Unresolved Problem (unresolved + problem)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts


Huei Nuo Tan MBBS
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

A Decade of the Americans with Disabilities Act: Judicial Outcomes and Unresolved Problems*

Barbara A. Lee
A decade after its enactment, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) has not resulted in the substantial employment gains for individuals with disabilities that its proponents had predicted. It also has not resulted in many legal victories for disabled individuals who have challenged alleged discriminatory actions by their employers. This article briefly reviews literature on disability and work and summarizes the data on the employment of individuals with disabilities. It addresses litigation trends prior to several significant U.S. Supreme Court rulings the ADA made in 1999 and compares them with litigation trends following the issuance of these rulings. The article concludes that the law needs to be amended if it is to serve those individuals with disabilities who are capable of productive employment but whose impairments do not fit the judicially narrowed definition of disability in the ADA. [source]

Protein kinase C and extracellular signal regulated kinase are involved in cardiac hypertrophy of rats with progressive renal injury

H. Takahashi
Abstract Increased cardiovascular mortality is an unresolved problem in patients with chronic renal failure. Cardiac hypertrophy is observed in the majority of patients with chronic renal failure undergoing haemodialysis. However, the mechanisms, including signal transduction pathways, responsible for cardiac hypertrophy in renal failure remain unknown. We examined the subcellular localization of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms and phosphorylation activities of 3 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase families in hypertrophied hearts of progressive renal injury rat model by subtotal nephrectomy (SNx). We also examined the effects of a novel angiotensin II type-1 receptor antagonist, CS-866, on the PKC translocation, MAP kinase activity and cardiac hypertrophy in SNx rats. The left ventricle/body weight ratios were significantly larger in SNx rats than in sham rats at 1, 2, and 4 weeks after surgery. The translocation of PKC, and , isoforms to membranous fraction was observed in SNx rat hearts at 1, 2, and 4 weeks after surgery. Activation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, but not p38 MAP kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), was observed at 1 and 2 weeks after surgery. Angiotensin II receptor blockade with CS-866 (1 mg kg,1 day,1) prevented cardiac hypertrophy, PKC translocation and ERK1/2 activation in SNx rats without significant changes in blood pressure. These data suggest that PKC and ERK1/2 are activated by an angiotensin II receptor-mediated pathway and might play an important role in the progression of cardiac hypertrophy in renal failure. [source]

An engineering approach to dynamic prediction of network performance from application logs

Zalal Uddin Mohammad Abusina
Network measurement traces contain information regarding network behavior over the period of observation. Research carried out from different contexts shows predictions of network behavior can be made depending on network past history. Existing works on network performance prediction use a complicated stochastic modeling approach that extrapolates past data to yield a rough estimate of long-term future network performance. However, prediction of network performance in the immediate future is still an unresolved problem. In this paper, we address network performance prediction as an engineering problem. The main contribution of this paper is to predict network performance dynamically for the immediate future. Our proposal also considers the practical implication of prediction. Therefore, instead of following the conventional approach to predict one single value, we predict a range within which network performance may lie. This range is bounded by our two newly proposed indices, namely, Optimistic Network Performance Index (ONPI) and Robust Network Performance Index (RNPI). Experiments carried out using one-year-long traffic traces between several pairs of real-life networks validate the usefulness of our model.,Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

On-line monitoring of wastewater quality: a review

Wilfrid Bourgeois
Abstract Real-time monitoring of wastewater quality remains an unresolved problem to the wastewater treatment industry. In order to comply with increasingly stringent environmental regulations, plant operators as well as instrument manufacturers have expressed the need for new standards and improved comparability and reliability of existing techniques. A review of currently available methods for monitoring global organic parameters (BOD, COD, TOC) is given. The study reviews both existing standard techniques and new innovative technologies with the focus on the sensors' potential for on-line and real-time monitoring and control. Current developments of biosensors, optical sensors and sensor arrays as well as virtual sensors for the monitoring of wastewater organic load are presented and the interests and limitations of these techniques with respect to their application to the wastewater monitoring are discussed. © 2001 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Deproteinization of serum: Another best approach to eliminate all forms of bilirubin interference on serum creatinine by the kinetic Jaffe reaction

