Unresectable Disease (unresectable + disease)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

Response to paclitaxel and carboplatin in metastatic salivary gland cancer: A case report,

Janet C. Ruzich DO
Abstract Background Malignant tumors of the salivary gland are rare entities that are treated primarily by surgical resection. For patients with recurrent or unresectable disease, options include radiation therapy or chemotherapy; however, responses are few and of short duration. Patients with metastatic disease have been treated with chemotherapy, but, again, response rates have been low and of short duration. Methods A 52-year-old man was seen with a mass on his tongue. A biopsy revealed adenocarcinoma of a minor salivary gland. Ten months after surgical resection, neck dissection, and radiation therapy, the patient was found to have metastatic disease to the lung. Chemotherapy was initiated with carboplatin and paclitaxel. Results The patient obtained a complete response after six cycles of carboplatin and paclitaxel. Conclusions The use of carboplatin and paclitaxel in the setting of metastatic salivary gland cancer is a viable option. 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 24: 406,410, 2002 [source]

Validation of a prediction rule to maximize curative (R0) resection of early-stage pancreatic adenocarcinoma

HPB, Issue 7 2009
Philip Bao
Abstract Background:, The surgeon's contribution to patients with localized pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC) is a margin negative (R0) resection. We hypothesized that a prediction rule based on pre-operative imaging would maximize the R0 resection rate while reducing non-therapeutic intervention. Methods:, The prediction rule was developed using computed tomography (CT) and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) data from 65 patients with biopsy-proven PAC who underwent attempted resection. The rule classified patients as low or high risk for non-R0 outcome and was validated in 78 subsequent patients. Results:, Model variables were: any evidence of vascular involvement on CT; EUS stage and EUS size dichotomized at 2.6 cm. In the validation cohort, 77% underwent resection and 58% achieved R0 status. If only patients in the low-risk group underwent surgery, the prediction rule would have increased the resection rate to 92% and the R0 rate to 73%. The R0 rate was 40% higher in low-risk compared with high-risk patients (P < 0.001). High risk was associated with a 67% rate of non-curative surgery (unresectable disease and metastases). Conclusion:, The prediction rule identified patients most likely to benefit from resection for PAC using pre-operative CT and EUS findings. Model predictions would have increased the R0 rate and reduced non-therapeutic interventions. [source]

Salvage of pelvic recurrence of colorectal cancer

Kimberly A. Varker MD
Abstract Although the incidence of locally recurrent colorectal cancer has been reduced by improved surgical techniques and the frequent use of multimodality therapy, pelvic recurrence remains a significant problem. Radiation or chemotherapy may provide palliation but it is often short-lived. For fit candidates without evidence of extrapelvic disease, surgical resection (anterior resection, abdominoperineal resection, pelvic exenteration, or abdominosacral resection) may be the most appropriate treatment. For patients with unresectable disease, isolated pelvic perfusion may provide effective palliation. J. Surg. Oncol. 2010; 101:649-660. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Pancreatic adenocarcinoma in a young patient population,12-year experience at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center

A. Duffy MD
Abstract Background There is a dearth of data in a younger population of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PAC) regarding epidemiology, genetics, prognosis, and outcome. This report examines a large cohort of patients with PAC ,45 years of age evaluated at MSKCC over a 12-year period. Methods A retrospective analysis of patients referred to MSKCC with PAC identified from the institutional tumor registry, who were ,45 years on the date of the diagnostic biopsy, between January 1995 and February 2008, was performed. Information reviewed included demographics, clinical and pathological staging, surgical management, therapy, date of relapse, death or last follow-up. Survival curves were estimated using the Kaplan,Meier method and compared using the log-rank test. Results One hundred thirty-six cases of PAC, age ,45 years at diagnosis, were identified. Seventy-four (54%) females, 62 (46%) males. Age range: 24,45; 4, 38, and 94 patients in age groups 20,29, 30,39, 40,45 years, respectively. Fifty (37%) had a smoking history. Fourteen (10.3%) had a positive family history of PAC. Thirty-five (25.7%) underwent a curative resection for localized disease. Twenty-eight (20.1%) presented with locally advanced, inoperable disease. Sixty-eight (50%) presented as AJCC Stage IV. Twenty-three (37%) of those resected underwent adjuvant chemoradiation. Thirteen received adjuvant gemcitabine. The median overall survival for the entire cohort was 12.3 months (95% CI 10.2,14.0 months). The median overall survival for the patients with locally resectable disease was 41.8 months (95% CI 20.3,47 months). The median overall survival for the patients who presented with locally advanced, unresectable disease was 15.3 months (95% CI 12,19.3 months). The median overall survival for those who presented with metastatic disease was 7.2 months (95% CI 5.2,9.5 months). Conclusions This is the largest reported cohort of young patients with PAC ,45 years of age. The data suggest that patients with stages I,II disease may have an improved prognosis, however the prognosis for stages III,IV patients appears to be similar to the typical (older) patient population with PAC. J. Surg. Oncol. 2009;100:8,12. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Biology, clinical characteristics, and management of adrenocortical tumors in children

