Upper Respiratory Tract Disease (upper + respiratory_tract_disease)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Vedaprofen therapy in cats with upper respiratory tract infection or following ovariohysterectomy

S. Lopez
Objectives: The antipyretic and analgesic efficacy of vedaprofen (at a dose of 05 mg/kg) was evaluated after repeated once-daily administration (for three or five days) to 80 cats with upper respiratory tract disease or 302 cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Methods: Both clinical trials were randomised, double blinded and placebo controlled. Results: In the upper respiratory tract disease trial, vedaprofen produced a significant reduction in rectal temperature when compared with cats administered antimicrobial treatment only. This antipyretic activity lasted at least four hours after administration on the first day of treatment (day 0) and at least eight hours on day 1 and day 2. Significantly more cats in the treatment group were classified as having returned to normal on day 5, day 6 and day 7 compared with the placebo group. In the ovariohysterectomy trial, scores for behaviour (on day 1, day 2 and day 3) and appetite (on day 1 and day 2) were significantly better in the vedaprofen group than in the placebo-treated cats. Clinical Significance: Vedaprofen produced a clinically relevant reduction in body temperature and a more rapid return to normality in cats with upper respiratory tract disease. Vedaprofen treatment also resulted in more rapid recovery, presumably through the relief of pain and inflammation, in cats that had undergone soft tissue surgery. [source]

Prevalence of gastrointestinal tract lesions in 73 brachycephalic dogs with upper respiratory syndrome

C. M. Poncet
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal tract lesions in brachycephalic dogs with upper respiratory tract disease. Methods: The gastrointestinal tract and respiratory disorders of 73 brachycephalic dogs presented with upper respiratory signs were evaluated. Clinical signs and endoscopic and histological anomalies of the upper digestive tract were analysed. Results: A very high prevalence of gastrointestinal tract problems brachycephalic dogs presented with upper respiratory problems was observed clinically, endoscopically and histologically. Endoscopic anomalies of the upper digestive tract were present even in dogs without digestive clinical signs. Furthermore, histological evaluation of the digestive tract sometimes showed inflammatory lesions not macroscopically visible at endoscopy. Statistical analysis showed a relationship between the severity of the respiratory and digestive signs. This was significant in French bulldogs, males and heavy brachycephalic dogs. Clinical Significance: These observations show a correlation between upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tract problems in brachycephalic breeds with upper respiratory disease. Surgical treatment of respiratory disease could improve the digestive clinical signs, and/or gastro-oesophageal medical treatment could improve the outcome for surgically treated brachycephalic dogs. [source]

Flow cytometric method for quantifying viable Mycoplasma agassizii, an agent of upper respiratory tract disease in the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii)

H.A. Mohammadpour
Abstract Aims:,Mycoplasma agassizii can cause upper respiratory tract disease in the threatened desert tortoise of the Southwestern United States. Two technical challenges have impeded critical microbiological studies of this microorganism: (i) its small size limits the use of light microscopy for cell counting and (ii) its extremely slow growth in broth and agar cultures impedes colony counting. Our aim was to develop a rapid and sensitive flow cytometric method using a vital fluorescent dye to enumerate viable M. agassizii cells. Methods and Results:, Here, we demonstrate that the nonfluorescent molecule 5-carboxyfluorescein (5-CF) diacetate acetoxymethyl ester penetrates M. agassizii cell membranes and it is converted in the cytoplasm to the fluorescent molecule 5-CF by the action of intracellular esterases. Labelled mycoplasma cells can be easily detected by flow cytometry, and cultures with as few as 100 viable mycoplasma cells ml,1 can be labelled and counted in less than 1 h. Experiments using temperature-induced cell death demonstrated that only viable M. agassizii cells are labelled with this procedure. Conclusions:, A rapid and sensitive flow cytometric technique has been developed for enumerating viable M. agassizii cells. Significance and Impact of the Study:, This technique should facilitate basic immunological, biochemical and pharmacological studies of this important pathogen which may lead to new diagnostic and therapeutic methods. [source]

