Upper Third (upper + third)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Novel Pretrichial Browlift Technique and Review of Methods and Complications

BACKGROUND The upper third of the face is integral to our perception of youth and beauty. While the eyelids anchor this facial cosmetic unit, the eyebrows and forehead are intrinsically linked to the upper eyelids, and their position and texture play an important role in creating pleasing eyes as well as conveying mood and youth. The most common browlifts are performed with endoscopic visualization. Yet, this technique requires special equipment and a prolonged learning curve. OBJECTIVE To demonstrate a novel pretrichial technique and to review different browlift methods and their potential adverse effects. METHODS Case series and review of the literature. RESULTS The pretrichial browlift results in a mild to moderate browlift with secondary smoothing of the forehead topography. Aside from bruising and swelling, it results in minimal adverse effects. Other techniques are also effective but may create a larger scar such as a direct browlift, may be more difficult in terms of approach such as the browpexy, or require endoscopes. CONCLUSION Browlifts are an important procedure in rejuvenating the upper third of the face and improving the overall facial aesthetic appearance. The pretrichial browlift is a less invasive open technique that is safe and effective for the appropriate patient. [source]

Hippocampus modulates the behaviorally-sensitizing effects of nicotine in a rat model of novelty-seeking: Potential role for mossy fibers

HIPPOCAMPUS, Issue 10 2007
Amrinder S. Bhatti
Abstract Present experiments investigate interactions between a rat model of the novelty-seeking phenotype and psychomotor sensitization to nicotine (NIC) in adolescence, and the potential role of hippocampal mossy fibers in mediating the behaviorally-sensitizing effects of NIC. Outbred rats were phenotype-screened as high-responders (HR; locomotor reactivity to novelty score ranking in the upper third of the population) or low-responders (LR; locomotor reactivity to novelty score ranking in the lower third of the population). In Experiment 1, both phenotypes were trained with four NIC injections (at 3-d intervals on postnatal days 33,44), and lidocaine microinfusion was used to temporarily inactivate the hippocampal hilus at each NIC injection. Systemic saline and microinjection of artificial cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) were used as controls. During NIC training, lidocaine inactivation caused augmented locomotor response to NIC in HRs compared to LRs irrespective of injection days. Following 1 week of abstinence, all animals were challenged with a low dose of NIC. During challenge, previously NIC/CSF trained LRs and HRs were divided into two; one half receiving lidocaine inactivation of the hippocampal hilus and the other half receiving CSF control microinjection. Only HRs showed behavioral sensitization to the challenge dose of NIC, which was enhanced with lidocaine inactivation. In Experiment 2, a single NIC exposure was found sufficient to induce sensitization to the challenge dose of NIC in HRs, and concurrently an enlarged supra-pyramidal mossy fiber (SP-MF) terminal field. The increase in the SP-MF volume in HRs was greater with repeated NIC training. In both single and repeated NIC training cases, a significant positive morphobehavioral correlation was observed between challenge NIC-induced locomotion and the SP-MF terminal field volume. These findings suggest that the HR hippocampal mossy fibers are vulnerable to neuroadaptive alterations induced by NIC, which may be a substrate for the observed behavioral vulnerability to NIC. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Predictive factors for lymph node metastasis and endoscopic treatment strategies for undifferentiated early gastric cancer

Byong D Ye
Abstract Background and Aim:, Although more than 80% of undifferentiated early gastric cancers (EGC) are not associated with lymph node metastasis, endoscopic mucosal resection is not generally accepted as a means of curative treatment because of an abundance of conflicting data concerning clinicopathological characteristics and prognoses. The aim of this study was to define a subgroup of undifferentiated EGC that could be cured by endoscopic treatment without the risk of lymph node metastasis. Method:, A total of 591 patients surgically resected for undifferentiated EGC between January 1999 and March 2005 were reviewed. Associations between various clinicopathological factors and the presence of lymph node metastasis were analyzed to identify the risk factors of lymph node metastasis. Results:, Lymph node metastasis was found in 79 patients (13.4%). By multivariate logistic regression analysis, a tumor diameter 2.5 cm or larger, invasion into the middle third of the submucosal layer or deeper, and lymphatic involvement were identified as independent risk factors of lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001, respectively). Lymph node metastasis was not found in any patient with undifferentiated EGC smaller than 2.5 cm confined to the mucosa or upper third of the submucosal layer without lymphatic involvement. Conclusions:, Undifferentiated intramucosal EGC smaller than 2.5 cm without lymphatic involvement was not associated with lymph node metastasis. Thus, we propose in this circumstance that endoscopic mucosal resection could be considered a definitive treatment without compromising the possibility of cure. [source]

