Unique Data (unique + data)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by Unique Data

  • unique data set

  • Selected Abstracts

    Sociodemographic and Health Profiles of the Oldest Old In China

    Zeng Yi
    Unique data from a 1998 healthy longevity baseline survey provide demographic, socio-economic, and health characteristics of the oldest old, aged 80,105, in China. This subpopu-lation is growing rapidly and is likely to need extensive social and health services. A large majority of Chinese oldest old live with their children and rely mainly on children for financial support and care. Most Chinese oldest old had no or very little education. Ability to function independently in daily living declines rapidly and self-rated health declines moderately across the oldest old ages. As compared to their urban counterparts, the rural oldest old have far less pension support, are significantly less educated, and are more likely to be widowed and to rely on children for support. Apart from higher rates of survival, the female oldest old in China are far more disadvantaged than the male oldest old. [source]

    The Adequacy of Household Survey Data for Evaluating the Nongroup Health Insurance Market

    Joel C. Cantor
    Objective. To evaluate the accuracy of household survey estimates of the size and composition of the nonelderly population covered by nongroup health insurance. Data Sources/Study Setting. Health insurance enrollment statistics reported to New Jersey insurance regulators. Household data from the following sources: the 2002 Current Population Survey (CPS)-March Demographic Supplement, the 1997 and 1999 National Surveys of America's Families (NSAF), the 2001 New Jersey Family Health Survey (NJFHS), a 2002 survey of known nongroup health insurance enrollees, a small 2004 survey testing alternative health insurance question wording. Study Design. To assess the extent of bias in estimates of the size of the nongroup health insurance market in New Jersey, enrollment trends are compared between official enrollment statistics reported by insurance carriers to state insurance regulators with estimates from three general population household surveys. Next, to evaluate possible bias in the demographic and socioeconomic composition of the New Jersey nongroup market, distributions of characteristics of the enrolled population are contrasted among general household surveys and a survey of known nongroup subscribers. Finally, based on inferences drawn from these comparisons, alternative health insurance question wording was developed and tested in a local survey to test the potential for misreporting enrollment in nongroup coverage in a low-income population. Data Collection/Extraction Methods. Data for nonelderly New Jersey residents from the 2002 CPS (n=5,028) and the 1997 and 1999 NSAF (n=6,467 and 7,272, respectively) were obtained from public sources. The 2001 NJFHS (n=5,580 nonelderly) was conducted for a sample drawn by random digit dialing and employed computer-assisted telephone interviews and trained, professional interviewers. Sampling weights are used to adjust for under-coverage of households without telephones and other factors. In addition, a modified version of the NJFHS was administered to a 2002 sample of known nongroup subscribers (n=1,398) using the same field methods. These lists were provided by four of the five largest New Jersey nongroup insurance carriers, which represented 95 percent of all nongroup enrollees in the state. Finally, a modified version of the NJFHS questionnaire was fielded using similar methods as part of a local health survey in New Brunswick, New Jersey, in 2004 (n=1,460 nonelderly). Principal Findings. General household sample surveys, including the widely used CPS, yield substantially higher estimates of nongroup enrollment compared with administrative totals and yield estimates of the characteristics of the nongroup population that vary greatly from a survey of known nongroup subscribers. A small survey testing a question about source of payment for direct-purchased coverage suggests than many public coverage enrollees report nongroup coverage. Conclusions. Nongroup health insurance has been subject to more than a decade of reform and is of continuing policy interest. Comparisons of unique data from a survey of known nongroup subscribers and administrative sources to household surveys strongly suggest that the latter overstates the number and misrepresent the composition of the nongroup population. Research on the nongroup market using available sources should be interpreted cautiously and survey methods should be reexamined. [source]

    The historical origins of US exchange market intervention policy,

    Michael D. Bordo
    Abstract This paper examines the historical precedents of US exchange market intervention. Before 1934 we describe operations by the Second Bank of the United States, the US Treasury and the Federal Reserve. We then examine the operations of the Exchange Stabilization Fund, created in 1934 as a Treasury Department agency. Our study, based on unique, unpublished sources, analyses ESF dealings with the Banque de France and the Bank of England before and after the Tripartite Agreement of 1936. Finally, using unique data we discuss US efforts from 1961 through 1972 to defend the dollar's parity under the Bretton Woods System. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    An econometric analysis of regional adoption patterns of Bt maize in Germany

    Nicola Consmüller
    Bt maize; Genetically modified organisms (GMO); Germany; Panel data analysis Abstract In this study, our goal is to identify and explain the underlying factors that drive regional adoption of Bt maize MON810 in Germany. Since regional differences cannot be explained by the occurrence of the target pest alone, we assume that under the given regulatory framework for genetically modified (GM) crop production in Germany, farm structures as well as the sociopolitical environment have also influenced regional adoption rates during the past years. Following a description of the relevant legal and economic framework in Germany, we develop theoretical hypotheses for regional variation in Bt maize adoption and test them econometrically with unique data at the federal state (Laender) and county (Landkreis) level. According to our analysis at the federal state level, the maize acreage per farm is the main driver of Bt maize adoption. In addition, there are signs that public opposition to GM cultivation as measured by membership in the German Friends of the Earth association significantly dampens GM cultivation. At the level of Brandenburg counties, the regional infestation frequency of the European Corn Borer, the target pest of Bt-Maize, is the major determinant of adoption. Although Bt maize is a scale-neutral technology for controlling damages caused by the Corn Borer, additional fixed costs due to regulation make the technology scale dependent. [source]

