United Arab Emirates (unite + arab_emirate)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Mapping the geochemistry of the northern Rub' Al Khali using multispectral remote sensing techniques

Kevin White
Abstract Spatial variations in sand sea geochemistry relate to mixing of different sediment sources and to variations in weathering. Due to problems of accessibility, adequate spatial coverage cannot be achieved using field surveys alone. However, maps of geochemical composition produced from remotely sensed data can be calibrated against limited field data and the results extrapolated over large, inaccessible areas. This technique is applied to part of the Rub' Al Khali in the northern United Arab Emirates. Trend surface analysis of the results suggests that the sand sea at this location can be modelled as an east,west mixing zone of two spectral components: terrestrial reddened quartz sands and marine carbonate sands. Optical dating of these sediments suggests that dune emplacement occurred rapidly around 10 ka BP, when sea level was rising rapidly. The spatial distribution of mineralogical components suggests that this phase of dune emplacement resulted from coastal dune sands being driven inland during marine transgression, thereby becoming mixed with rubified terrestrial sands. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Halotaxis of cyanobacteria in an intertidal hypersaline microbial mat

Katharina Kohls
Summary An intertidal hypersaline cyanobacterial mat from Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates) exhibited a reversible change in its surface colour within several hours upon changes in salinity of the overlying water. The mat surface was orange-reddish at salinities above 15% and turned dark green at lower salinities. We investigated this phenomenon using a polyphasic approach that included denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, microscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography, hyperspectral imaging, absorption spectroscopy, oxygen microsensor measurements and modelling of salinity dynamics. Filaments of Microcoleus chthonoplastes, identified based on 16S rRNA sequencing and morphology, were found to migrate up and down when salinity was decreased below or increased above 15%, respectively, causing the colour change of the mat uppermost layer. Migration occurred in light and in the dark, and could be induced by different salts, not only NaCl. The influence of salinity-dependent and independent physico-chemical parameters, such as water activity, oxygen solubility, H2S, gravity and light, was excluded, indicating that the observed migration was due to a direct response to salt stress. We propose to term this salinity-driven cyanobacterial migration as ,halotaxis', a process that might play a vital role in the survival of cyanobacteria in environments exposed to continuous salinity fluctuations such as intertidal flats. [source]

Low-frequency passive seismic experiments in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates: implications for hydrocarbon detection

Mohammed Y. Ali
ABSTRACT Low-frequency passive seismic experiments utilizing arrays of 3-component broadband seismometers were conducted over two sites in the emirate of Abu Dhabi in the United Arab Emirates. The experiments were conducted in the vicinity of a producing oilfield and around a dry exploration well to better understand the characteristics and origins of microtremor signals (1,6 Hz), which had been reported as occurring exclusively above several hydrocarbon reservoirs in the region. The results of the experiments revealed that a strong correlation exists between the recorded ambient noise and observed meteorological and anthropogenic noises. In the frequency range of 0.15,0.4 Hz, the dominant feature is a double-frequency microseism peak generated by the non-linear interactions of storm induced surface waves in the Arabian Sea. We observed that the double-frequency microseism displays a high variability in spectral amplitude, with the strongest amplitude occurring when Cyclone Gonu was battering the eastern coast of Oman; this noise was present at both sites and so is not a hydrocarbon indicator. Moreover, this study found that very strong microtremor signals in the frequency range of 2,3 Hz were present in all of the locations surveyed, both within and outside of the reservoir boundary and surrounding the dry exploration well. This microtremor signal has no clear correlation with the microseism signals but significant variations in the characteristics of the signals were observed between daytime and nighttime recording periods that clearly correlate with human activity. High-resolution frequency-wavenumber (f - k) spectral analyses were performed on the recorded data to determine apparent velocities and azimuths of the wavefronts for the microseism and microtremor events. The f - k analyses confirmed that the double-frequency microseism originates from wave activity in the Arabian Sea, while the microtremor events have an azimuth pointing towards the nearest motorways, indicating that they are probably being excited by traffic noise. Results drawn from particle motion studies confirm these observations. The vertical-to-horizontal spectral ratios of the data acquired in both experiments show peaks around 2.5,3 Hz with no dependence on the presence or absence of subsurface hydrocarbons. Therefore, this method should not be used as a direct hydrocarbon indicator in these environments. Furthermore, the analyses provide no direct evidence to indicate that earthquakes are capable of stimulating the hydrocarbon reservoir in a way that could modify the spectral amplitude of the microtremor signal. [source]