Porntip H. Lolekha
Abstract The negative interference of conjugated, unconjugated, and delta bilirubin on patient serum creatinine determined by the kinetic Jaffe reaction is the unresolved problem. We compared bilirubin interference on thirty patients' serum creatinine obtained from four analyzers, with and without deprotenization before the Jaffe reaction, to the Vitros dry enzymatic method. We found significant negative interference from bilirubin on serum creatinine in all samples directly applied to four wet chemical methods, except the one incorporated with serum blank rate. The negative interferences linearly related to bilirubin concentration. However, bilirubin did not interfere on serum creatinine obtained from all wet chemical methods incorporated with deproteinization process before the reaction. We conclude that deproteinized serum before the reaction is the best approach to eliminate all forms of bilirubin interference on serum creatinine determined by the kinetic Jaffe reaction. J. Clin. Lab. Anal. 15:116,121, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


H. Hugh Wilson
The majority of petroleum geologists today agree that the complex problems that surround the origin, generation, migration and accumulation of hydrocarbons can be resolved by accepting the geochemical conclusion that the process originates by catagenic generation in deeply-buried organically-rich source rocks. These limited source rock intervals are believed to expel hydrocarbons when they reach organic maturity in oil kitchens. The expelled oil and gas then follow migration pathways to traps at shallower levels. However, there are major geological obstacles that cast doubt upon this interpretation. The restriction of the source rock to a few organically rich levels in a basin forces the conclusion that the basin plumbing system is leaky and allows secondary horizontal and vertical migration through great thicknesses of consolidated sedimentary rocks in which there are numerous permeability barriers that are known to effectively prevent hydrocarbon escape from traps. The sourcing of lenticular traps points to the enclosing impermeable envelope as the logical origin of the trapped hydrocarbons. The lynch-pin of the catagenic theory of hydrocarbon origin is the expulsion mechanism from deeply-buried consolidated source rock under high confining pressures. This mechanism is not understood and is termed an "enigma". Assuming that expulsion does occur, the pathways taken by the hydrocarbons to waiting traps can be ascertained by computer modelling of the basin. However, subsurface and field geological support for purported migration pathways has yet to be provided. Many oilfield studies have shown that oil and gas are preferentially trapped in synchronous highs that were formed during, or very shortly after, the deposition of the charged reservoir. An unresolved problem is how catagenically generated hydrocarbons, expelled during a long-drawn-out maturation period, can have filled synchronous highs but have avoided later traps along the assumed migration pathways. From many oilfield studies, it has also been shown that the presence of hydrocarbons inhibits diagenesis and compaction of the reservoir rock. This "Füchtbauer effect" points to not only the early charging of clastic and carbonate reservoirs, but also to the development of permeability barriers below the early-formed accumulations. These barriers would prevent later hydrocarbon additions during the supposed extended period of expulsion from an oil kitchen. Early-formed traps that have been sealed diagenetically will retain their charge even if the trap is opened by later structural tilting. Diagenetic traps have been discovered in clastic and carbonate provinces but their recognition as viable exploration targets is discouraged by present-day assumptions of late hydrocarbon generation and a leaky basin plumbing system. Because there are so many geological realities that cast doubt upon the assumptions that devolve from the paradigm of catagenic generation, the alternative concept of early biogenic generation and accumulation of immature oil, with in-reservoir cracking during burial, is again worthy of serious consideration. This concept envisages hydrocarbon generation by bacterial activity in many anoxic environments and the charging of synchronous highs from adjacent sources. The resolution of the fundamental problem of hydrocarbon generation and accumulation, which is critical to exploration strategies, should be sought in the light of a thorough knowledge of the geologic factors involved, rather than by computer modelling which may be guided by questionable geochemical assumptions. [source]

Mediators of rat ischemic hepatic preconditioning after cold preservation identified by microarray analysis