New insights into pediatric rhinosinusitis

N. Principi
Rhinosinusitis is a common children's disease. Most cases are acute, follow an episode of common cold, and are the consequence of a superimposed bacterial infection. If mild, they are characterized by the persistence of signs and symptoms of upper respiratory tract disease for more than 10 days; if severe, they involve fever and a purulent nasal discharge, and can cause a substantial decline in general health. Recurrent acute or chronic cases are usually diagnosed in children with predisposing factors, such as recurrent respiratory tract infections, allergic rhinitis, cystic fibrosis, immunodeficiency, ciliary dyskinesia, anatomic abnormalities or reflux. Therapy is based on antibiotics, administered orally in mild, and intravenously in severe cases. On the basis of recently highlighted antibiotic resistances and the possibility of spontaneous resolution, experts agree in considering amoxicillin the drug of choice for mild cases, and an antibiotic capable of overcoming all possible resistance for severe cases. [source]

Characterisation of a novel Mannheimia sp from Australian feedlot cattle

Objective To characterise eight isolates of a Gram-negative organism obtained from the upper respiratory tract of cattle showing evidence of mild upper respiratory tract disease. Design The isolates were compared with the five recognised species within the genus Mannheimia - M haemolytica, M glucosida, M granulomatis, M ruminalis and M varigena - using a range of phenotypic and genotypic methods. Results Phenotypic characterisation indicated that the isolates belonged to the trehalose-negative [Pasteurella] haemolytica complex. This complex has recently been reorganised into five species within the new genus Mannheimia. Ribotyping performed using Hin dIII and a computerised analysis system indicated that the eight Australian isolates formed a distinct cluster that was related to, but different from, the five recognised species of Mannheimia. The 16S rRNA sequence of one isolate (BNO311) was determined and a phylogenetic analysis performed. Isolate BNO311 was distinct from the five named Mannheimia spp but did join a larger cluster consisting of rRNA cluster IV (M varigena) and the unnamed rRNA cluster V of Mannheimia. DNA:DNA hybridisation between isolate BNO311 and M haemolytica NCTC 9380T, M granulomatis P411 and Actinobacillus ligniersii NCTC 4189T all suggested similarities of approximately 30%. Conclusions These phenotypic and genotypic characterisation studies suggest that the eight Australian isolates represent a new species of Mannheimia. Until further characterisation studies are performed, we are unwilling to propose a name for this taxon, preferring to refer to this possible new species as Bisgaard taxon 39 of cluster V of Mannheimia. [source]

Prevalence and clinical aspects of human bocavirus infection in children

L. Karalar
Clin Microbiol Infect 2010; 16: 633,639 Abstract Human bocavirus (HBoV) was recently described as a new member of the Parvoviridae. In order to investigate the suggested association of HBoV with respiratory and gastric disease in infants and young children, sera of 357 paediatric patients hospitalized with infectious and non-infectious diseases were retrospectively analyzed for the presence of HBoV DNA and virus-specific antibodies using quantitative PCR and ELISA, respectively. HBoV seroprevalence was determined to range from 25% in infants younger than 1 year of age to 93% in children aged more than 3 years. Viral loads between 1 102 and 1.2 106 geq/mL were observed in 6.7% (20/297) of sera obtained preferentially from young children suffering from infectious diseases. HBoV genomes were furthermore detected in 5% (3/60) of sera collected from individuals with non-infectious illnesses. HBoV DNA was present most frequently in patients with respiratory disease (9.6%). Whereas only 5.2% of patients with upper respiratory tract disease were viraemic, HBoV DNA was found in 14.6% and 10.0% of patients with lower respiratory tract illness and pneumonia, respectively. Acute HBoV infections were also observed in 7.5% of patients with gastroenteritis and in one child with inflammatory bowel disease. None of 77 patients hospitalized for various other infectious diseases (e.g. rash, urinary tract infection, meningitis) displayed viraemia. In 60.9% and 47.8% of DNA-positive children, HBoV-specific IgM and IgG was observed, respectively. The present prospective study provides comprehensive data on the clinical association of acute HBoV infection with respiratory illness and on the seroprevalence of virus-specific antibodies in children. [source]