Effects of time of seed maturation on dormancy and germination requirements of Sporobolus spicatus (Vahl) Kunth, a native desert grass of the United Arab Emirates

Ali El-Keblawy
Abstract The effect of time of seed maturation on dormancy and germination requirements was determined for seeds of Sporobolus spicatus (Vahl) Kunth, a species that could be used in rehabilitation of the degraded salt-affected habitats. Seeds of S. spicatus were collected in May, August and December 2005 and March 2006 from a population around Al-Ain City, United Arab Emirates (UAE). Seeds were germinated in incubators adjusted at 20C, 25C, 30C and 35C in continuous light and in darkness. Seeds incubated at the highest temperature (35C) germinated significantly greater and faster, compared to those at the lower temperatures. The highest germination percentage in S. spicatus was observed for seeds matured during August, followed by those matured in December and May, but the lowest germination was recorded for seeds of March. Seeds of August germinated significantly greater in dark than in light, but the reverse was true for seeds of May. Germination rate was significantly faster for seeds of December than that of other seed lots, even at the lower temperature. The results are discussed in the light of the adaptive significance of the production of tiny seeds at different times of the year in S. spicatus. [source]

Eolian Transport of Geogenic Hexavalent Chromium to Ground Water

GROUND WATER, Issue 1 2010
Warren W. Wood
A conceptual model of eolian transport is proposed to address the widely distributed, high concentrations of hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) observed in ground water in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Concentrations (30 to more than 1000 ,g/L Cr+6) extend over thousands of square kilometers of ground water systems. It is hypothesized that the Cr is derived from weathering of chromium-rich pyroxenes and olivines present in ophiolite sequence of the adjacent Oman (Hajar) Mountains. Cr+3 in the minerals is oxidized to Cr+6 by reduction of manganese and is subsequently sorbed on iron and manganese oxide coatings of particles. When the surfaces of these particles are abraded in this arid environment, they release fine, micrometer-sized, coated particles that are easily transported over large distances by wind and subsequently deposited on the surface. During ground water recharge events, the readily soluble Cr+6 is mobilized by rain water and transported by advective flow into the underlying aquifer. Chromium analyses of ground water, rain, dust, and surface (soil) deposits are consistent with this model, as are electron probe analyses of clasts derived from the eroding Oman ophiolite sequence. Ground water recharge flux is proposed to exercise some control over Cr+6 concentration in the aquifer. [source]

The intercultural communication motivation scale: An instrument to assess motivational training needs of candidates for international assignments

Bernd Kupka
Abstract The Intercultural Communication Motivation Scale (ICMS) is a tool to assess the intercultural communication motivation of candidates for international assignments. The ICMS performed well in four studies conducted with undergraduate students in New Zealand, the United States, the United Arab Emirates, and Germany. Generally showing a stable fi ve-factor structure, high test-retest correlations, very high Cronbach's alphas, and almost no social desirability bias in self and peer evaluations, the ICMS is sensitive enough to detect test-retest differences. Thus, socially responsible strategic international HR programs can use this scale to reliably evaluate employees and their families for specifi c international locations. 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

The identity of some Hippolais specimens from Eritrea and the United Arab Emirates examined by mtDNA analysis: a record of Sykes's Warbler H. rama in Africa

IBIS, Issue 4 2004
David J. Pearson
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Care of the elderly in United Arab Emirates

Abdul Kenj Halabi
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Epidemiology of low back pain in the United Arab Emirates