Development of the genital ducts and external genitalia in the early human embryo

Yasmin Sajjad
Abstract The course of development of the human genital tract is undifferentiated to the 9th week of development. At this time two symmetrical paired ducts known as the mesonephric (MD) and paramesonephric ducts (PMD) are present, which together with the urogenital sinus provide the tissue sources for internal and external genital development. Normal differentiation of the bipotential external genitalia and reproductive ducts are dependent upon the presence or absence of certain hormones. Masculinization of the internal and external genitalia during fetal development depends on the existence of two discrete testicular hormones. Testosterone secreted from Leydig cells induces the differentiation of the mesonephric ducts into the epididymis, vasa deferentia and seminal vesicles, whereas anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) produced by Sertoli cells induces the regression of the paramesonephric ducts. The absence of AMH action in early fetal life results in the formation of the fallopian tubes, uterus and upper third of the vagina. In some target tissues, testosterone is converted to dihydrotestosterone, which is responsible for the masculinization of the urogenital sinus and external genitalia. [source]

Ki-67 expression in non-tumour epithelium adjacent to oral cancer as risk marker for multiple oral tumours

ORAL DISEASES, Issue 1 2010
MA González-Moles
Objective:, The aim of this study was to determine whether the differential assessment of epithelial proliferation is useful to diagnose premalignant fields and assess the risk of multiple tumours. Material and methods:, We analysed 83 oral carcinomas with associated non-tumour epithelium classified as distant or close according to its distance (> or <1 cm) from the invasion point, and as squamous hyperplasia, mild, moderate, severe dysplasia or carcinoma in situ. Twenty-five healthy oral mucosa samples were used as controls. An immunohistochemical technique was applied using Mib-1. Ki-67 in premalignant epithelium was assessed in basal layer, parabasal layer, medium and upper third. Results:, Parabasal expression was significantly higher or showed a tendency to be higher in close and distant epithelia with any histological grade than in the controls. Parabasal Ki-67 significantly differed between distant epithelia associated with multiple vs single tumours (P < 0.001) and between distant epithelia associated with multiple tumours vs controls (P < 0.001). This difference was not observed between distant epithelia associated with single tumours and controls (P = 0.175). The cut-off point that differentiated epithelia associated with multiple tumours was >50% of Ki-67 + parabasal cells in distant epithelia, which yielded 0.88 sensitivity and 0.79 specificity. Conclusions:, The concept of a precancerous field may be linked to an increase in the proliferative activity of parabasal cells. [source]

Turbulent flows on forested hilly terrain: the recirculation region

D. Poggi
Abstract A number of analytical and numerical studies employing first-order closure principles have suggested that canopy flows on gentle sinusoidal hills feature a recirculation region, situated on the lee side, that can dramatically affect scalar transfer between the biosphere and the atmosphere. To date, the onset of this region, and its effects on bulk flow properties, have not been experimentally investigated. We study the applicability of first-order closure schemes jointly with the properties of this recirculation region, using detailed laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) measurements. These experiments are conducted in a neutrally stratified boundary-layer flow within a large flume over a train of gentle and narrow hills. The canopy is composed of an array of vertical cylinders with a frontal-area index concentrated in the upper third, to resemble a tall hardwood forest at maximum leaf area. The LDA measurements are recorded for both sparse and dense canopies. We find that, while the onset of a recirculation region is ambiguous in the sparse-canopy case, it is well delineated in the dense-canopy case. This finding constitutes the first experimental evidence confirming the analytical and numerical model predictions concerning this region in dense canopies on gentle hills. Moreover, we show that the presence of the recirculation region can explain the anomalous pressure variation across the hill (first reported in numerical simulations) using an ,effective hill shape' function. Detailed momentum-flux measurements show, surprisingly, that the effective mixing length leff within the canopy and in the inner layer is not significantly affected by the recirculation region. We expected leff to be comparable to the size of the vortex responsible for the recirculation zone, but the measurements show that leff maintains its canonical canopy turbulence shape. Using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) measurements, we find that the recirculation region is not characterized by a classical ,rotor', but by a highly intermittent zone with alternating positive and negative velocity values in the lower layers of the canopy. These LIF measurements may explain why leff maintains its canonical canopy turbulence shape in the recirculation region. The LIF measurements also show that the main mechanism for scalar transfer within the recirculation region is a sequence of accumulation,ejection episodes that are quasi-periodic in nature. Copyright © 2007 Royal Meteorological Society [source]

