United States Department (united + states_department)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Advances in the application of the SWAT model for water resources management

R. Jayakrishnan
Abstract Developments in computer technology have revolutionized the study of hydrologic systems and water resources management. Several computer-based hydrologic/water quality models have been developed for applications in hydrologic modelling and water resources studies. Distributed parameter models, necessary for basin-scale studies, have large input data requirements. Geographic information systems (GIS) and model,GIS interfaces aid the efficient creation of input data files required by such models. One such model available for the water resources professional is the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a distributed parameter model developed by the United States Department of Agriculture. This paper describes some recent advances made in the application of SWAT and the SWAT,GIS interface for water resources management. Four case studies are presented. The Hydrologic Unit Model for the United States (HUMUS) project used SWAT to conduct a national-scale analysis of the effect of management scenarios on water quantity and quality. Integration of the SWAT model with rainfall data available from the WSR-88D radar network helps us to incorporate the spatial variability of rainfall into the modelling process. This study demonstrates the usefulness of radar rainfall data in distributed hydrologic studies and the potential of SWAT for application in flood analysis and prediction. A hydrologic modelling study of the Sondu river basin in Kenya using SWAT indicates the potential for application of the model in African watersheds and points to the need for development of better model input data sets in Africa, which are critical for detailed water resources studies. The application of SWAT for water quality analysis in the Bosque river basin, Texas demonstrates the strength of the model for analysing different management scenarios to minimize point and non-point pollution, and its potential for application in total maximum daily load (TMDL) studies. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Does altruism play a role in determining U.S. consumer preferences and willingness to pay for natural and regionally produced beef?

Wendy J. Umberger
An area of increasing differentiation among meat products relates to the source-of-origin and types of production methods used to raise the animals. Consumer data collected from a U.S. national online survey was used to estimate the factors helping explain consumers' willingness to purchase and pay a higher premium for two natural and regionally produced beef products: ground beef and USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) Choice rib eye steaks. Consumer preferences for natural and regionally produced beef are shown to be motivated by a combination of perceptions of personal benefits and altruistic factors. Additionally, the results of probit models indicate that the probability a consumer will pay more or less of a premium depends on purchase behavior and shopping location, stated importance of production attributes, awareness and interest in private and civic agricultural issues, in addition to some typical demographic variables such as income. [EconLit Citations: Q130, M130, Q180]. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Multiple horizons and information in USDA production forecasts

Dwight R. Sanders
United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) livestock production forecasts are evaluated for their information content across multiple forecast horizons using the direct test developed by Vuchelen and Gutierrez (2005). Forecasts are explicitly tested for rationality (unbiased and efficient) as well as for incremental information out to three-quarters ahead. The results suggest that although the forecasts are often not rational, they typically do provide the forecast user with unique information at each horizon. Turkey and milk production forecasts are found to provide the most consistent performance, while beef production forecasts provide little information beyond the two-quarter horizon. [C53, Q13] 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Stability profiles of drug products extended beyond labeled expiration dates

Robbe C. Lyon
Abstract The American Medical Association has questioned whether expiration dating markedly underestimates the actual shelf life of drug products. Results from the shelf life extension program (SLEP) have been evaluated to provide extensive data to address this issue. The SLEP has been administered by the Food and Drug Administration for the United States Department of Defense (DOD) for 20 years. This program probably contains the most extensive source of pharmaceutical stability data extant. This report summarizes extended stability profiles for 122 different drug products (3005 different lots). The drug products were categorized into five groups based on incidence of initial extension failures and termination failures (extended lot eventually failed upon re-testing). Based on testing and stability assessment, 88% of the lots were extended at least 1 year beyond their original expiration date for an average extension of 66 months, but the additional stability period was highly variable. The SLEP data supports the assertion that many drug products, if properly stored, can be extended past the expiration date. Due to the lot-to-lot variability, the stability and quality of extended drug products can only be assured by periodic testing and systematic evaluation of each lot. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 95: 1549,1560, 2006 [source]

Schoolchildren's Consumption of Competitive Foods and Beverages, Excluding la Carte,