Carlos Rodriguez-Galindo MD
Abstract Childhood adrenocortical tumors (ACT) are very aggressive endocrine neoplasms whose incidence is quite low. Little is known about their pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and optimal treatment. In recent years, however, new information has been derived from the International Pediatric Adrenocortical Tumor Registry (IPACTR), and new clues to its pathogenesis have emerged. To provide an overview of the available data that may apply to pediatric ACT, we reviewed the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of ACT in adults and in children. Germline TP53 mutation is almost always the predisposing factor in childhood ACT. A unique germline mutation (TP53,R337H) has been described in Southern Brazil, where the incidence of ACT is 10,15 times the general incidence. Childhood ACT typically present during the first 5 years of life and has female predominance. Hormone hyperproduction is almost universal, and most patients present with virilization. Two-thirds of patients have resectable tumors. Surgery is the definitive treatment for ACT, and a curative complete resection should always be attempted. Cisplatin-based chemotherapy with mitotane is indicated for unresectable or metastatic disease, although its impact on overall outcome is slight. In childhood ACT, age, tumor size, and tumor resectability are the most important prognostic indicators. Outcome is stage-dependent; patients with small, resectable tumors have survival rates in excess of 80%, whereas the outcome for patients with unresectable disease is dismal. Patients with large, resectable tumors have an intermediate outcome. Childhood ACT are rare, but their unique epidemiology appear to implicate novel oncogenic pathways that are unique to the pediatric population. Multi-institutional and prospective studies are necessary to further our understanding of the pathogenesis and to improve outcomes. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Combined biliary and gastric bypass procedures as effective palliation for unresectable malignant disease

Christopher D. Mann
Abstract Background:, Although endoscopic treatment of jaundice is increasingly used in the palliation of unresectable malignant disease, surgical bypass still has a role to play in this setting. This study aimed to reappraise the short-term and long-term results of combined biliary/gastric bypass (hepaticojejunostomy and gastrojejunostomy) as palliation for unresectable malignant disease. Methods:, All patients undergoing simultaneous biliary and gastric bypass procedures for unresectable malignant disease between August 2000 and January 2006 were identified and outcomes reviewed. Results:, One hundred and two patients underwent open surgical biliary drainage procedures for palliation of malignant disease. Underlying malignant disease included pancreatic carcinoma (n = 88), duodenal adenocarcinoma (n = 6) and distal cholangiocarcinoma (n = 3). Thirty-one of the patients underwent a planned palliative bypass procedure, the remainder being carried out after unresectable disease was identified at laparotomy. Postoperative mortality and morbidity rates were higher in the group undergoing planned bypass. During follow up, two patients developed recurrent jaundice that required transhepatic stenting and two patients developed late gastric outlet obstruction requiring refashioning of the gastrojejunostomy. Conclusion:, Combined surgical biliary and gastric bypass achieved effective palliation of jaundice and gastric outlet obstruction until death in >95% of patients in this series. It remains first-line therapy in patients identified as having unresectable disease at laparotomy. [source]

Sequential chemoradiotherapy in advanced laryngeal cancer: An institutional experience

Mohammad Hasan LARIZADEH
Abstract Aim: The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of sequential chemoradiation for larynx preservation. Methods: Between October 2002 and December 2007, 76 patients with T3, T4 and N+ laryngeal cancer who had refused a laryngectomy or had unresectable disease (medically or surgically) enrolled in this study. The chemotherapy consisted of three cycles of docetaxel (75 mg/m2 on day 1), cisplatin (75 mg/m2 on day 1) and 5-flurouracil (5-FU) (750 mg/m2 by infusion on days 1,3). All patients were assigned to receive radiotherapy (70 Gy to primary site). The Kaplan,Meier method was used to obtain survival outcomes. Results: The median follow up was 36 months. A chemotherapy clinical response (complete and partial) was observed in 51 patients (67.1%). The 2-year laryngeal preservation rate was 75%. Actuarial progression-free survival rates of 71% and 67% were observed at 2 and 3 years, respectively. Actuarial overall survival rates were 83% and 71% at 2 and 3 years, respectively. Disease progression was seen in 26 patients (34.2%). Grade 3 and 4 neutropenia occurred in 39 (51.3%) patients. Conclusion: Sequential chemotherapy with docetaxel, cisplatin and 5-flurouracil followed by radiation may be an alternative to a laryngectomy in patients with advanced laryngeal cancer. [source]

A diagnostic paradigm for resectable liver lesions: to biopsy or not to biopsy?

HPB, Issue 7 2009
Adrian B. Cresswell
Abstract Background:, Despite a growing body of evidence reporting the deleterious mechanical and oncological complications of biopsy of hepatic malignancy, a small but significant number of patients undergo the procedure prior to specialist surgical referral. Biopsy has been shown to result in poorer longterm survival following resection and advances in modern imaging modalities provide equivalent, or better, diagnostic accuracy. Methods:, The literature relating to needle-tract seeding of primary and secondary liver cancers was reviewed. MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library were searched for case reports and series relating to the oncological complications of biopsy of liver malignancies. Current non-invasive diagnostic modalities are reviewed and their diagnostic accuracy presented. Results:, Biopsy of malignant liver lesions has been shown to result in poorer longterm survival following resection and does not confer any diagnostic advantage over a combination of non-invasive imaging techniques and serum tumour markers. Conclusions:, Given that chemotherapeutic advances now often permit downstaging and subsequent resection of ,unresectable' disease, the time has come to abandon biopsy of solid lesions outside the setting of a specialist multi-disciplinary team meeting (MDT). [source]