Unit Database (unit + database)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Reoperative adrenal surgery: lessons learnt

Charles T. Tan
With the widespread use of abdominal imaging, the detection and therefore incidence of adrenal tumours is increasing. The laparoscopic approach to primary surgical resection of adrenal tumours has now become the standard of care. There is scarce published literature regarding the management and outcomes of recurrent adrenal tumours. The aim of the present study was therefore to review the authors' experience with reoperative adrenal surgery. A retrospective review of reoperative adrenalectomy cases identified from the prospectively maintained University of Sydney Endocrine Surgical Unit Database from January 1988 to July 2007 was carried out. There were nine (3.5%) reoperative adrenalectomies in six patients. Two were cases of adrenocortical carcinoma, two involved cases of familial phaeochromocytomas and two cases were due to sporadic phaeochromocytomas. Reoperative adrenal surgery is an uncommon event. During the index surgery for adrenal tumours, all adrenal tissue should be removed and knowledge of the vagaries of adrenal anatomy is essential. Reoperative adrenal surgery is a safe procedure and may confer survival benefit or symptom relief. Lifelong follow up is essential for all patients who have had surgery for functional and malignant adrenal tumours. [source]

Management of hyperfunctioning single thyroid nodules in the era of minimally invasive thyroid surgery

Charles Tan
Both surgical excision and radioiodine ablation are effective modalities in the management of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules. Minimally invasive thyroid surgery (MITS) using the lateral mini-incision approach has previously been demonstrated to be a safe and effective technique for thyroid lobectomy. As such MITS may offer advantages as a surgical approach to hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules without the need for a long cervical incision or extensive dissection associated with formal open hemithyroidectomy. The aim of the present study was to assess the safety and efficacy of MITS for the treatment of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules. This is a retrospective case study. Data were obtained from the University of Sydney Endocrine Surgical Unit Database from 2002 to 2007. There were 86 cases of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules surgically removed during the study period, of which 10 (12%) were managed using the MITS approach. The ipsilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve was identified and preserved in all cases with no incidence of temporary or permanent nerve palsy. The external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve was visualized and preserved in eight cases (80%). There were no cases of postoperative bleeding. There was one clinically significant follicular thyroid carcinoma in the series (10%). In nine of 10 cases (90%) normalization of thyroid function followed surgery. MITS is a safe and effective procedure, achieving the benefits of a minimally invasive procedure with minimal morbidity. As such it now presents an attractive alternative to radioiodine ablation for the management of small hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules. [source]

Clinical features associated with medically unexplained stroke-like symptoms presenting to an acute stroke unit

F. S. Nazir
In many areas of secondary care, symptoms unexplained by disease account for around one-third of all patients seen. We sought to investigate patients presenting with medically unexplained stroke-like symptoms to identify distinguishing features which may help to identify a non-organic aetiology. Patients given a discharge diagnosis of medically unexplained stroke-like symptoms over the preceding 11 years were identified retrospectively from a prospectively completed stroke unit database. Age- and sex-matched controls with ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke or transient ischaemic attack were also identified. Clinical features on presentation, ischaemic risk factors, alcohol history, marital status and history of depression or anxiety were examined. Previous or subsequent admissions with medically unexplained syndromes were also examined via record linkage with hospital discharge records. A medically unexplained syndrome was assumed to be present if an International Classification of Diseases 9 discharge code for one or more of the thirteen conditions forming recognized functional syndromes was given. Logistic regression was applied to determine predictors of non-organicity. One hundred and five patients and controls, 1.6% of all stroke unit admissions were identified, 62% (65 patients) were females. Mean age was 50.3 14.9. Compared with age- and sex-matched controls patients with medically unexplained stroke-like symptoms were significantly more probable to have a headache at presentation (47% vs. 26%, P = 0.0004), have a diagnosis of one or more additional medically unexplained syndromes (24% vs. 11%, P = 0.007) but significantly less probable to present with symptoms of vertebrobasilar dysfunction (32% vs. 61%, P < 0.0001). A history of anxiety or depression, as recorded in the notes, was not found to be associated with a medically unexplained presentation. Medically unexplained stroke-like presentations are common (1.6% of all stroke presentations), they are most strongly predicted by the presence of other functional somatic syndromes, headache and the absence of symptoms of vertebrobasilar dysfunction. [source]

Outcome of liver transplantation for patients with pulmonary hypertension

Peter Starkel
It is generally believed that pulmonary hypertension (PHT) adversely affects outcome after liver transplantation (LT). Most transplant units consider severe PHT to be an absolute contraindication to LT. We examined the outcome of 145 patients who underwent LT between 1997 and 1999. Pulmonary artery pressures (PAPs) had been measured before surgery. Pre-LT workup included electrocardiography and echocardiography for the majority of patients. Also, the liver unit database was screened for patients with known PHT who had undergone LT before 1997. Based on pulmonary floatation catheter measurements made after the induction of anesthesia for LT, PHT was defined as mild or moderate to severe if the mean PAP (MPAP) exceeded 25 and 35 mm Hg, respectively. The incidence of PHT was 26% (38 of 145 patients); 31 of 38 patients had mild PHT. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis did not show a significant survival benefit for patients with normal PAPs compared with patients with PHT (all, mild, moderate to severe). For surviving patients, the duration of ventilation and intensive care unit stay was unaffected by PHT. Four of 5 patients (identified from the database 1982 to 1999) with MPAPs greater than 40 mm Hg survived LT by more than 1 year. PHT of this severity was usually associated with specific and suggestive abnormality of the echocardiogram. Mild PHT is common and does not affect patient outcome after LT. Moderate and severe PHT are uncommon. Our analysis suggests that when the cardiac index is preserved, the majority of patients with moderate and severe PHT can survive LT, and they will not die of PHT during long-term follow-up. Echocardiography detects most severe PHT, but not mild and moderate PHT. [source]