Madhuri Kakarala MD
BACKGROUND: Competitive foods/beverages are those in school vending machines, school stores, snack bars, special sales, and items sold la carte in the school cafeteria that compete with United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) meal program offerings. Grouping la carte items with less nutritious items allowed in less regulated venues may obfuscate analysis of the school competitive food environment. Excluding la carte items from competitive foods, the objectives were to: (1) assess competitive food use by gender, ethnicity, eligibility for free or reduced-price meals, and participation in school meals programs, (2) determine differences between grade levels in energy intakes obtained from food sources, (3) determine the nutrient intake derived from competitive foods for students who consumed them, and (4) determine energy-adjusted differences in 24-hour nutrient intakes of protein, calcium, iron, and other selected nutrients between competitive food consumer and nonconsumers. METHODS: Competitive foods/beverages use, excluding la carte items, was examined using the third School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study (SNDA III), a nationally representative sample of 2309 schoolchildren in grades 1 to 12. Mean nutrient intakes were adjusted for energy intake and other covariates, and differences between consumers and nonconsumers of competitive items were determined using analysis of variance and sudaan. RESULTS: Excluding la carte items, 22% of schoolchildren consumed competitive items in a representative school day and use was highest in high school. Consumers of competitive items other than la carte had significantly higher mean energy, sugar intakes, and lower sodium, dietary fiber, B vitamins, and iron intakes than nonconsumers. CONCLUSIONS: Use of competitive foods/beverages, excluding la carte, was detrimental to children's diet quality. [source]

West Nile virus: lessons from the 21st century

DACVECC, DACVIM, Pamela A. Wilkins DVM
Abstract Introduction: West Nile virus (WNV) first appeared in the United States in 1999, causing illness and death in birds, horses, and humans. While the initial outbreak of this sometimes deadly viral disease was limited to the northeastern United States, the virus had an inexorable migration across the continental United States over the next 3 years, causing huge losses among the affected species. The purpose of this review is to present currently available information regarding the epi-demiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of WNV infection. Veterinarians, particularly those in an emergency practice, serve as an important source of reliable information regarding this disease for animal owners and the public in general. Data sources: Data sources used for the preparation of this review include computer-based searches of PubMed and Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux (CAB) abstracts. A search in PubMed using ,West Nile' retrieved 1468 ,hits' or references, while a similar search in CAB abstracts produced 815 references. Additional information was obtained from various meeting proceedings, particularly data presented in abstract form, and from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) website dedicated to WNV. Human data synthesis: Prior to the mid-1990s, reported large-scale epidemics of WNV infection in humans predominantly presented as acute, mild, febrile disease, sometimes associated with lymphadenopathy and skin rash. The recent large epidemic in the United States, in contrast, has prominently featured encephalitis, particularly among the elderly. Additionally, polio-encephalomyelitis-like complications resulting in long-term neurologic sequelae have been reported. There are many WNV-permissive native avian and mosquito hosts in the Unites States and there appear to be few limitations to the spread of the disease in the United States. It is expected that the virus will be identified in all 48 continental states, Mexico, and Canada by the end of 2003. Veterinary data synthesis: The horse is the animal species most affected by the recent WNV epidemic in the United States, and losses to the equine industry have been large and unprecedented. A United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)-approved vaccine against WNV has been in use in horses since 2001 and appears to be effective in limiting the incidence of disease in well-vaccinated populations. WNV infection has been documented in other species of mammals, including camelids (alpaca/llamas) and dogs, and veterinarians should include WNV as a differential diagnosis for animals presenting with clinical signs consistent with central nervous system infection. A large concern exists for endangered bird populations, particularly birds of prey, whether in zoos or in the wild. [source]

Pest management research in the Agricultural Research Service of the United States Department of Agriculture

Nancy N Ragsdale
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Biological control of weeds: research by the United States Department of Agriculture,Agricultural Research Service: selected case studies,,

Paul C Quimby Jr
Abstract Research by the USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) on biological control of weeds has been practiced for many years because of its inherent ecological and economic advantages. Today, it is further driven by ARS adherence to Presidential Executive Order 13112 (3 February 1999) on invasive species and to USDA-ARS policy toward developing technology in support of sustainable agriculture with reduced dependence on non-renewable petrochemical resources. This paper reports examples or case studies selected to demonstrate the traditional or classical approach for biological control programs using Old World arthropods against Tamarix spp, Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav) ST Blake and Galium spurium L/Gaparine L, and the augmentative approach with a native plant pathogen against Pueraria lobata Ohwi = P montana. The examples illustrated various conflicts of interest with endangered species and ecological complexities of arthropods with associated microbes such as nematodes. Published in 2003 for SCI by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

United States Department of Agriculture,Agricultural Research Service research on pest biology: weeds,,

