Universal Phenomenon (universal + phenomenon)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Chromogenic in situ hybridization analysis of melastatin mRNA expression in melanomas from American Joint Committee on Cancer stage I and II patients with recurrent melanoma

L. Hammock
Objective:, To determine whether loss of melastatin (MLSN) is a universal phenomenon in American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage I and II melanoma patients who experienced recurrence. Material and methods:, Paraffin blocks of primary melanomas (PMs) were retrieved from 30 patients who had a negative sentinel lymph node biopsy and developed recurrent melanoma (AJCC stage I and II). Chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) methods were utilized to evaluate the expression of MLSN mRNA. These results were correlated with clinicopathologic data. Results:, Variable, heterogeneous expression of MLSN mRNA was identified in normal, in situ and invasive melanocytes within and between cases. For the invasive PM component, 24 (80%) had focal, regional or complete loss of MLSN mRNA. The remaining 20% had either regional or total partial downregulation of MLSN mRNA. Intact MLSN mRNA expression was present regionally in 14/30 (47%), with mean relative tumor area of 38%, range 5,85%. Increasing loss of MLSN mRNA significantly correlated with increasing tumor depth and microsatellites (r = 0.1/0.4, p = 0.04). However, thin, AJCC T stage 1a PM had higher relative mean loss than intermediate AJCC T stage 2a/2b/3a thickness PM (65% vs. 34%/48%/25%). Increasing loss of MLSN mRNA significantly impacted on disease free survival (DFS) by multivariate analysis (58 vs. 0% 2 years DFS, , 75 vs. >75% mRNA loss, p = 0.02). Decreased overall survival significantly correlated with increasing age and vascular invasion on multivariate analysis. Conclusion:, Extensive loss of MLSN in PM correlated with aggressive metastatic melanoma. Ancillary testing for MLSN mRNA expression by CISH could offer a means to more accurately identify AJCC stage I and II patients at risk for metastatic disease, who could benefit from adjuvant therapy. [source]

Is Self-Determined Functioning a Universal Prerequisite for Motive,Goal Congruence?

Examining the Domain of Achievement in Three Cultures
ABSTRACT Research has shown that capacity for accessing implicit motives promotes congruence between the implicit and the explicit motivational system: Individuals able to test a conscious goal for its fit with their implicit motivation commit themselves more fully to self-congruent goals. However, it has not yet been shown whether this is a universal phenomenon or limited to Euro-American cultures in which individual needs are less strictly constrained by the social environment than in other cultural contexts. Thus, the present study examined whether self-determination interacts with the implicit achievement motive to predict how much importance individuals from Cameroon, Germany, and Hong Kong ascribe to achievement goals. Moreover, the importance ascribed to goals should indirectly predict life satisfaction via success in goal realization. Results showed that the associations described above are valid in all three cultural groups and are discussed in terms of their implications for the universal processes characterizing motivation. [source]

Universal problems during residency: abuse and harassment

Shizuko Nagata-Kobayashi
Objectives, Perceived abuse or harassment during residency has a negative impact on residents' health and well-being. This issue pertains not only to Western countries, but also to those in Asia. In order to launch strong international preventive measures against this problem, it is necessary to establish the generality and cultural specificity of this problem in different countries. Therefore, we investigated mistreatment among resident doctors in Japan. Methods, In 2007, a multi-institutional, cross-sectional survey was conducted at 37 hospitals. A total of 619 residents (409 men, 210 women) were recruited. Prevalence of mistreatment in six categories was evaluated: verbal abuse; physical abuse; academic abuse; sexual harassment; gender discrimination, and alcohol-associated harassment. In addition, alleged abusers, the emotional effects of abusive experiences, and reluctance to report the abuse to superiors were investigated. Male and female responses were statistically compared using chi-square analysis. Results, A total of 355 respondents (228 men, 127 women) returned a completed questionnaire (response rate 57.4%). Mistreatment was reported by 84.8% of respondents (n = 301). Verbal abuse was the most frequently experienced form of mistreatment (n = 256, 72.1%), followed by alcohol-associated harassment (n = 184, 51.8%). Among women, sexual harassment was also often reported (n = 74, 58.3%). Doctors were most often reported as abusers (n = 124, 34.9%), followed by patients (n = 77, 21.7%) and nurses (n = 61, 17.2%). Abuse was reported to have occurred most frequently during surgical rotations (n = 98, 27.6%), followed by rotations in departments of internal medicine (n = 76, 21.4%), emergency medicine (n = 41, 11.5%) and anaesthesia (n = 40, 11.3%). Very few respondents reported their experiences of abuse to superiors (n = 36, 12.0%). The most frequent emotional response to experiences of abuse was anger (n = 84, 41.4%). Conclusions, Mistreatment during residency is a universal phenomenon. Deliberation on the occurrence of this universally wrong tradition in medical culture will lead to the establishment of strong preventive methods against it. Current results indicate that alcohol-associated harassment during residency is a Japanese culture-specific problem and effective preventive measures against this are also urgently required. [source]

