Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Units

  • acid unit
  • acute care unit
  • acute stroke unit
  • administrative unit
  • advance microwave sounding unit
  • alkyne unit
  • analysis unit
  • anthracene unit
  • arbitrary unit
  • aromatic unit
  • assessment unit
  • asymmetric unit
  • b unit
  • base unit
  • basic structural unit
  • basic unit
  • benzothiadiazole unit
  • binaphthyl unit
  • binding unit
  • biological unit
  • bipyridyl unit
  • bridging unit
  • building unit
  • burn unit
  • burst-forming unit
  • business unit
  • carbazole unit
  • carbon unit
  • cardiac intensive care unit
  • cardiac unit
  • care unit
  • catalytic cracking unit
  • catalytic unit
  • cb unit
  • cell unit
  • central processing unit
  • chelating unit
  • chiral unit
  • chromophore unit
  • clinical unit
  • cluster unit
  • colony-forming unit
  • colorectal unit
  • complex unit
  • conservation unit
  • control unit
  • cooling unit
  • cord blood unit
  • core unit
  • coronary care unit
  • cracking unit
  • critical care unit
  • crystallographic asymmetric unit
  • culture unit
  • curing unit
  • dementia special care unit
  • dermatology unit
  • detoxification unit
  • development unit
  • deviation unit
  • dialysis unit
  • different unit
  • dimer unit
  • dimeric unit
  • dinuclear unit
  • disaccharide unit
  • discrete unit
  • disease unit
  • disorders unit
  • dispersal unit
  • distinct unit
  • duct unit
  • eclogite unit
  • elisa unit
  • emergency unit
  • endoscopy unit
  • epicatechin unit
  • ethylene unit
  • evolutionarily significant unit
  • evolutionary significant unit
  • evolutionary unit
  • experimental unit
  • family unit
  • ferrocene unit
  • ferrocenyl unit
  • fetal medicine unit
  • fetoplacental unit
  • flow unit
  • fluorene unit
  • follicular unit
  • formula unit
  • fullerene unit
  • functional unit
  • fundamental unit
  • general intensive care unit
  • genetic unit
  • geographical unit
  • geological unit
  • geomorphic unit
  • geriatric unit
  • glucose unit
  • government unit
  • graphics processing unit
  • gynaecology unit
  • habitat unit
  • haugh unit
  • head unit
  • health care unit
  • health unit
  • hemodialysis unit
  • hospital intensive care unit
  • hospital unit
  • hounsfield unit
  • housing unit
  • hydrological unit
  • iii unit
  • imaging unit
  • independent unit
  • individual unit
  • inpatient psychiatric unit
  • inpatient rehabilitation unit
  • inpatient unit
  • intensive care unit
  • intensive therapy unit
  • intensive-care unit
  • international unit
  • isoprene unit
  • land unit
  • level iii unit
  • light curing unit
  • light unit
  • linking unit
  • lithostratigraphic unit
  • liver unit
  • local health unit
  • loess unit
  • log colony-forming unit
  • log unit
  • macrophage colony-forming unit
  • main unit
  • management unit
  • many intensive care unit
  • many unit
  • mass unit
  • maternity unit
  • measurement unit
  • medical intensive care unit
  • medical unit
  • medicine unit
  • mental health unit
  • mesogenic unit
  • methylene unit
  • microwave sounding unit
  • molecular unit
  • monitoring unit
  • monomer unit
  • monomeric unit
  • motor unit
  • multiple unit
  • n unit
  • nail unit
  • naphthalene unit
  • neonatal care unit
  • neonatal intensive care unit
  • neonatal unit
  • neurovascular unit
  • nursing development unit
  • nursing unit
  • o-polysaccharide repeating unit
  • observation unit
  • obstetric unit
  • oncology unit
  • one unit
  • one-male unit
  • operational taxonomic unit
  • organizational unit
  • other unit
  • paediatric intensive care unit
  • paediatric surveillance unit
  • paediatric unit
  • palliative care unit
  • pediatric intensive care unit
  • percentage unit
  • perylene unit
  • ph unit
  • pilosebaceou unit
  • pka unit
  • planning unit
  • plaque-forming unit
  • plastic surgery unit
  • population unit
  • porphyrin unit
  • postanaesthesia care unit
  • postanesthesia care unit
  • power unit
  • process unit
  • processing unit
  • production unit
  • psychiatric inpatient unit
  • psychiatric intensive care unit
  • psychiatric unit
  • psychiatry unit
  • pyridine unit
  • recognition unit
  • recovery unit
  • reference unit
  • referral unit
  • rehabilitation unit
  • relative value unit
  • renal unit
  • repeat unit
  • repeating unit
  • research unit
  • reservoir unit
  • residential unit
  • resonance unit
  • respiratory unit
  • ring unit
  • rock unit
  • same unit
  • sample unit
  • sampling unit
  • scale unit
  • science unit
  • secondary building unit
  • secretory unit
  • secure unit
  • sedimentary unit
  • separate unit
  • several unit
  • significant unit
  • single motor unit
  • single unit
  • smaller unit
  • social unit
  • soil unit
  • sounding unit
  • spatial unit
  • special care unit
  • specialist unit
  • standard deviation unit
  • standard unit
  • stock-keeping unit
  • storage unit
  • stratigraphic unit
  • stroke unit
  • structural unit
  • structure unit
  • study unit
  • styrene unit
  • sugar unit
  • surgery unit
  • surgical intensive care unit
  • surgical unit
  • surveillance unit
  • taxonomic unit
  • teaching unit
  • tectonic unit
  • terminal unit
  • tertiary neonatal unit
  • therapy unit
  • time unit
  • transcription unit
  • transcriptional unit
  • transfer unit
  • transplant unit
  • treatment unit
  • value unit
  • vegetation unit
  • work unit