Pancreatitis in adult orthotopic liver allograft recipients: Risk factors and outcome

Deborah J. Verran
Acute pancreatitis (AP) has been described after orthotopic liver transplantation but is uncommon in stable patients after the initial perioperative phase. The aim of this study is to review our experience with AP occurring more than 2 months after primary allografting and determine possible contributing factors plus patient outcome. A review of patient files and the unit database was performed. AP was diagnosed in 9 of 298 patients (3%) on 12 occasions. The incidence of AP was greater in men (8 of 163 men) than women (1 of 135 women; P< .04). Underlying factors to each episode of AP were biliary manipulation (4 of 12 episodes; 33%), history of recent alcohol ingestion (3 of 12 episodes; 25%), and malignancy in the region of the pancreas (2 of 12 episodes; 16%). AP was associated with a diagnosis of either hepatic artery thrombosis combined with biliary tract complications (P< .005) or malignancy (P< .004). In 7 of 12 episodes of AP (58%), conservative management alone was successful. In 3 of 9 patients (33%), subsequent surgery was required. One patient died of pancreatic malignancy. In conclusion, AP is uncommon in stable liver transplant recipients. Male sex, complications of hepatic artery thrombosis, and malignancy in the region of the pancreas are associated with AP in this study. [source]

Endoscopic ultrasonography-detected low-volume ascites as a predictor of inoperability for oesophagogastric cancer

J. Sultan
Background: Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) can detect low-volume ascites (LVA) not apparent on computed tomography. The aim of this study was to assess the importance of LVA for management of patients with oesophagogastric (OG) cancer. Methods: Patients with LVA were identified from a prospective OG cancer unit database between January 2002 and January 2006. Results: Of 1118 patients staged with OG cancer, 802 had EUS. The incidence of LVA was 84 per cent overall but fell to 65 per cent when those with metastases on computed tomography were excluded. Only patients with gastric and OG junction carcinoma had LVA. Staging laparoscopy in the 21 patients with LVA revealed that 11 (52 per cent) were inoperable. The remainder had laparotomy and complete (R0) resection was possible in only five (50 per cent). In 106 patients who had staging laparoscopy after EUS without LVA, 37 (349 per cent) were inoperable and 56 of the remaining 69 (81 per cent) had R0 resection. Conclusion: The presence of LVA on EUS is uncommon in patients with OG cancer but very important, being indicative of incurable disease in 76 per cent. This information will be helpful in counselling patients regarding management options and the low likelihood of potentially curative treatment. Copyright 2008 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Can we predict recurrence of pre-eclampsia or gestational hypertension?

MA Brown
Objective, To estimate the rates of recurrence of pre-eclampsia or gestational hypertension in a subsequent pregnancy and to determine factors predictive of recurrence. Design, Retrospective cohort study. Setting, St George Public and Private Hospitals, teaching hospitals without neonatal intensive care units. Participants, A total of 1515 women with a diagnosis of pre-eclampsia or gestational hypertension between 1988 and 1998 were identified from the St George Hypertension in Pregnancy database, a system designed initially for ensuring quality outcomes of hypertensive pregnancies. Of these, 1354 women were followed up, and a further 333 records from women coded as having a normal pregnancy during that period were selected randomly as controls. Main outcome measures, Likelihood of recurrent pre-eclampsia or gestational hypertension and clinical and routine laboratory factors in the index pregnancy predictive of recurrence of pre-eclampsia or gestational hypertension. Methods, The index cases from our unit's database were linked to the matched pregnancy on the State Department of Health database, allowing us to determine whether further pregnancies had occurred at any hospital in the State. The outcome of these pregnancies was determined by review of medical records, using strict criteria for diagnosis of pre-eclampsia or gestational hypertension. Results, Almost all women with a normal index pregnancy had a further normotensive pregnancy. One in 50 women hypertensive in their index pregnancy had developed essential hypertension by the time of their next pregnancy. Women with pre-eclampsia in their index pregnancy were equally likely to develop either pre-eclampsia or gestational hypertension (approximately 14% each), while women with gestational hypertension were more likely to develop gestational hypertension (26%) rather than pre-eclampsia (6%) in their next pregnancy. Multiparous women with gestational hypertension were more likely than primiparous women to develop pre-eclampsia (11 versus 4%) or gestational hypertension (45 versus 22%) in their next pregnancy. Early gestation at diagnosis in the index pregnancy, multiparity, uric acid levels in the index pregnancy and booking blood pressure parameters in the next pregnancy significantly influenced the likelihood of recurrence, predominantly for gestational hypertension and less so for pre-eclampsia. No value for these parameters was significant enough to be clinically useful as a discriminate value predictive of recurrent pre-eclampsia or gestational hypertension. Conclusions, Approximately 70% of women with pre-eclampsia or gestational hypertension will have a normotensive next pregnancy. The highest risk group for recurrent hypertension in pregnancy in this study was multiparous women with gestational hypertension. No readily available clinical or laboratory factor in the index pregnancy reliably predicts recurrence of pre-eclampsia. [source]