Abdulbari BENER
Abstract Aims:, Low back pain (LBP), a common presenting problem in general practice in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), has received increasing attention in recent decades. We seek to investigate the prevalence of LBP and associated risk factors among people living in the typically hot, humid desert environment of the UAE. Methods:, A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted. The setting was the Primary Health Care (PHC) Clinics in Al-Ain, UAE. The subjects were a multistage stratified sample of 1304 UAE nationals, 15,70 years of age, who attended PHC clinics for any reason. All subjects were invited to participate. The questionnaire used in the survey is a modified version of the Roland-Morris scale for evaluating low back pain. The questionnaires were administered during face-to-face interviews conducted in Arabic by qualified nurses. Results:, Of the total 1304 subject, 1103 (84.5%) living in both urban and rural areas agreed to participate and responded to the study; 586 (53.1%) were men and 517 (46.9%) women. The mean ages and SD of the subjects were 34.9 13.4 years for the men and 33.5 11.8 years for the women. The prevalence of LBP in the present study was 64.6% (95% CI = 60.7,68.5). The results revealed that there were statistically significant differences between men and women with respect to LBP and body mass index (BMI) (P < 0.001), marital status (P < 0.001), occupational status (P < 0.001), housing condition (P < 0.001), and smoking habits (P < 0.001). Back pain had a greater influence on the lifestyle habits of the women than men. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that only BMI (OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 2.30,281; P < 0.001), prolonged standing (OR = 6.22, 95% CI = 4.01,9.67; P < 0.0001), weakness in leg (OR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.16,3.85; P = 0.0142), lifting heavy weights (OR = 6.34, 95% CI = 4.09,9.84; P = 0.019) regular exercise (OR = 12.47, 95% CI = 7.50,20.71; P < 0.001) and smoking habits (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.08,2.38; P < 0.05) had a significant effect on the presence of LBP in these patients. Conclusions:, The study showed that the prevalence of back-related disability was higher among women than men in the UAE. Also, low socio-economic status and adverse lifestyle habits may constitute risk factors and predictors of LBP. [source]

International briefing 9: Training and development in the United Arab Emirates

Stephen Wilkins
This article explores the training and development strategies and practices of large business organisations in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The survey reveals that Emirati companies are very aware of best training and development practice as implemented in their foreign counterparts, and that they generally adopt similar methods and strategies. The article considers the influence of national culture, religion, government policies, education and the economic environment upon the training and development strategies and practices of companies in the UAE. It is argued that despite the negative effects of a dwindling oil sector, the UAE's companies are well placed to maintain their current regional success and that they will soon be playing an increasingly important role in international trade, thus significantly contributing to the continuing economic growth of the country. [source]

Plant growth promotion and biological control of Pythium aphanidermatum, a pathogen of cucumber, by endophytic actinomycetes

K.A. El-Tarabily
Abstract Aims:, To evaluate the potential of Actinoplanes campanulatus, Micromonospora chalcea and Streptomyces spiralis endophytic in cucumber roots, to promote plant growth and to protect seedlings and mature plants of cucumber from diseases caused by Pythium aphanidermatum, under greenhouse conditions. Methods and Results:, Three endophytic isolates, out of 29, were selected through tests aimed at understanding their mechanisms of action as biocontrol agents and plant growth promoters. When applied individually or in combination, they significantly promoted plant growth and reduced damping-off and crown and root rot of cucumber. The combination of the three isolates resulted in significantly better suppression of diseases and plant growth promotion, than where the plants were exposed to individual strains. Conclusions:, The three selected actinomycete isolates colonized cucumber roots endophytically for 8 weeks, promoted plant growth and suppressed pathogenic activities of P. aphanidermatum on seedling and mature cucumber plants. Significance and Impact of the Study:, The results clearly show that the endophytic, glucanase-producing actinomycetes used, especially as a combined treatment, could replace metalaxyl, which is the currently recommended fungicide for Pythium diseases in the United Arab Emirates. These endophytic isolates also have the potential to perform as plant growth promoters, which is a useful attribute for crop production in nutrient impoverished soils. [source]

Is there a correlation between vaginal chlamydia infection and cervical smear abnormalities?