  • Terms modified by Units

  • unit action potential
  • unit activity
  • unit admission
  • unit area
  • unit b
  • unit cell
  • unit cell dimension
  • unit cell parameter
  • unit cell volume
  • unit characteristic
  • unit circle
  • unit cohesion
  • unit commitment problem
  • unit content
  • unit cost
  • unit database
  • unit decreased
  • unit disc
  • unit disk
  • unit effort
  • unit experience
  • unit ground area
  • unit hydrograph
  • unit incorporated
  • unit increase
  • unit leaf area
  • unit length
  • unit level
  • unit managers
  • unit mass
  • unit nurse
  • unit operation
  • unit operations
  • unit patient
  • unit potential
  • unit price
  • unit protein
  • unit record data
  • unit recording
  • unit recruitment
  • unit revenue
  • unit root
  • unit root test
  • unit setting
  • unit size
  • unit sphere
  • unit stay
  • unit surface area
  • unit system
  • unit time
  • unit used
  • unit value
  • unit volume
  • unit weight

  • Selected Abstracts


    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 1 2001
    Although researchers have begun to document the programs and activities performed by police gang units, little research has examined why police gang units are created and why they have responded to local gang problems in the way they have over the past 10 years. Using a multimethodological research design, the present study examines the factors that shaped a Midwestern police department's response to its community's gang problem. The results from the present study lend support for the institutional perspective. The data suggest that the gang unit was created as a consequence of pressures placed on the police department from various powerful elements within the community and that, once created, the unit's response was largely driven by its need to achieve and maintain organizational legitimacy. [source]


    ABSTRACT Parchment coffee (Arabica) was dried from an initial moisture content of about 90% to 10% dry basis (db) in a recirculating rotary conduction type heating unit at controlled plenum temperatures of 100, 120 and 140C or controlled product temperatures of 50, 60, and 70C. the temperature of the plenum or moving beans could be maintained at specified levels with small variations during coffee drying experiments. the color and specific gravity of coffee beans exhibited minimum changes as a result of drying operations. the susceptibility of coffee beans to breakage decreased with the lowering of moisture and attained minimum values in the moisture content range of 20 to 30% db. the breakage susceptibility increased sharply with further reduction in moisture content. A drying model, which considered product temperature-time history alone under different operating conditions, estimated the change in moisture content adequately. Such a model could be used for computer-based control of the coffee drying process. [source]


    JOURNAL OF RENAL CARE, Issue 2 2009
    Sofia Zyga
    SUMMARY Patients who are treated in an intensive care unit (ICU) show the need of recovery of their renal function. The reason is that, in this particular cohort of patients, we have to maintain the necessary balance between body fluids, electrolytes, and acid-base, try to suspend further renal damage and purify the patient's blood to better accept the given therapy. In this paper, we try to demonstrate all the methods that can be used depending on the patient's condition, the therapist's preferences and the hospital's capabilities. [source]


    NEPHROLOGY, Issue 3 2000
    MacGinley R

    Concurrent validity of the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test and the Leiter International Performance Scale,Revised

    V. Scott Hooper
    One hundred elementary- and middle-school students were administered the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT; B.A. Bracken & R.S. McCallum, 1998) and the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (Leiter-R; G.H. Roid & L.J. Miller, 1997). Correlations between UNIT and Leiter-R scores were statistically significant ( p < .001), ranging from .33 to .74. The UNIT Full Scale score was 5 points higher than the Leiter-R Full Scale score, t = 4.73, p < .001. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Psychol Schs 43: 143,148, 2006. [source]