Frank Forcella
Abstract Over 125 permanent full-time scientists conduct research within the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) on issues related to weeds. The research emphasis of most of these scientists involves ecology and management or biological control of weeds. Many scientists perform research on weed biology as components of their primary projects on weed control and integrated crop and soil management. Describing all ARS projects involved with weed biology is impossible, and consequently only research that falls within the following arbitrarily chosen topics is highlighted in this article: dormancy mechanisms; cell division; diversity of rangeland weeds; soil resources and rangeland weeds; poisonous rangeland plants; horticultural weeds; weed traits limiting chemical control; aquatic and semi-aquatic weeds; weed/transgenic wheat hybrids; seedbanks, seedling emergence and seedling populations; and weed seed production. Within these topics, and others not highlighted, the desire of ARS is that good information on weed biology currently translates or eventually will translate into practical advice for those who must manage weeds. Published in 2003 for SCI by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Herbicide resistance work in the United States Department of Agriculture,Agricultural Research Service,,

Kevin C Vaughn
Abstract Herbicide-resistant weed biotypes are an increasing problem in agriculture, with reports of resistance to almost every herbicide class at some place in the world, and the total number of resistant biotypes at over 250. Agricultural Research Service (ARS) scientists have been key players in this area since the first substantiated occurrence of these resistant biotypes in the 1970s. The most significant of their contributions is the complete unraveling of the mechanism of triazine resistance by Arntzen and colleagues, then with ARS at the University of Illinois. These studies established a high benchmark for research in this area and are a model for all studies in this area. Other ARS scientists have investigated a large number of weed biotypes with resistance to a wide range of herbicide classes and mechanisms of resistance. Collectively, these studies have been used to generate herbicide resistance-management schemes for growers, based upon the herbicide site and the potential for resistance development. Published in 2003 for SCI by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service research on managing insect resistance to insecticides,,

Gary W Elzen
Abstract Insecticide resistance has developed within many classes of pesticide, and over 500 species of insects and mites are resistant to one or more insecticides. Insecticide resistance and the consequent losses of food and fiber caused by failure to control insect and mite pests causes economic losses of several billion dollars worldwide each year. It is the goal of insect resistance management (IRM) to preserve useful pesticides by slowing, preventing or reversing development of resistance in pests. Important aspects of this goal are understanding the development of resistance and monitoring to determine ways to prevent its development. We describe programs specific to missions of the US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, which are designed to characterize insecticide resistance in insects and mites with the goal of managing pests in an ecologically acceptable manner. Resistance management of cotton, potatoes, vegetables, melons, ornamentals, greenhouse crops, corn, stored grains, livestock, honeybees and mites, as well as management of transgenic crops are evaluated. We conclude that IRM is a vital part of stewardship of any pest management product and must be a combined effort of manufacturers, growers, consultants, extension services and grower organizations, working closely with regulators, to achieve logistically and economically feasible systems that prolong the effectiveness of all pest-control products. Published in 2003 for SCI by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

A survey of sesamin and composition of tocopherol variability from seeds of eleven diverse sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) genotypes using HPLC-PAD-ECD

Kelly S. Williamson
Abstract The objective of this study was to determine the composition and content of sesamin and desmethyl tocopherols such as , -tocopherol (,T), , -tocopherol (,T) and , -tocopherol (,T) in seeds of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) for 11 genotypes conserved in the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS) and Plant Genetic Resources Conservation Unit (PGRCU) in Griffin, Georgia, USA. Seed accessions studied were collections from eight countries worldwide, including one landrace from Thailand and two cultivars from Texas, USA. Novel methodologies and analytical techniques described herein consisted of reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) connected in series with two detection systems specific for each analyte class. Photodiode array detection was employed for sesamin analysis and electrochemical array detection was used in the determination of tocopherols. A preliminary study was conducted to assess sesamin levels in 2003 and tocopherol levels in 2004 from sesame seed samples conserved at the USDA, ARS and PGRCU. In 2005, sesame seed samples were grown, harvested and evaluated for sesamin as well as tocopherol levels. The overall results (n = 3) showed that sesamin, ,T, ,T and ,T levels were 0.67,6.35 mg/g, 0.034,0.175 g/g, 0.44,3.05 g/g and 56.9,99.3 g/g respectively, indicating that the sesame seed accessions contained higher levels of sesamin and ,T compared with ,T and ,T. Statistical analysis was conducted and significant differences were observed among the 11 different sesame genotypes. This suggests that genetic, environmental and geographical factors influence sesamin and desmethyl tocopherol content. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

A cohort mortality study of chemical laboratory workers at Department of Energy Nuclear Plants,