A community-based study in the Al-Ain district, United Arab Emirates
Abstract Aim:, The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between vaginal chlamydia infection and cervical abnormalities. The data on the prevalence of chlamydia infection and cervical abnormalities have been presented elsewhere and in this article we provide the results of a correlation analysis. Methods:, In this cross-sectional, community-based survey, women attending primary and secondary care in the Al-Ain medical district, United Arab Emirates, were offered cervical screening using the Papanicolaou smear, and chlamydia testing. A total of 793 women underwent cervical screening and 728 were tested for chlamydia. A commercially available kit was used to determine the prevalence of chlamydia. The correlation between cervical abnormalities and chlamydia infection was tested using the chi-squared test or Fisher's exact test, as appropriate. Results:, The prevalence of abnormal smears was 1.51% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66,2.4). Twelve subjects had abnormal smears, including smears showing atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance. The prevalence of chlamydia infection in this population was 2.5% (95% CI, 1.2,3.3). Statistical analysis showed no association (,2 0.6, P = 0.4) between the prevalence of chlamydia infection and cervical abnormalities. Conclusion:, Although there have been earlier reports of an association between vaginal chlamydia and cervical abnormalities, our study does not provide evidence to support this association. [source]

Labour Policy and Determinants of Employment and Wages in a Developing Economy with Labour Shortage

LABOUR, Issue 2 2010
Ibrahim Mohamed Abdalla
Using data from a sample of 1,099 workers, this paper investigates the determinants of employment and wages for workers in the United Arab Emirates. The paper further examines the wage distribution and the decomposition of the wage gap between the public and the private sectors. Results of the study are consistent with the dual labour market theory and indicate that the labour market in the United Arab Emirates is segmented based on sectors (public versus private) and types of workers (nationals versus non-nationals). The study concludes with a discussion of the implication of these findings for the effectiveness of labour and economic policy. [source]

Cost efficiency and value driver analysis of insurers in an emerging economy

Attiea Marie
This study investigated cost inefficiencies and its relationship with value drivers of insurers in United Arab Emirates (UAE). The study revealed that there were 21,33% cost inefficiencies in these insurers under different model specifications of stochastic frontier and DEA; value drivers such as lower leverage risk, lower capital risk significantly improved cost efficiencies consistent with Basel II norms; ROE positively influenced cost efficiencies with further trade off between increased profit margin, decreased asset utilization and/or reduced equity multiplier by the insurer managements to achieve a target-ROE; and the trend of cost efficiency was improving during 2000,2004. The study suggests that stock insurers could overcome their cost inefficiencies through adoption of efficient measures such as risk mapping of clients, risk prioritization besides ALM techniques. The study has direct implications for individual and institutional investors in making their portfolio investment decisions in insurance sector, policymakers, and regulators to closely monitor inefficient insurers consistent with Basel II norms. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Allergic rhinitis: prevalence and possible risk factors in a Gulf Arab population

ALLERGY, Issue 2 2010
S. Alsowaidi
To cite this article: Alsowaidi S, Abdulle A, Shehab A, Zuberbier T, Bernsen R. Allergic rhinitis: prevalence and possible risk factors in a Gulf Arab population. Allergy 2010; 65: 208,212 DOI: 10.1111/j.1398-9995.2009.02123.x. Abstract Background:, Epidemiological studies mainly from Europe, the USA and Asia indicate a high prevalence of allergic rhinitis (AR) in modern societies. However, little is known about AR among the heterogeneous population of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of AR and its independent risk factors in Al-Ain City, UAE. Methods:, We used a validated, self-administered questionnaire modified from the ISAAC study to collect data from a two stage randomly selected sample of 10 000 school children. Overall, 7550 subjects (aged 13 years and above, siblings, and their parents) responded. We assessed the prevalence of AR (both crude and standardized prevalence of previous 12 months) as well as the independent relationship of AR with age, gender, education, nationality and family history by means of logistic regression. Results:, The response rate was 76%. A total of 6543 subjects (median age 30 years) were included in the final analysis. Self-reported prevalence of AR (having symptoms in the past 12 months) was 36%, while adjusted values for sex/age yielded a prevalence of 32%. Regression analysis revealed that AR was independently associated with family history, Arab origin, younger age, female gender and higher education. Conclusions:, The relatively high prevalence of AR found in this study may be attributable to modernization and genetic factors. Further studies on the impact of rapid environmental and cultural changes on AR in the Arab countries are needed and currently planned in conjunction with GA2LEN (Global Allergy and Asthma European Network). [source]