    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 6 2005
    FRCS (Ed), Julian J. Pribaz FRACS
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Purchasing a mobile unit to deliver health-care services can be an expensive undertaking for anyone interested in pursuing this option. Yet, little information is found in the literature on planning or designing such vehicles. A set of guidelines could help administrators to make better decisions regarding this approach for delivering healthcare. This article focuses on mobile health units (MHU). It provides a synthesis of the literature in addition to information from written and oral correspondence with the chief executive officers (CEO) of firms that manufacture MHU. On-site visits to agencies using an MHU were made by one of the authors (DM) to glean their perspective. The combined sources led to the development of guidelines and checklists that can assist administrators in planning the function, design and operation of an MHU to deliver health-care services to remote rural sites. [source]


    Renzo Rozzini MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Renzo Rozzini MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    ABSTRACT A study on identification of critical control points in two export processing units indicated the contamination (cfu/g) of raw prawns with pathogenic fecal coliforms was <10,8 × 102 in Unit A, 1 × 101,1.3 × 102 in Unit B and 1 × 103,4 × 104 in pond to plate. The other microbial contaminants in Unit A and from Pond to Plate at different stages were Salmonella spp., 3 × 102,5.7 × 103 and 2 × 102,6 × 102; Staphylococcus aureus, 1.7 × 103,5.7 × 103 and 1 × 103 to 9 × 104; and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, 3 × 102,2 × 104 and 3 × 104,5 × 104, respectively. However, microbial contamination was significantly reduced to <10 after subjecting to household cooking process. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Implementation of hazard analysis critical control points (HACCPs) in the food industry is the most important approach to maintaining food safety. Identification of the critical control points in the HACCPs process will help the aquaculture industry to improve its production processes by applying good aquaculture and good hygienic practices at the production level. The study further provides clear insights into identifying critical control points both at the farm level and at the processing units that are important from farm to fork. [source]


    A. Kadkhodaie-Ilkhchi
    Porosity-permeability relationships in the framework of hydraulic flow units can be used to characterize heterogeneous reservoir rocks. Porosity is a volumetric parameter whereas permeability is a measure of a rock's flow properties and depends on pore distribution and connectivity. Thus zonation of a reservoir using flow zone indicators and the identification of flow units can be used to evaluate reservoir quality based on porosity-permeability relationships. In the present study, we attempt to make a quantitative correlation between flow units and well log responses using fuzzy logic in the mixed carbonate-clastic Asmari Formation at the Ahwaz oilfield, South Iran. A hybrid neuro-fuzzy approach was used to verify the results of fuzzy modelling. For this purpose, well log and core data from three wells at Ahwaz were used to make an intelligent formulation between core-derived flow units and well log responses. Data from a separate well was used for evaluation and validation of the results. The results of this study demonstrate that there is a good agreement between core-derived and fuzzy-logic derived flow units. Fuzzy logic was successful in modelling flow units from well logs at well locations for which no core data was available. [source]


    B. Beiranvand
    The mid-Cretaceous Sarvak Formation, the second-most important reservoir unit in Iran, is composed mainly of grain-supported carbonates. For the purposes of this study, flow units in the upper part of the formation were identified, mapped and classified as part of an integrated reservoir characterization study at a giant oilfield in SW Iran. Pore types and geometries, pore-scale diagenetic history and core-scale depositional attributes were logged using conventional petrographic and lithological methods. The resulting data were combined with core descriptions, mercury-injection capillary pressure data, and wireline log and geophysical data to identify five reservoir rock types: (i) highly oil-stained, grain-supported carbonates, including patch reef and barrier complex deposits with high porosities and permeabilities; (ii) leeward and seaward shoal deposits including grain-supported packstones and skeletal wackestones with high porosities and permeabilities; (iii) dominantly mud-supported lagoonal and open-marine facies with fair porosity and permeability; (iv) grain-supported but highly cemented facies which had poor reservoir characteristics; and (v) calcareous shales and shaly limestones with no reservoir quality. Based on the reservoir rock types, eight flow units were recognised. Subsequently, four reservoir zones were defined based on these flow units at a field scale. This study has contributed to our understanding of flow units in this complex carbonate reservoir, and has improved our ability to characterize and model the architecture of the reservoir from pore to core to field scale. [source]