Àurea Navarro-Sabaté
Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury associated with liver transplantation is an as yet unresolved problem in clinical practice. Preconditioning protects the liver against the deleterious effects of ischemia, although the mechanism underlying this preconditioning is still unclear. To profile gene expression patterns involved in hepatic ischemic preconditioning, we analyzed the changes in gene expression in rat livers by DNA microarray analysis. Approximately 116 genes were found to have altered gene expression after 8 hours of cold ischemia. Moreover, the expression of 218 genes was modified by classic preconditioning followed by the same ischemia process. Given the importance of the effects of ischemic preconditioning (IP) in minimizing the liver damage induced by sustained ischemia before reperfusion, this study analyzed the putative genes involved in the beneficial role of IP in liver grafts undergoing cold ischemia before its implantation in the recipient (IP+I). Great differences were found in the gene expression pattern of ischemic preconditioning + long cold ischemia (IP+I) group when compared with the long cold ischemia alone condition (I), which could explain the protective regulatory mechanisms that take place after preconditioning. Twenty-six genes that were downregulated in cold ischemia were found upregulated after preconditioning preceding a long cold ischemia period. These would be genes activated or maintained by preconditioning. Heat shock protein genes and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase are among the most markedly induced transcripts. Liver Transpl. 12:1615,1625, 2006. © 2006 AASLD. [source]

Zero flash ultrasonic micro embossing on foamed polymer substrates: A proof of concept

Srikanth G. Vengasandra
This article reviews a novel method to produce microembossed features with an aspect ratio of three and negligible flash on polymer surfaces. An embossing technique that utilizes localized heating (ultrasonic energy) was used with polystyrene and polypropylene substrates. It was demonstrated that when foamed substrates were used, the amount of flash produced was negligible compared to nonfoamed substrates, which has been a significant unresolved problem with embossing using localized heating. The depth of microembossed features as a function of heating times and amplitudes of ultrasonic embossing is detailed in this article, along with a characterization of complex embossed geometries. It was seen that embossing depth was generally proportional to heating time and amplitude until the maximum feature depth was achieved. Although this article deals with embossing of microfeatures for lab-on-a-CD applications, it is envisioned that it is also suitable for lab-on-a-chip applications. POLYM. ENG. SCI., 2009. © 2009 Society of Plastics Engineers [source]

Control of Oxidative Reactions of Hemoglobin in the Design of Blood Substitutes: Role of the Ascorbate,Glutathione Antioxidant System

Jan Simoni
Abstract Uncontrolled oxidative reactions of hemoglobin (Hb) are still the main unresolved problem for Hb-based blood substitute developers. Spontaneous oxidation of acellular ferrous Hb into a nonfunctional ferric Hb generates superoxide anion. Hydrogen peroxide, formed after superoxide anion dismutation, may react with ferrous/ferric Hb to produce toxic ferryl Hb, fluorescent heme degradation products, and/or protein-based free radicals. In the presence of free iron released from heme, superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide might react via the Haber,Weiss and Fenton reactions to generate the hydroxyl radical. These highly reactive oxygen and heme species may not only be involved in shifting the cellular redox balance to the oxidized state that facilitates signal transduction and pro-inflammatory gene expression, but could also be involved in cellular and organ injury, and generation of vasoactive compounds such as isoprostanes and angiotensins. It is believed that these toxic species may be formed after administration of Hb-based blood substitutes, particularly in ischemic patients with a diminished ability to control oxidative reactions. Although varieties of antioxidant strategies have been suggested, this in vitro study examined the ability of the ascorbate,glutathione antioxidant system in preventing Hb oxidation and formation of its ferryl intermediate. The results suggest that although ascorbate is effective in reducing the formation of ferryl Hb, glutathione protects heme against excessive oxidation. Ascorbate without glutathione failed to protect the red blood cell membranes against Hb/hydrogen peroxide-mediated peroxidation. This study provides evidence that the ascorbate,glutathione antioxidant system is essential in attenuation of the pro-oxidant potential of redox active acellular Hbs, and superior to either ascorbate or glutathione alone. [source]

Employee ,voice' and working environment in post-communist New Member States: an empirical analysis of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania

Charles Woolfson
ABSTRACT This article examines employee ,voice' in workplace health and safety in three Baltic New Member States by means of a cross-national survey. The data point to unresolved problems of voice in the context of rather poor working environments. These present opportunities for collective renewal by trade unions, but paradoxically are more likely to be addressed by employers in the context of significant labour shortages created by a post-European Union accession labour ,exit'. [source]