In situ micro-Raman and X-ray diffraction study of diamonds and petrology of the new ureilite UAE 001 from the United Arab Emirates

Dominik C. HEZEL
This is the first report of a meteorite in this country. The sample is heavily altered, of medium shock level, and has a total weight of 155 g. Bulk rock, olivine (Fo79.8,81.8) and pyroxene (En73.9,75.2, Fs15.5,16.9, Wo8.8,9.5) compositions are typical of ureilites. Olivine rims are reduced with Fo increasing up to Fo96.1,96.8. Metal in these rims is completely altered to Fehydroxide during terrestrial weathering. We studied diamond and graphite using micro-Raman and in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The main diamond Raman band (LO = TO mode at ,1332 cm,1) is broadened when compared to well-ordered diamond single crystals. Full widths at half maximum (FWHM) values scatter around 7 cm,1. These values resemble FWHM values obtained from chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond. In situ XRD measurements show that diamonds have large grain sizes, up to >5 ,m. Some of the graphite measured is compressed graphite. We explore the possibilities of CVD versus impact shock origin of diamonds and conclude that a shock origin is much more plausible. The broadening of the Raman bands might be explained by prolonged shock pressure resulting in a transitional Raman signal between experimentally shock-produced and natural diamonds. [source]

The Geopolitics of Natural Gas in Asia

Gawdat Bahgat
Over the last few years, natural gas has been the fastest-growing component of primary world energy consumption. This study seeks to examine the recent efforts by the Islamic Republic of Iran, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia to develop their natural gas resources and capture a large share of the Asian market, particularly in Turkey, India, China, Japan and South Korea. Counter-efforts by rivals, such as the Russian Federation and the Caspian Basin states, are analysed. Finally, international ventures to transport natural gas from producers to consumers, including the Dolphin Project, the Trans-Caspian Pipeline and Blue Stream, are discussed. [source]

Nutritional rickets and z scores for height in the United Arab Emirates: To D or not to D?

Jaishen Rajah
Abstract Background: Vitamin D deficiency is still prevalent worldwide, including the Middle East. A cohort of patients with nutritional rickets was treated with vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) alone. After this intervention, patients were followed to document changes in z scores for height after treatment. The secondary aim was to determine the proportion of affected children who had vitamin D deficiency or calcium deficiency. Methods: Z score for height was calculated as the difference between the observed value and the median value, divided by the SD of the population. Z scores were compared in patients before and after treatment. Results: The improvement in z score after treatment was 0.86 0.95. The 95% confidence interval for the mean difference was 1.32,0.40 (t = 3.95, P < 0.001). With a diagnostic cut-off for 25 hydroxyvitamin D3 (25D) deficiency of <25 nmol/L, only half were diagnosed with severe vitamin D deficiency. The remaining patients had presumable calcium deficiency. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was negatively correlated to z scores, implying that higher ALP concentrations predicted severe bone disease (lower z scores). The variables 25D and age were moderately and positively correlated (Pearson's r = 0.59, 95%CI: 0.15,0.84; P = 0.01), indicating that younger infants had the lowest 25D levels. Conclusion: Vitamin D alone was efficient in resolving radiological and biochemical disturbances as well as improving z scores for height in a cohort of children with nutritional rickets, which included patients with 25D deficiency as well as calcium deficiency. The results support the hypothesis of the interplay and continuum of 25D deficiency and calcium deficiency in the pathogenesis of rickets. [source]