    JOURNAL OF RENAL CARE, Issue 2 2010
    Alessandra Zampieron RN
    SUMMARY Goals: This descriptive survey aims to explore strategies for the prevention and management of violence and aggression in renal units in 12 European countries. Method: The convenience sample consisting of dialysis, nephrological and transplantation units in European countries was used. A questionnaire, developed with the collaboration of National Associations, was used. Data were analysed using STATA software. A preliminary descriptive variable analysis was performed followed by a verification of the association between variables; values of p < 0.002 were considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 436 completed questionnaires were received (participation rate: 22%). Written policies and procedures regarding violence and aggression are present in 18% of units. Educational strategies are available in less than 20% of units. Incidents are prevented by security staff (48%) or pharmacological treatment (66%). Incident reporting is mandatory for any violent and aggressive behaviour in 66% of units. There are differences between European countries. Discussion and conclusion: Violence and aggression prevention and management strategies are not widely implemented throughout Europe. The dissemination of information on the prevention and management of violence and aggression is vital. [source]


    This paper offers theoretical development clarifying the structure and function of collective job satisfaction and uses meta-analytic methods (k,= 73) to examine the satisfaction,performance relationship when both constructs are construed at the work unit level. Overall, our results suggest that the relationship between unit-level job satisfaction and unit-level performance is significant (,= .34). Specifically, significant relationships were found between unit-level job satisfaction and unit-level criteria, including productivity, customer satisfaction, withdrawal, and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB). Furthermore, the satisfaction-performance relationship was moderated by the strength of unit consensus, performance criteria, industry type, and whether the sample was U.S. based. Although these moderators were identified, collective satisfaction positively predicted performance across all levels of moderators. In addition, results indicate that unit-level OCB has a moderately strong relationship with unit-level performance. Only limited support was found for the notion that OCB is a route through which satisfaction has an impact on performance. We elaborate on these findings and attempt to provide a more clear direction for future research in this area. [source]

    Epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal infections in children aged 0,6 years in Denmark: a 19-year nationwide surveillance study

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 2000
    MS Kaltoft
    The impact of the new pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on invasive disease burden in Danish children was evaluated by analysing the results from the last 19 years of a nationwide surveillance of invasive pneumococcal infections. During 1981,1999, the Streptococcus Unit at Statens Serum Institut, Copenhagen, received 1123 invasive pneumococcal isolates from children aged 0,6 years. Nearly 72% (71.8%) of the pneumococcal isolates were from children aged <2 y. The median ages of children with pneumococcal meningitis and bacteraemia were 10.2 mo and 15.9 mo, respectively. The incidence of pneumococcal meningitis remained stable during the study period. The mean annual incidence rates of pneumococcal meningitis among children aged <1, <2, and <7 years were 17.4, 12.4, and 4.3 per 100000, respectively, during 1981,1999 (overlapping age groups are used throughout this article to facilitate the comparison of incidence data from different countries or among different studies). The annual incidence of pneumococcal bacteraemia increased from 1981 to 1996, after which a slight fall was noted. During the last six years of the study period, the mean annual incidence rates of bacteraemia were 30.1, 32.5, and 14.0 per 100000 children aged <1, <2, and <7 years. In the 1990s, pneumococcal isolates with reduced sensitivity to penicillin (0,5% each year) and erythromycin (7.4% in 1999) emerged as a cause of invasive infections in children aged 0,6 years in Denmark. During 1981,1999, 10 serotypes (1, 4, 6A, 6B, 7F, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, 23F) caused 82% of invasive infections in Danish children. Importantly, no significant temporal changes in overall serotype distribution or differences in serotype distributions between girls and boys could be documented during the study period. Conclusion: According to the Kaiser Permanente trial, the 7-, 9-, and 11-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines will probably cover around 60%, 70%, and 80%, respectively, of all invasive pneumococcal infections in Danish children aged 0,6 y, corresponding to 12,14 episodes of meningitis and 40,60 episodes of bacteraemia per year. [source]

    Serum and 24-hour Urine Analysis in Adult Cyanotic and Noncyanotic Congenital Heart Disease Patients