Fibroepithelial polyp of the upper third of ureter

Zoran Radojicic MD
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Predictors of operative death after oesophagectomy for carcinoma

H. Abunasra
Background: Oesophagectomy for carcinoma provides a chance of cure but carries significant risk. This study defined risk factors for death after oesophageal resection for malignant disease. Methods: Between 1990 and 2003, 773 oesophagectomies for oesophageal cancer were performed. Continuous variables were categorized into quartiles for analysis. Predictors of operative mortality were identified by univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: The operative mortality rate was 4·8 per cent (37 of 773). In univariate analysis, advanced age, reduced forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), reduced forced vital capacity, presence of diabetes and tumour located in the upper third of the oesophagus were associated with a higher mortality rate. Multivariate analysis identified age (highest relative to lowest quartile, odds ratio (OR) 4·87 (95 per cent confidence interval (c.i.) 1·35 to 17·55); P = 0·009), tumour position (upper third relative to other locations, OR 4·23 (95 per cent c.i. 1·06 to 16·86); P = 0·041) and FEV1 (lowest relative to highest quartile, OR 4·72 (95 per cent c.i. 1·01 to 21·99); P = 0·018) as independent predictors of death. Conclusion: Advanced age, impaired preoperative respiratory function and a tumour high in the oesophagus are associated with a significantly increased risk of death after oesophagectomy for carcinoma. Copyright © 2005 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Sonographic detection of the optic radiation

Annemieke Boxma
Abstract Objective: To describe a region of hyperechoic white matter adjacent to the atrium of the lateral ventricle of preterms, and to speculate on the relevance of detecting preterm white matter injury. Patients and methods: Cranial ultrasound images of 92 preterms of gestational age (GA) 32 wk or less were reviewed. For each infant, one first week standard coronal image was used for measurement of grey values around the para-atrial region of interest (PAROI) relative to the choroid plexus. For verification of the sonographic anatomy, MR images of an adult brain were used. For reference, neuro-anatomical images were compared in several atlases. In a group of nine preterms of similar GA with cystic periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) or MR-confirmed white matter disease, the disappearance of the PAROI was examined. Results: The hyperechoic para-atrial area, subjectively detected in 84% of the patients, was situated bilaterally between the inner end of the lateral fissure and the upper third of the choroid plexus. In white matter caudal to the atrium, the hyperechoic band could be pursued towards the calcarine area. The average ratio of grey value around the PAROI to the choroid plexus was 0.787 (SD=0.072, median 0.791). There was no correlation between PAROI grey value and gestational age. At 26 wk gestational age, the average ratio was 0.781 (n=14), and 0.789 (n=17) at 31 wk. Location of the PAROI agrees with the angle of the upper loop of the optic radiation. None of the nine infants with white matter damage had PAROIs clearly distinguishable from flaring. Conclusion: The symmetrical and unchanged acoustic character between 26 and 31 wk of gestational age argues in favour of the hypothesis that the PAROI is an anatomical structure. The localization of the hyperechoic band supports the hypothesis that it represents part of the optic radiation. Further study is needed to examine the absence of a hyperechoic para-atrial band as a prognostic marker of the extension and severity of white matter injury. [source]

On Being Holier-Than-Thou or Humbler-Than-Thee: A Social-Psychological Perspective on Religiousness and Humility

Wade C. Rowatt
This research examined the association between religiousness and humility. Participants in Studies 1 and 2 completed measures of religiousness, socially desirable responding, and their own and other people's adherence to biblical commandments. Participants in Study 2 also rated how characteristic nonreligious positive and negative trait terms were of the self and others. Humility was operationalized as the magnitude of difference between individuals' evaluations of self and other. Overvaluing the self in relation to others or undervaluing others in relation to the self was considered evidence of less humility. Participants rated the self to be more adherent to biblical commandments than others (the holier-than-thou effect) and rated the self to be more positive and less negative than others (the self-other bias). In both studies, intrinsic religiousness was associated with an increase in the tendency to rate the self as more adherent to biblical commandments than others. Quest was associated with a slight decrease in the magnitude of the holier-than-thou effect. Religious motivations did not account for unique variation in the general self-other bias. Irrespective of motivations for being religious, however, highly religious people (i.e., upper thirds on general religiousness and religious fundamentalism) more so than less religious people (i.e., lower thirds on general religiousness and religious fundamentalism) rated the self to be better on nonreligious attributes than others. [source]