Prevalence of overweight among adolescent females in the United Arab Emirates

Huda M. Al-Hourani
The purpose of the study was to investigate the prevalence of overweight in adolescent females in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). A total of 898 females, ages 11,18 years, were recruited from five of the seven Emirates with the highest resident Emirati population. Height, weight, triceps skinfold thickness (TSF), and mid-upper-arm circumference were measured in each subject. Reference data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) were used for comparison. At risk for overweight or overweight were defined as a body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) ,85,95th percentile and ,95th percentile, respectively. Mean values for BMI and TSF at all ages were higher than the 50th percentile (median) of the NHANES reference data. Using the BMI classification, 14% and 9% of all subjects were classified as at risk for overweight or overweight, respectively. The proportion of subjects at risk for overweight ranged between 7,19% and the prevalence of overweight ranged between 6,15%. The proportion of subjects with a BMI ,85 percentile ranged from 15% at age 17 years to 33% at age 11 years. Furthermore, 27% and 28% of subjects ages 11 and 12 years, respectively, were above the TSF 90th percentile. These two age groups also showed a high prevalence of overweight using the BMI classification. In conclusion, the findings from our study suggest that a high proportion of adolescent females in the UAE are overweight or at risk for overweight. The consequences of this are a serious concern for public health and need to be addressed. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 15:758,764, 2003. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Founder Mutation(s) in the RSPH9 Gene Leading to Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia in Two Inbred Bedouin Families

Orit Reish
Summary A rare mutation in the RSPH9 gene leading to primary ciliary dyskinesia was previously identified in two Bedouin families, one from Israel and one from the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Herein we analyse mutation segregation in the Israeli family, present the clinical disease spectrum, and estimate mutation age in the two families. Mutation segregation was studied by restriction fragment length analysis. Mutation ages were estimated using a model of the decrease in the length of ancestral haplotypes. The mutations in each of the two families had a common ancestor less than 95 and less than 17 generations in the past. If the mutations in the two families are descended from a common ancestor, that mutation would have to have arisen at least 150 generations ago. If the Bedouin population has been roughly constant in size for at least 6000 years, it is possible that the mutations in the two families are identical by descent. If there were substantial fluctuations in the size of the Bedouin population, it is more likely that there were two independent mutations. Based on the available data, the population genetic analysis does not strongly favour one conclusion over the other. [source]

Front and Back Covers, Volume 22, Number 4.

August 200
Front and back cover caption, volume 22 issue 4 Front cover Destruction and fertility meet in this photograph of a swidden ('slash and burn') field cultivated by the Rmeet in highland Laos, illustrating Guido Sprenger's article in this issue. After the secondary forest has been burned from the plots, fresh rice stalks grow between charred stumps during the weeding season in June. A field hut, built each year on the newly cleared plot, can be seen in the background. The author's main informant, one of Takheung's village elders, waits for the author to catch up on the slippery paths. Although denigrated as unsustainable by governments and development agencies worldwide, and hotly debated by agricultural experts and policy-makers, swidden agriculture persists in mountainous areas where wet rice cultivation is difficult. Swiddening involves much more than mere subsistence, and anthropologists have been concerned for many decades with questions of its sustainability, as it forms a central focus for a way of life that integrates all aspects of community life, from economy to cosmology and the reproduction of social relations, including families and marriage ties, ritual and exchange, relations between humans and spirits and also identity. Guido Sprenger seeks to remind those with the power to make decisions over swidden agriculture of the importance of being well informed, as their decisions may radically influence an entire way of life. Back cover Islamic Charities Islamic charities are found all over the world and are mostly uncontroversial. Our back cover shows an appeal, with detachable banker's order form, for the orphan programme of the Beit Al-Khair ('house of charity') Society, a domestic charity in the United Arab Emirates launched in 1989. Almost every Islamic charity operates an orphan programme. Islamic charities have been subjected to close scrutiny, especially by the US Treasury, since 9/11, and are the subject of two books recently published by the university presses of Yale (by Matthew Levitt) and Cambridge (by J. Millard Burr and Robert O. Collins), which belong to the genre of counter-terrorism studies. Such studies emulate the methods of police investigators and financial regulators, making ample use of intelligence websites and newspaper reports and seeking to identify associative networks of culpable individuals and entities. The drawback of these studies is that they do scant justice to the positive aspects of Islamic charities and often attribute guilt by association, since charities blacklisted by the US Treasury have only limited rights of defence and appeal, though very few have been successfully prosecuted. Scrupulous social research, by contrast, tries to understand the words and deeds of charities and charity workers in the widest context. The social research published so far on Islamic charities has focused on their political aspects, including Western-Islamic relations, divisions among Muslims, and connections with opposition movements. In this issue of ANTHROPOLOGY TODAY Jonathan Benthall, who has been studying Islamic charities for 13 years, turns his attention to analysing the special opportunities that international Islamic charities can take advantage of in majority Muslim countries. His article outlines the work of the British-based Islamic Relief in the north of Mali, one of the world's poorest countries, with the implicit suggestion that more in-depth residential ethnographic fieldwork in such settings could yield valuable insights. [source]