    Efrén Martínez-Quintana MD
    ABSTRACT Introduction., Glomerulopathy is a complication of congenital heart disease patients. The risk of developing renal impairment is particularly high in cyanotic patients. Objective., The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of renal dysfunction and microalbumiuria in adult cyanotic and non cyanotic congenital heart disease patients. Methods., Fourteen cyanotic and 22 noncyanotic congenital heart disease patients were studied in the Adult Congenital Heart Disease Unit at the Complejo Hospitalario Universitario Insular-Materno Infantil. Demographic characteristics, complete blood count, and 24-hour urianalysis were obtained, including abdominal ultrasound in those with cyanosis. Results., No differences were seen between age (years) (27.4 ± 8.2; 26.4 ± 8.3; P = .71), sex, size, weight, or glomerular filtration rate (mL/min/1.73 m2) (81.1 ± 22.9 vs. 84.9 ± 9.2, P = .482) between cyanotic and noncyanotic patients. However, Eisenmenger patients had significantly impaired renal function when compared with noncyanotic patients (73.0 ± 17.3 vs. 84.9 ± 9.2 mL/min/1.73 m2, P = .023). Significant differences were obtained in oxygen saturation (%) (83.8 ± 5.8 vs. 97.8 ± 0.8; P = .000), hematocrit (%) (59.3 ± 8.1 vs. 40.9 ± 8.5; P = .000), platelets (103/µL) (161.5 ± 70.5 vs. 277.9 ± 57.6; P = .000), serum uric acid (mg/dL) (7.5 ± 2.3 vs. 5.6 ± 1.5; P = .008) and microalbuminuria (mg/24 hours) (12.8 [0, 700.2] vs. 2.4 [0, 18.9]; P = .000) between cyanotic and noncyanotic patients. Five cyanotic patients (35.7%) had microalbuminuria (>30 mg/24 hours) and three of them (21.4%) proteinuria (>1 g/24 hours). No significant differences were seen between serum and urine parameters between cyanotic patients who had microalbuminuria (>30 mg/24 hours) and those cyanotic patients who did not have it (<30 mg/24 hours). Conclusions., Renal impairment is frequently seen in congenital heart disease patients, being associated occasionally with proteinuria and microalbuminuria in cyanotic ones. [source]

    Outcomes Associated With Nesiritide Administration for Acute Decompensated Heart Failure in the Emergency Department Observation Unit: A Single Center Experience

    Joseph F. Styron BA
    The authors' purpose was to determine 30- and 180-day readmission and mortality rates for acutely decompensated heart failure patients receiving nesiritide in the emergency department observation unit. The authors conducted a retrospective evaluation of all patients admitted to the emergency department observation unit, stratified by nesiritide administration, from January 2002 to January 2004. Eligible patients had a primary diagnosis of acutely decompensated heart failure. Observation unit treatment was by previously published protocols, except for nesiritide administration, which was per attending physician choice. Of 595 patients, 196 (33%) received nesiritide. The crude and adjusted odds ratios comparing readmission rates and mortality rates of the nesiritide group with the control group failed to demonstrate significant differences at either the 30- or the 180-day endpoints. The use of nesiritide for acute decompensated heart failure in the emergency department observation unit is not associated with mortality or readmission differences compared with standard therapy alone. [source]

    The Use of B-Type Natriuretic Peptides in the Intensive Care Unit

    Christian Mueller MD
    B-type natriuretic peptide levels are quantitative markers of cardiac stress and heart failure that summarize the extent of systolic and diastolic left ventricular dysfunction, valvular dysfunction, and right ventricular dysfunction. Initial observational pilot studies have addressed 7 potential indications in the intensive care unit: identification of cardiac dysfunction, diagnosis of hypoxic respiratory failure, risk stratification in severe sepsis and septic shock, evaluation of patients with shock, estimation of invasive measurements, weaning from mechanical ventilation, as well as perioperative and postoperative risk prediction. Although additional studies are required to better define the clinical utility of B-type natriuretic peptide values in the intensive care unit, current data suggest that the diagnosis of hypoxic respiratory failure and timing of extubation seem to be the most promising indications. Congest Heart Fail. 2008;14(4 suppl 1):43,45. ©2008 Le Jacq [source]

    Adenosine infusion attenuates soluble RAGE in endotoxin-induced inflammation in human volunteers

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 1 2009
    A. Soop
    Abstract Aim:, To evaluate possible anti-inflammatory effects of pre-treatment with adenosine in a human experimental inflammatory model. Methods:, The study design was double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled and randomized. In the Intensive Care Unit of a university hospital, 16 healthy male volunteers were treated for 5.5 h with infusions of adenosine 40 ,g kg,1 min,1 or placebo. Thirty minutes after the start of adenosine or placebo, 2 ng kg,1E-Coli endotoxin was administered. Heart rate, body temperature, blood pressure, plasma cytokines (TNF-,, IL-6 and IL-10), soluble RAGE and resistin, exhaled nitric oxide and nitrite/nitrate in urine were determined. Results:, Endotoxin elicited the expected clinical signs of an inflammatory reaction (tachycardia, fever) and led to prominent release of the cytokines studied (P < 0.001). Resistin in plasma increased after endotoxin (P < 0.001). After placebo treatment, soluble RAGE (sRAGE) in plasma increased 5 h after the endotoxin challenge (P < 0.001) but not after adenosine. After placebo, orally exhaled NO increased with a peak at 4 h (P < 0.001), although there was no statistically significant difference between the two treatments. Nitrite/nitrate in urine (n = 11) did not differ between adenosine and placebo treatments. Conclusion:, In conclusion, adenosine infusion starting before endotoxin challenge in humans attenuated sRAGE significantly but otherwise had no clear anti-inflammatory effect. Adenosine as a potential anti-inflammatory treatment in humans needs further study, including use of higher doses. The mechanism underlying the effect of adenosines on sRAGE remains unknown. [source]