Minimizing the sinkmarks in injection-molded thermoplastics

Shih-Jung Liu
Injection molding is one of the most important methods for the manufacture of plastic products; however, there are several unresolved problems that confound the overall success of this technique. Sinkmarks occurring on the surface of molded parts caused by inappropriate mold design and processing conditions is one problem. In this report, an L'18 orthogonal array design based on the Taguchi method was conducted to minimize the sinkmarks of injection-molded thermoplastic parts. The polymeric materials used were general-purpose polystyrene and low-density polyethylene. A plate cavity with various ribs was used for molding. Experiments were carried out on an 80-ton reciprocating injection-molding machine. After molding, the sinkmarks on the surface of molded parts were characterized by a profile meter. For the factors selected in the main experiments, the corner geometry and the width of the rib were found to be the principal factors affecting sinkmark formation in injection-molded thermoplastics. A rib of an undercut geometry and a small width produces parts with the least sinkmark. Experimental investigation of an injection-molding problem can help illuminate the formation mechanism of sinkmarks so that steps can be taken to optimize the surface quality of molded parts. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Adv Polym Techn 20: 202,215, 2001 [source]

Münch, morphology, microfluidics , our structural problem with the phloem

ABSTRACT The sieve tubes of the phloem are enigmatic structures. Their role as channels for the distribution of assimilates was established in the 19th century, but their sensitivity to disturbations has hampered the elucidation of their transport mechanisms and its regulation ever since. Ernst Münch's classical monograph of 1930 is generally regarded as the first coherent theory of phloem transport, but the ,Münchian' pressure flow mechanism had been discussed already before the turn of the century. Münch's impact rather rested on his simple physical models of the phloem that visualized pressure flow in an intuitive way, and we argue that the downscaling of such models to realistic, low-Reynolds-number sizes will boost our understanding of phloem transport in this century just as Münch's models did in the previous one. However, biologically meaningful physical models that could be used to test predictions of the many existing mathematical models would have to be designed in analogy with natural phloem structures. Unfortunately, the study of phloem anatomy seems in decline, and we still lack basic quantitative data required for evaluating the plausibility of our theoretical deductions. In this review, we provide a subjective overview of unresolved problems in angiosperm phloem structure research within a functional context. [source]

The Wnt/,-catenin pathway: master regulator of liver zonation?

BIOESSAYS, Issue 11 2006
Zoë D. Burke
The liver contains two systems for the removal of ammonia,the urea cycle and the enzyme glutamine synthetase. These systems are expressed in a complementary fashion in two distinct populations of hepatocytes, referred to as periportal and perivenous cells. One of the unresolved problems in hepatology has been to elucidate the molecular mechanisms responsible for induction and maintenance of the cellular heterogeneity for ammonia detoxification. There is now a potential molecular explanation for the zonation of the urea cycle and glutamine synthetase based on the Wnt/,-catenin pathway. BioEssays 28: 1072,1077, 2006. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Image analysis and quantification in lung tissue

W.I. De Boer
On 9,10 September 1999, an international workshop on image analysis and quantification in lung tissue was held at the Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands. Participants with expertise in pulmonary and/or pathology research discussed the validity and applicability of techniques used for quantitative examination of inflammatory cell patterns and gene expression in bronchial or parenchymal tissue in studies focusing on asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Differences in techniques for tissue sampling and processing, immunohistochemistry, cell counting and densitometry are hampering the comparison of data between various laboratories. The main goals of the workshop were to make an inventory of the techniques that are currently available for each of these aspects, and in particular to address the validity and unresolved problems of using digital image analysis (DIA) as opposed to manual scoring methods for cell counting and assessment of gene and protein expression. Obviously, tissue sampling and handling, fixation and (immunohistochemical) staining, and microscope settings, are having a large impact on any quantitative analysis. In addition, careful choices will have to be made of the commercially available optical and recording systems as well as the application software in order to optimize quantitative DIA. Finally, it appears to be of equal importance to reach consensus on which histological areas are to be analysed. The current proceedings highlight recent advances and state of the art knowledge on digital image analysis for lung tissue, and summarize the established issues and remaining questions raised during the course of the workshop. [source]