Travis Kubale PhD
Abstract Objective This study evaluates the mortality experience of 6,157 chemical laboratory workers employed at United States Department of Energy facilities. Methods All cause, all cancer and cause-specific standardized mortality ratios were calculated. Cox regression analyses were conducted to further evaluate the relation between chemical exposure and mortality risk due to selected cancers. Results The mortality due to all causes combined and all cancers combined were below expectation for the cohort. There were no statistically significant elevations reported among males for any specific cancer or non-cancer outcome. There no statistically significant elevations among females for any specific non-cancer and most specific cancers; however, multiple myeloma deaths were significantly elevated (SMR,=,3.56; 95% CI,=,1.43,7.33; number of observed deaths, n,=,7). Statistically significant elevations were seen among workers employed 20+ years for leukemia using both 2- and 5-year lag periods. Also, a statistically significant positive trend of elevated lung cancer mortality with increasing employment duration was seen using both 5- and 10-year lags. A similar trend was seen for smoking related cancers among men. Conclusion While lymphatic and hematopoietic cancer mortality was below expectation, a significant elevation of multiple myeloma deaths among females and an elevation of leukemia among workers employed 20+ years (possibly due to radiation and benzene exposure) were observed. A NIOSH case,control study is underway to examine more closely the relation between multiple myeloma and a variety of chemical exposures among workers employed at the Oak Ridge K-25 facility. Am. J. Ind. Med. 51:656,667, 2008. Published 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Evaluation of a vertical frozen soil barrier at oak ridge national laboratory

REMEDIATION, Issue 3 2000
Stanley W. Lynn
Arctic Foundations, Inc. (AFI), of Anchorage, Alaska, has developed a freeze barrier system designed to hydraulically isolate a contaminant source area. The system can be used for long-term or temporary containment of groundwater until appropriate remediation techniques can be applied. The technology was evaluated under the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program at the United States Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. For the demonstration, an array of freeze pipes called "thermoprobes" was installed to a depth of 30 feet below ground surface around a former waste collection pond and keyed into bedrock. The system was used to establish an impermeable frozen soil barrier to hydraulically isolate the pond. Demonstration personnel collected independent data to evaluate the technology's performance. A variety of evaluation tools were used,including a groundwater dye tracing investigation, groundwater elevation measurements, and subsurface soil temperature data,to determine the effectiveness of the freeze barrier system in preventing horizontal groundwater flow beyond the limits of the frozen soil barrier. Data collected during the demonstration provided evidence that the frozen soil barrier was effective in hydraulically isolating the pond. [source]

Price relations among hog, corn, and soybean meal futures

Qingfeng "Wilson" Liu
This paper examines the relations among hog, corn, and soybean meal futures price series using the Perron (1997) unit root test and autoregressive multivariate cointegration models. Accounting for the significant seasonal factors and time trends, we find the three series are cointegrated with one single cointegrating vector, whose coefficients are comparable to the ratios used by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Ex-post trading simulations that utilize the cointegration results generate significant profits, suggesting that market expectations may not fully incorporate the mean-reverting tendencies as indicated by the cointegration relations, and that inefficiency exists in these three commodity futures markets. Results from our ex-ante trading simulations that employ the USDA ratios also provide some evidence in this regard. 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Jrl Fut Mark 25:491,514, 2005 [source]

Quality of Diets Consumed by Older Rural Adults

Mara Z. Vitolins Dr.P.H.R.D
Older adults residing in rural communities are at risk for low dietary quality because of a variety of social, physical and environmental circumstances. Minority elders are at additional risk because of poorer health status and lower socioeconomic status. This study evaluated the food group intake of 130 older (>70 years) African American (34%), European American (36%), and Native American (30%) residents of two rural communities in central North Carolina. An interviewer-administered food frequency questionnaire was used to measure dietary intake. Food items were classified into food groups similar to the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Guide Pyramid and the National Cancer Instituts 5 A Day for Better Health program. None of the survey participants met minimum intake recommendations and most over-consumed fats, oils, sweets and snacks. African Americans and Native Americans consumed fewer servings of meats, fruits and vegetables, and fats, oils, sweets and snacks than European Americans. African American men consumed the fewest servings of fruits and vegetables of all gender/ethnic groups. Consumption of fats, oils and sweets was greatest among those 85 years and older and was more common among denture users. National strategies to educate the public about the importance of consuming a varied diet based on the recommendations presented in national nutrition education campaigns may not be reaching older adults in rural communities, particularly minority group members. [source]