    Special Hospitals' Research Unit and beyond

    Professor Keith Soothill
    First page of article [source]

    An audit of ,equivocal' (C3) and ,suspicious' (C4) categories in fine needle aspiration cytology of the breast

    CYTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 4 2001
    R. A. Deb
    An audit of ,equivocal' (C3) and ,suspicious' (C4) categories in fine needle aspiration cytology of the breast We have audited the frequency of use and outcome of the ,equivocal/atypia probably benign' (C3) and ,suspicious of malignancy' (C4) category for breast cytology in our Unit. A total of 14 935 cytological specimens were reported by at least one of the three pathologists with a special interest in breast pathology, according to five categories of the NHSBSP guidelines for cytology reporting, 1992; 3.7% (555 cases) and 3.9% (587 cases) of cases were classified as equivocal (C3) and suspicious (C4), respectively, giving a total rate (C3 + C4) of 7.6%. Of the C3 cases, 68% were subsequently benign and 32% were malignant. Of the C4 cases, 19% were subsequently benign and 81% malignant. The commonest benign lesions in both categories were fibroadenomas (7.6% of C3 and 19.8% of C4), fibrocystic change (14.3% of C3 and 12.5% of C4), radial scars (6.2% of C3 and 10.4% of C4) and papillomas (6.2% of C3 and 6.3% of C4). Of the malignant lesions (particularly those classified as C3), a high proportion were low grade or special type cancers. The categories of atypia probably benign (C3) and suspicious of malignancy (C4) in breast cytology provide a strategy for classification of problematic or uncertain cases; this maintains the predictive value of the benign (C2) and malignant (C5) categories, and allows separation of these difficult cases into clinically useful groups with differing probabilities of malignancy. [source]

    Treatment of Nevoid Hyperkeratosis of the Nipple and Areola Using a Radiofrequency Surgical Unit

    Irfan Özyazgan MD
    Background. Nevoid hyperkeratosis of the nipple and areola (NHNA) is a rare condition of unknown etiology. Verrucous thickening and pigmentation of the nipple and areola are the main features of the condition. Different therapeutic options, both medical and surgical, have been described. Objective. To use a radiofrequency surgical unit to treat an NHNA case, which was unresponsive to keratolytic therapy. Materials and Methods. The lesions of the nipple and areolas were excised tangentially with a diamond-shaped electrode of a radiofrequency surgical unit under local anesthesia. Results. The patient had a good cosmetic appearance after the treatment, and there was no recurrence at the ninth postoperative month. Conclusion. Radiofrequency for tangential excision in the treatment of NHNA lesions that have not responded to medical therapy can be an alternative surgical method. [source]

    The clinical presentation of mitochondrial diseases in children with progressive intellectual and neurological deterioration: a national, prospective, population-based study

    Aim, Our aim was to study the clinical presentation, mode of diagnosis, and epidemiology of mitochondrial disorders in children from the UK who have progressive intellectual and neurological deterioration (PIND). Method, Since April 1997, we have identified patients aged 16 years or younger with suspected PIND through the monthly notification card sent to all UK consultant paediatricians by the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit. Clinical details obtained from reporting paediatricians are classified by an Expert Group. Results, By July 2008, 2493 cases of PIND had been reported, among which there were 112 children (69 males, 43 females) with mitochondrial diseases presenting between birth and 14 years 7 months (median 12mo), divided into 13 subgroups. In some instances, clinical features were characteristic of mitochondrial disease, but many children presented non-specifically with combinations of developmental delay, hypotonia, failure to thrive, and seizures; 16 children had multisystem disease at presentation. Mortality was high: 40 children had died. Blood and/or cerebrospinal fluid lactate measurements were abnormal in 87 children, and 47 of 78 brain magnetic resonance images showed increased basal ganglia signal. Definite diagnoses were usually made by muscle enzyme or genetic studies. Interpretation, This is a unique population-based study of the mitochondrial disorders that cause childhood neurodegenerative disease. It provides detailed information about the clinical presentation and investigation of these complex cases. [source]

    An appreciation of Ronnie Mac Keith (1978)