    Phasing Out Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury

    Effects on Urban Stocks, Flows
    Summary Large stocks of metals have accumulated in the urban technosphere (i.e., the physical environment altered by human activity). To minimize health and environmental risks, attempts were begun in the 1980s to phase out the use of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg). To study the effect of this attempt, we conducted substance flow analyses (SFAs) in Stockholm, Sweden, in 1995 and in 2002,2003, which allow a comparison of the results over time. The SFAs showed a reduction in the stocks of Cd and Hg by approximately 25% to 30% between 1995 and 2002,2003. For Pb, the stock development was more uncertain. Cd and Hg inflow was substantially reduced during this period, but Pb inflow increased. Amounts of Cd and Pb in waste were still large, whereas Hg flows in waste were decreasing. Furthermore, although emissions of Pb decreased, Cd and Hg emissions were in the same range as in 1995. The application of SFAs has provided unique data on the accumulation of metals in the Stockholm technosphere, thus serving as a valuable indicator of how the phasing out progresses. The changes can be related to regulations, initiatives by industries and organizations, and the proactive attitude of the local environmental authorities and of the water company. [source]

    Effects of Concentrated Ownership and Owner Management on Small Business Debt Financing,

    Zhenyu Wu
    Using unique data and a new powerful Monte Carlo-based statistical tool, we examine the effects of concentrated ownership and owner,management (CO-OM) on the creditor,shareholder agency conflicts in small firms. A significant CO-OM effect from the small business owner's view, but insignificant from the commercial lenders' perspective, is found. Special features of informational asymmetry problems in small firms with CO-OM are also highlighted. Theoretical and empirical contributions are made to the small business management and corporate governance literature. Findings obtained from this research have important implications for small business practitioners as well as researchers, and this study can serve as a reference for policymakers and institutional lenders to assist small firms in successfully raising money through debt financing. In addition, a new powerful methodology is introduced to deal with various potential statistical biases and can be further applied to this line of research. [source]

    The multinational birth cohort of EuroPrevall: background, aims and methods

    ALLERGY, Issue 4 2010
    T. Keil
    To cite this article: Keil T, McBride D, Grimshaw K, Niggemann B, Xepapadaki P, Zannikos K, Sigurdardottir ST, Clausen M, Reche M, Pascual C, Stanczyk AP, Kowalski ML, Dubakiene R, Drasutiene G, Roberts G, Schoemaker A-FA, Sprikkelman AB, Fiocchi A, Martelli A, Dufour S, Hourihane J, Kulig M, Wjst M, Yazdanbakhsh M, Szépfalusi Z, van Ree R, Willich SN, Wahn U, Mills ENC, Beyer K. The multinational birth cohort of EuroPrevall: background, aims and methods. Allergy 2010; 65: 482,490. Abstract Background/aim:, The true prevalence and risk factors of food allergies in children are not known because estimates were based predominantly on subjective assessments and skin or serum tests of allergic sensitization to food. The diagnostic gold standard, a double-blind placebo-controlled food provocation test, was not performed consistently to confirm suspected allergic reactions in previous population studies in children. This protocol describes the specific aims and diagnostic protocol of a birth cohort study examining prevalence patterns and influential factors of confirmed food allergies in European children from different regions. Methods:, Within the collaborative translational research project EuroPrevall, we started a multi-center birth cohort study, recruiting a total of over 12 000 newborns in nine countries across Europe in 2005,2009. In addition to three telephone interviews during the first 30 months, parents were asked to immediately inform the centers about possible allergic reactions to food at any time during the follow-up period. Results:, All children with suspected food allergy symptoms were clinically evaluated including double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge tests. We assessed sensitization to different food allergens by measurements of specific serum immunoglobulin E and skin prick tests, collect blood, saliva or buccal swabs for genetic tests, breast milk for measurement of food proteins/cytokines, and evaluate quality-of-life and economic burden of families with food allergic children. Conclusions:, This birth cohort provides unique data on prevalence, risk factors, quality-of-life, and costs of food allergies in Europe, leading to the development of more informed and integrated preventative and treatment strategies for children with food allergies. [source]

    Testing Agency Theory with Entrepreneur Effort and Wealth

    THE JOURNAL OF FINANCE, Issue 2 2005
    ABSTRACT We develop a principal-agent model in an entrepreneurial setting and test the model's predictions using unique data on entrepreneurial effort and wealth in privately held firms. Accounting for unobserved firm heterogeneity using instrumental-variables techniques, we find that entrepreneurial ownership shares increase with outside wealth and decrease with firm risk; effort increases with ownership; and effort increases firm performance. The magnitude of the effects in the cross-section of firms suggests that agency costs may help explain why entrepreneurs concentrate large fractions of their wealth in firm equity. [source]

    Hydrogen-Bond Networks in Water Clusters (H2O)20: An Exhaustive Quantum-Chemical Analysis

    CHEMPHYSCHEM, Issue 2 2010
    Andrei M. Tokmachev Dr.
    Abstract Water aggregates allow for numerous configurations due to different distributions of hydrogen bonds. The total number of possible hydrogen-bond networks is very large even for medium-sized systems. We demonstrate that targeted ultra-fast methods of quantum chemistry make an exhaustive analysis of all configurations possible. The cage of (H2O)20 in the form of the pentagonal dodecahedron is a common motif in water structures. We calculated the spatial and electronic structure of all hydrogen-bond configurations for three systems: idealized cage (H2O)20 and defect cages with one or two hydrogen bonds broken. More than 3 million configurations studied provide unique data on the structure and properties of water clusters. We performed a thorough analysis of the results with the emphasis on the cooperativity in water systems and the structure-property relations. [source]