Multi-disciplinary research on the past human ecology of the east Arabian coast: excavations at Hamriya and Tell Abraq (Emirate of Sharjah, United Arab Emirates)

Peter Magee
The results of two seasons of research at Hamriya and Tell Abraq (Sharjah, UAE) by an international team of researchers are presented. The research has revealed extensive evidence for occupation from c. 5000 BC to the recent past adjoining lagoon areas that face the Arabian Gulf. C14 analysis of shells has contributed to understanding the chronology of settlement and also assisted our understanding of species-specific deviation from the global reservoir effect. [source]

Tales from the old guards: Bithnah Fort, Fujairah, United Arab Emirates

Michele C. Ziolkowski
This article examines the historical site of Bithnah fort, United Arab Emirates. Relevant historical sources were investigated, which highlighted the strategic importance of Bithnah's location in the Wadi Ham. A theoretical date was proposed for the site based on these historical references. The architectural features and material culture were combined with ethnographic information. This combination of sources allowed for a much clearer understanding of the fort's layout and interior use of space. It also provided a context for the village and agricultural space that surround the fortification of Bithnah. [source]

The third-millennium tombs and settlement at Mowaihat in the Emirate of Ajman, U.A.E.

Carl Phillips
Evidence of a settlement located near two late third-millennium tombs excavated at Mowaihat in the Emirate of Ajman is presented in order to complete the documentation of this site. Although the settlement evidence is only slight, especially when compared with the substantial architecture of the tombs, it is not atypical of contemporary sites in this region. A possible interpretation is, therefore, proposed in an attempt to explain the various third-millennium tomb and settlement associations that have been reported from the Gulf coast of the United Arab Emirates. [source]

Out of anonymity,A central location for ,peripheral' places through people: the contributions made by Karen Frifelt and Beatrice de Cardi to an understanding of the archaeology of the United Arab Emirates

Soren Blau
This paper documents the contributions made by Karen Frifelt and Beatrice de Cardi to the history of archaeological research in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The events leading up to their study of the material culture from the UAE is reviewed and the effects of working in a Muslim, predominantly male society are discussed. ,We are no longer obsessed with the facts of the evidence as some kind of solid factual bedrock beyond dispute, but we put more emphasis on the manner in which material culture is ,,read'' by the archaeologist or appropriated in her or his discourse' (1). [source]

Screening for language delay in the United Arab Emirates

V. Eapen
Abstract Background Developmental language delay (DLD) is frequent among two- and three-year-olds but little is known about this condition in the Arabian Peninsula. This paper forms part of a multipurpose community psychiatric survey conducted in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The findings regarding the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of DLD are reported here. Methods A total of 694 children, representative of the UAE 3-year-old population were screened using the Denver Developmental Screening Test (DDST) and the language screening procedure as used by Westerlund and Sundelin. Results Of the 694 children screened for DLD at 3 years of age, 69 children (9.9%; CI 7.8,12.4) were found to have delays in the language sector of DDST. A total of 45 (6.5%; CI 4.3,8.7) were identified as having general language disability, both in comprehension and expression as per the language screening procedure. Language delay was found to be associated with rural living, mother being from a different nationality, non-involvement of domestic help in child care, family history of language delay, obstetric and perinatal problems and presence of behavioural problems in the child. Using stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis, two factors emerged as important with regard to general language delay, which were previous non-UAE nationality of the mother and total monthly income of the family. Conclusion The pattern and correlates of DLD found in this survey are in line with those reported by other surveys, but some unique socio-cultural risk factors specific to this community were identified. The implications of these findings to screening and referral for further evaluation and intervention are discussed. [source]