    Martin Bax DM
    It is 100 years since Ronnie Mac Keith's birth and 50 years since he started the Journal Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology (DMCN; initially called The Cerebral Palsy Bulletin), the first number being a reprint of William Little's original article. Scope, then The Spastics Society, had just begun to raise significant sums of money and Ronnie persuaded them not only to put some money into medical research, which they did, funding the research laboratories at Guy's, but also, uniquely, to spend some money on educating and informing doctors. This led to financial backing, happily still continuing, to the publishers of DMCN, now the Mac Keith Press. Initially, it was published under the title Spastics International Medical Publications but this was a clumsy and difficult title because of the unfortunate use of the word 'spastics'and soon after Ronnie's death, who was then senior editor, the Mac Keith Press Board were delighted that his family agreed that the Press would be named after him. In the late 1950s and early 1960s, Ronnie was collecting a team around him to develop the Journal and the books, and contacted me because he knew I had literary interests. I didn't really want to edit a medical journal but I was interested in paediatrics so in the end I got involved! I worked very closely with Ronnie, both clinically and at the Mac Keith Press, and also with the Medical Education Information Unit of the Spastics Society on the meetings he ran. When he died, I tried to pull together something of Ronnie's nature in this personal memoir below, which supplemented the more formal statements about his life and career which can be found in the relevant number of the Journal.1 One hopes that Ronnie would be pleased with what we have done and I know that he would be hoping that we would continue for another 50 years developing ideas and approaches which were essentially developed by Ronnie Mac Keith. [source]

    A pragmatic approach to estimating the distributions and spatial requirements of the medium- to large-sized mammals in the Cape Floristic Region, South Africa

    A. F. Boshoff
    Conservation planning in the Cape Floristic Region, a recognized world plant diversity hotspot, required systematic information on the estimated distributions and spatial requirements of the medium- to large-sized mammals within each of 102 Broad Habitat Units delineated according to key biophysical parameters. As a consequence of a general lack of data, we derived a pragmatic approach for obtaining estimates of these two parameters. Distribution estimates were based on a combination of a literature survey (with emphasis on early texts) and the ecological requirements of the species. Spatial requirement estimates were derived from a simple spreadsheet model that is based on forage availability estimates and the metabolic requirements of the mammals in question. Our analysis incorporated adaptations of the agriculture-based Large Stock Unit or Animal Unit approach. The predictions of the model were tested by comparing them with actual density data. The outcomes provided realistic estimates of the two parameters. However, they should be considered as testable hypotheses and the concept of adaptive management , or management by hypothesis , must apply. Examples of the outcomes are provided in the form of maps and tables. [source]

    Sensitivity of post-hurricane beach and dune recovery to event frequency

    Chris Houser
    Abstract The recovery of Santa Rosa Island in northwest Florida is characterized following Hurricane Katrina (September 2005), which was preceded by Hurricanes Ivan (2004) and Dennis (2005). Beach and dune recovery were quantified to the east and west of Pensacola Beach through a comparison of LiDAR data collected immediately following Hurricane Katrina and in July 2006 after almost a year of recovery. East of Pensacola Beach (the Santa Rosa Unit), the shoreline retreated by an average of 64 m during the 2004,2005 hurricane season and recovered by an average of 19 m. To the west of Pensacola Beach (the Fort Pickens Unit), the shoreline retreated by an average of 30 m, and while no significant shoreface recovery was observed, the presence of vegetation on low-profile dunes promoted backshore accretion. It is found that beachface recovery in the Santa Rosa Unit and backshore accretion in the Fort Pickens Unit occurred at the widest sections of the island where the pre-storm profile volume had been relatively large and overwash penetration was at a minimum. The narrow sections of the island (between cuspate headlands) had a smaller profile volume before the storms, leading to greater overwash penetration and in some cases island breaching in both sections, which limited the volume of sediment available for shoreface recovery. The alongshore variation in recovery is not only related to the island width, but also the offshore bathymetry, height of the pre-storm dunes and the overwash penetration. If sufficient time is allowed for the return of vegetation and the recovery of the dunes, the variations in storm impact observed during Hurricane Ivan will be reinforced during subsequent storms. In this respect, the level of impact during subsequent storms and the ability of the island to recover will depend on the frequency of storm events. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Resting Echocardiography for the Early Detection of Acute Coronary Syndromes in Chest Pain Unit Patients