Belief, Providence and Eschatology: Some Philosophical Problems in Islamic Theism

Imran Aijaz
Traditional Islamic theism gives us a certain picture of the world, in which the concepts of belief, providence and eschatology are involved. According to the traditional picture, belief in God is a universal phenomenon. This is because God has providentially arranged the world in such a manner that the signs of God are everywhere and which lead to knowledge of His existence. And, because the world is ,providentially unambiguous', those who do not have faith in God are culpable for their lack of it, and therefore deserve eternal punishment in hell. In this paper, I argue that this traditional picture is simply false, or at the very least seriously contestable. I also explore the implications of my argument for those who might be interested in assessing the viability of some form of (Islamic) ,revisionary theism', in which the concepts of belief, providence and eschatology feature. [source]

Startle potentiation in aversive anticipation: Evidence for state but not trait effects

Jack B. Nitschke
The present study was undertaken to determine whether aversiveness contributes to startle potentiation in anticipation of affective pictures above and beyond the effects of emotional arousal. Further, participants high in trait anxious apprehension, which is characterized by worry about the future, were expected to show especially pronounced anticipatory startle responses. Startle blink reflex was measured during warning stimuli that predicted the valence of ensuing aversive/unpleasant, pleasant, or neutral pictures. Startle magnitude was larger in anticipation of aversive than of pleasant pictures and smallest in anticipation of neutral pictures. Enhanced startle potentiation was not found in anxious apprehension subjects. These data suggest that the aversive nature of stimuli contribute to the potentiation of startle above and beyond the effects of emotional arousal, which may be a universal phenomenon not modulated by individual differences. [source]

Prevalence and side preference for tooth grinding in twins

KV Dooland
Abstract Background: Estimates of the prevalence of tooth grinding in children range considerably, reflecting different methods of recording. The main aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of tooth grinding in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twin pairs by assessing wear faceting on the primary canines, and to compare the faceting on the right and left to determine whether children have a side preference for grinding. Methods: The sample consisted of 116 MZ twin pairs and 124 dizygous DZ twin pairs, all participants in an ongoing study of dento-facial development at the dental schools in Adelaide and Melbourne. Evidence of wear faceting on primary maxillary and mandibular canine tips was recorded from dental casts, and the side with the larger wear facet recorded. Types of occlusal relationship, handedness, zygosity and gender were also recorded, and associations between variables analysed statistically. Results: Canine tip wear facets were found in 100 per cent of the sample, and grinding was lateralized in 59 per cent of children. MZ twin pairs showed a higher discordance for grinding side preference than DZ twin pairs (33.8 per cent compared with 16.8 per cent), providing evidence of a mirror-imaging effect for grinding side preference. There was no strong evidence that individuals had the same preference for grinding side and handedness, although right-handers (RH) showed a preference for a grinding side more often than non-righthanders (NRH) (63.6 per cent compared with 51.2 per cent), consistent with previous findings that RHs display more cerebral lateralization than NRHs. Conclusions: Tooth grinding appears to be a universal phenomenon in children and is commonly expressed more on one side than the other. The significantly higher discordance for grinding side preference in MZ twin pairs compared with DZ twin pairs may reflect a mirror-imaging effect in the former. However, at present we have no evidence to suggest that handedness and preferred tooth grinding side are associated. [source]