeton crispus and Callitriche stagnalis the CO2 uptake was uniform throughout the leaves at low current velocity, whereas at high current velocity the CO2 uptake appeared to increase randomly in some areas of the leaves. 4. The relationship between the photosynthetic CO2 uptake pattern and the dynamics of flow surrounding submerged shoots at low and high current velocity is discussed in relation to shoot morphology. In E. canadensis, thick diffusive boundary layers may develop between leaves because of screening effects at high current velocity. Increased diffusion path for CO2 may contribute to inhibitory effects on photosynthesis in this species. [source]


DIEL RHYTHM OF ALGAL PHOSPHATE UPTAKE RATES IN P-LIMITED CYCLOSTATS AND SIMULATION OF ITS EFFECT ON GROWTH AND COMPETITION1

JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 4 2002
Chi-Yong Ahn
Oscillations in the phosphate (Pi) uptake rates for three species of green algae were examined in a P-limited cyclostat. For Ankistrodesmus convolutus Corda and Chlorella vulgaris Beyerinck, the Pi uptake rates increased during the daytime and decreased at night. In contrast, Chlamydomonas sp. exhibited the opposite uptake pattern. Cell densities also oscillated under a light:dark cycle, dividing at a species-specific timing rather than continuously. In general, the cell densities exhibited an inverse relationship with the Pi uptake rates. A competition experiment between A. convolutus and C. vulgaris in a P-limited cyclostat resulted in the dominance of C. vulgaris, regardless of the relative initial cell concentrations. Chlorella vulgaris also dominated in a mixed culture with Chlamydomonas sp., irrespective of the initial seeding ratio and dilution rate. However, Chlamydomonas sp. and A. convolutus coexisted in the competition experiment with gradual decrease of Chlamydomonas sp. when equally inoculated. Mathematical expressions of the oscillations in the Pi uptake rate and species-specific cell division gate were used to develop a simulation model based on the Droop equation. The simulation results for each of the species conformed reasonably well to the experimental data. The results of the competition experiments also matched the competition simulation predictions quite well, although the experimental competition was generally more delayed than the simulations. In conclusion, the model simulation that incorporated the effect of diel rhythms in nutrient uptake clearly demonstrated that species diversity could be enhanced by different oscillation patterns in resource uptake, even under the condition of limitation by the same resource. [source]


CO2 uptake patterns depend on water current velocity and shoot morphology in submerged stream macrophytes

FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 7 2006
HANNE DALSGAARD NIELSEN
Summary 1. The influence of current velocity on the pattern of photosynthetic CO2 uptake in three species of submerged stream macrophytes was described by analysing the grain density in autoradiographs of leaves exposed to 14CO2. 2. In Elodea canadensis, the CO2 uptake was approximately two-fold higher near the leaf periphery compared with the midrib section at high current velocity, whereas at low current velocity the area of relatively high CO2 uptake expanded from the leaf periphery towards the midrib and basal sections of the leaves. 3. In Potamogeton crispus and Callitriche stagnalis the CO2 uptake was uniform throughout the leaves at low current velocity, whereas at high current velocity the CO2 uptake appeared to increase randomly in some areas of the leaves. 4. The relationship between the photosynthetic CO2 uptake pattern and the dynamics of flow surrounding submerged shoots at low and high current velocity is discussed in relation to shoot morphology. In E. canadensis, thick diffusive boundary layers may develop between leaves because of screening effects at high current velocity. Increased diffusion path for CO2 may contribute to inhibitory effects on photosynthesis in this species. [source]


Tail Muscle Free Amino Acid Concentration of Pacific White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, Fed Diets Containing Protein-bound versus Crystalline Amino Acids

JOURNAL OF THE WORLD AQUACULTURE SOCIETY, Issue 2 2009
Joe M. Fox
Tail muscle tissue free amino acids (FAA) concentration is reported for subadult (4.3 g) Litopenaeus vannamei fed diets containing only protein-bound amino acids, crystalline lysine as a supplement to protein-bound lysine, and only crystalline amino acids (CAA). FAA were determined in shrimp at 0.00, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 h postfeeding. Highest total tissue concentrations of essential amino acids and individual amino acids were typically observed 4 h postfeeding for shrimp fed intact and crystalline lysine-supplemented feeds. Those shrimp offered diets containing only CAA showed no tissue maxima. Similar uptake patterns for lysine shown by shrimp fed the intact and crystalline lysine-supplemented diet indicate the potential use of small amounts of crystalline lysine in shrimp feeds. [source]


The Flask model: emergence of nutrient-recycling microbial ecosystems and their disruption by environment-altering ,rebel' organisms

OIKOS, Issue 7 2007
Hywel T. P. Williams
Here we introduce a new model of life,environment interaction, which simulates an evolving microbial community in a ,Fask' of liquid with prescribed inputs of nutrients. The flask is seeded with a clonal population of ,microbes' that are subject to mutation on genetic loci that determine their nutrient uptake patterns, release patterns, and their effects on, and response to, other environmental variables. In contrast to existing models of life-environment interaction, notably Daisyworld, what benefits the individual organisms is decoupled from their ,global' (system-level) effects. A robust property of the model is the emergence of ecosystems that tend toward a state where nutrients are efficiently utilised and differentially recycled, with a correlated increase in total population. Organisms alter the environment as a free ,by-product' of their growth, and their growth is constrained by adverse environmental effects. This introduces environmental feedback, which can disrupt the model ecosystems, even though there are no constraints on the conditions to which the organisms can theoretically adapt. ,Rebel' organisms can appear that grow rapidly by exploiting an under-utilised resource, but in doing so shift the environment away from the state to which the majority of the community are adapted. The result can be a population crash with lossof recycling, followed by later recovery, or in extreme cases, a total extinction of the system. Numerous runs of these ,flask' ecosystems show that tighter environmental constraints on growth make the system more vulnerable to internally generated ecosystem extinction. [source]