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 6 2010
    Vito Maurizio Parato M.D.
    Aim: The purpose of this study is to assess the ability of resting echocardiography to detect an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) before the occurrence of ischemic electrocardiogram (ECG) changes or troponin-T elevations. Methods: Four hundred and three patients who presented to the emergency room (ER) with chest pain, normal ECGs, and normal troponin-T levels were admitted to the cardiologist-run Chest Pain Unit (CPU) for further monitoring. They underwent serial resting echocardiography for monitoring of left ventricle wall motion (LVWM), ECG telemetry monitoring, and serial troponin-T measurements. Results: An ACS was detected in 49 patients (12.1%). These 49 patients were then subdivided into three different groups based on the initial mode of detection of their ACS. In group A, 16 of 49 (32.6%) patients had ACS shown by echocardiographic detection of LVWM abnormalities. In group B, 24 of 49 (48.9%) patients had an ACS detected by ischemic ECG changes. In group C, 9 of 49 (18.3%) patients had an ACS detected by troponin-T elevations. The shortest time interval between CPU-admission and ACS-detection occurred in group A (A vs. B, P < 0.003; A vs. C, P < 0.0001). In group A, cardiac angiogram showed that the culprit coronary lesion was more frequent in the circumflex artery (11 out of 16; 68.7%) (LCx vs. LAD, P < 0.02; LCx vs. RCA, P < 0.001) and of these 11 patients with circumflex lesions, the ECG was normal in eight (72.7%) patients. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the utility of LVWM monitoring by serial echocardiography as part of a diagnostic protocol that can be implemented in a CPU. Furthermore, echocardiography could become an essential tool used in the diagnosis of ACS secondary to circumflex lesions. (Echocardiography 2010;27:597-602) [source]

    Integrating Research into Clinical Practice: Development of an Echocardiography Research Unit

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 6 2009
    R.D.C.S., Tammy M. Green B.A.
    Introducing a research program into an echocardiography clinical practice can pose many challenges. Some initial factors to consider are the possible effects on the current clinical schedule and the equipment and personnel resources required to support the research projects. More importantly, how can an organization successfully complete reliable and accurate research projects? Here, we describe our experience with establishing an echocardiography research center within our clinical echocardiography practice. In addition, we identify key staff roles, highlight our current research practice methods, and suggest essential components that may prove advantageous when incorporating echocardiography research into a clinical practice. (ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Volume 26, July 2009) [source]

    Seeing America,diary of a drug-focused study tour made in 1967

    ADDICTION, Issue 6 2010
    Griffith Edwards
    ABSTRACT In 1965 the British government was forced to admit that the country had an escalating heroin problem, with the supply coming mainly from prescribing by private practitioners. Within the official responses to what was seen at that time as a very worrying public health situation was the decision to fund the setting-up of the Addiction Research Unit (ARU) at the Institute of Psychiatry, London. The US National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) generously sponsored a study tour for the nominated director of the ARU shortly before the opening of the British research centre. Extensive contemporaneous diary notes of a visit included contact with administrators, researchers, clinicians, parish priests, narcotic agents and addicts themselves. From a mass of often conflicting advice, some insights could be derived. In particular, these included the need for an awareness of any country's way of dealing with drug problems as a dynamic, multi-factorial total system,a holistic ,national response'. A further conclusion was to see policy itself as a complex subject for analysis: drug policy should be as much an issue for research as drug taking. Besides these broad conclusions, the experience provided many specific leads to development of a British addiction research programme, and fostered professional friendships of immeasurable worth. [source]

    Tonic,Absence Seizures: An Underrecognized Seizure Type

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 3 2003
    Tina T. Shih M.D.
    Summary: ,Purpose: The individual electroclinical patterns,tonic seizures with generalized paroxysmal fast activity (GPFA, activity >13 Hz), and absence seizures with generalized slow spike-and-wave activity (GSS&W, <3 Hz),have been extensively described in the literature. However, only passing reference was made to the pattern of GPFA followed by GSS&W. In addition, these descriptions were formulated in the pre-EMU (Epilepsy Monitoring Unit) era, without benefit of video/clinical correlation. We now characterize this underrecognized seizure type. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the data from eight patients with seizures that demonstrated this stereotyped EEG and clinical pattern. Results: We identified eight patients (six female patients; age 6,29 years; age at seizure onset, neonate to 10 years) who were evaluated at the Columbia University Epilepsy Monitoring Units between 1993 and 2002. All eight had an International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) diagnosis of symptomatic generalized epilepsy, with six of eight manifesting multiple seizure types, six of eight with mild static encephalopathy, and two with normal cognition. A total of 29 seizures of this pattern was recorded; 26 of 29 seizures demonstrated GPFA (frequency between 14 and 30 Hz, lasting 2,8 s) followed by GSS&W (frequency range between 1 and 2 Hz, lasting 3,50 s). The predominant clinical correlate was bilateral tonic activity followed by a period of inattentiveness. In general, these seizures were differentiated from the patient's typical tonic seizures by this protracted period of impaired attentiveness. Conclusions: We describe a heretofore underrecognized and poorly characterized seizure type in patients with symptomatic generalized epilepsy, which we have termed tonic,absence seizures. Clinically and electrographically, this consists of a tonic seizure with GPFA followed by an absence seizure with GSS&W. [source]