Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Unique

  • feature unique
  • issues unique

  • Terms modified by Unique

  • unique ability
  • unique activity
  • unique advantage
  • unique allele
  • unique anatomy
  • unique application
  • unique approach
  • unique architecture
  • unique aspect
  • unique association
  • unique biology
  • unique capability
  • unique capacity
  • unique case
  • unique challenge
  • unique character
  • unique characteristic
  • unique circumstance
  • unique class
  • unique clinical
  • unique cluster
  • unique combination
  • unique condition
  • unique configuration
  • unique conformation
  • unique context
  • unique contribution
  • unique data
  • unique data set
  • unique database
  • unique dataset
  • unique design
  • unique detail
  • unique dimension
  • unique domain
  • unique ecosystem
  • unique effect
  • unique effects
  • unique entity
  • unique environment
  • unique environmental influence
  • unique equilibrium
  • unique event
  • unique example
  • unique experience
  • unique expression
  • unique expression pattern
  • unique facet
  • unique factor
  • unique family
  • unique feature
  • unique finding
  • unique form
  • unique function
  • unique gene
  • unique genotype
  • unique group
  • unique haplotype
  • unique history
  • unique identifier
  • unique identity
  • unique influence
  • unique information
  • unique insight
  • unique interaction
  • unique issues
  • unique location
  • unique manner
  • unique marker
  • unique mechanism
  • unique member
  • unique method
  • unique mixture
  • unique mode
  • unique model
  • unique morphology
  • unique mutation
  • unique nature
  • unique need
  • unique observation
  • unique opportunity
  • unique optical property
  • unique outcome
  • unique patient
  • unique pattern
  • unique perspective
  • unique phenomenon
  • unique phenotype
  • unique physical
  • unique place
  • unique population
  • unique position
  • unique possibility
  • unique potential
  • unique predictor
  • unique presentation
  • unique process
  • unique profile
  • unique property
  • unique protein
  • unique quality
  • unique reflection
  • unique region
  • unique resource
  • unique response
  • unique role
  • unique sample
  • unique selectivity
  • unique sequence
  • unique set
  • unique setting
  • unique shape
  • unique site
  • unique situation
  • unique solution
  • unique species
  • unique specificity
  • unique strain
  • unique structural
  • unique structural feature
  • unique structure
  • unique subset
  • unique system
  • unique tool
  • unique transcript
  • unique type
  • unique understanding
  • unique vantage point
  • unique variance
  • unique variation
  • unique way

  • Selected Abstracts

    Neural Network Earnings per Share Forecasting Models: A Comparative Analysis of Alternative Methods

    DECISION SCIENCES, Issue 2 2004
    Wei Zhang
    ABSTRACT In this paper, we present a comparative analysis of the forecasting accuracy of univariate and multivariate linear models that incorporate fundamental accounting variables (i.e., inventory, accounts receivable, and so on) with the forecast accuracy of neural network models. Unique to this study is the focus of our comparison on the multivariate models to examine whether the neural network models incorporating the fundamental accounting variables can generate more accurate forecasts of future earnings than the models assuming a linear combination of these same variables. We investigate four types of models: univariate-linear, multivariate-linear, univariate-neural network, and multivariate-neural network using a sample of 283 firms spanning 41 industries. This study shows that the application of the neural network approach incorporating fundamental accounting variables results in forecasts that are more accurate than linear forecasting models. The results also reveal limitations of the forecasting capacity of investors in the security market when compared to neural network models. [source]

    Coaxial Metal Nano-/Microcables with Isolating Sheath: Synthetic Methodology and Their Application as Interconnects

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 17 2010
    Min-Rui Gao
    Abstract Synthesis of coaxial nano-/microcables has been an intensive research subject due to their heterogeneous structures, tuneable properties, and important applications in nano-/micrometer-scale electronic and optoelectronic devices. Research on the fabrication of nanocables via solution strategies has made great progress in the past few years. In this Research News article, rapidly emerging new solution strategies such as hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) and synergistic soft,hard templates (SSHTs) are highlighted. Unique and flexible coaxial nano-/microcables synthesized by those methods have obvious advantages such as long-term stability and their electrical transport properties, compared with bare counterparts, suggesting that they are potential candidates as interconnects in the future. [source]

    Processing of Bulk Metallic Glass

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 14 2010
    Jan Schroers
    Abstract Bulk metallic glass (BMG) formers are multicomponent alloys that vitrify with remarkable ease during solidification. Technological interest in these materials has been generated by their unique properties, which often surpass those of conventional structural materials. The metastable nature of BMGs, however, has imposed a barrier to broad commercial adoption, particularly where the processing requirements of these alloys conflict with conventional metal processing methods. Research on the crystallization of BMG formers has uncovered novel thermoplastic forming (TPF)-based processing opportunities. Unique among metal processing methods, TPF utilizes the dramatic softening exhibited by a BMG as it approaches its glass-transition temperature and decouples the rapid cooling required to form a glass from the forming step. This article reviews crystallization processes in BMG former and summarizes and compares TPF-based processing methods. Finally, an assessment of scientific and technological advancements required for broader commercial utilization of BMGs will be made. [source]

    Plant Viruses, Unique and Intriguing Pathogens , A Textbook of Plant Virology

    Alan A. Brunt

    `It teaches you what to expect in future,': interprofessional learning on a training ward for medical, nursing, occupational therapy and physiotherapy students

    MEDICAL EDUCATION, Issue 4 2002
    Scott Reeves
    Aim This paper presents findings from a multimethod evaluation of an interprofessional training ward placement for medical, nursing, occupational therapy and physiotherapy students. Context Unique in the UK, and following the pioneering work at Linköping, the training ward allowed senior pre-qualification students, under the supervision of practitioners, to plan and deliver interprofessional care for a group of orthopaedic and rheumatology patients. This responsibility enabled students to develop profession-specific skills and competencies in dealing with patients. It also allowed them to enhance their teamworking skills in an interprofessional environment. Student teams were supported by facilitators who ensured medical care was optimal, led reflective sessions and facilitated students' problem solving. Methods Data were collected from all groups of participants involved in the ward: students, facilitators and patients. Methods included questionnaires, interviews and observations. Results and discussion Findings are presented from each participating group, with a particular emphasis placed on the perspective of medicine. The study found that students valued highly the experiential learning they received on the ward and felt the ward prepared them more effectively for future practice. However, many encountered difficulties adopting an autonomous learning style during their placement. Despite enjoying their work on the ward, facilitators were concerned that the demands of their role could result in `burn-out'. Patients enjoyed their ward experience and scored higher on a range of satisfaction indicators than a comparative group of patients. Conclusions Participants were generally positive about the training ward. All considered that it was a worthwhile experience and felt the ward should recommence in the near future. [source]

    Petrology and chemistry of the new shergottite Dar al Gani 476

    The meteorite is classified as a basaltic shergottite and is only the 13th martian meteorite known to date. It has a porphyritic texture consisting of a fine-grained groundmass and larger olivines. The groundmass consists of pyroxene and feldspathic glass. Minor phases are oxides and sulfides as well as phosphates. The presence of olivine, orthopyroxene, and chromite is a feature that DaG 476 has in common with lithology A of Elephant Moraine (EET) A79001. However, in DaG 476, these phases appear to be early phenocrysts rather than xenocrysts. Shock features, such as twinning, mosaicism, and impact-melt pockets, are ubiquitous. Terrestrial weathering was severe and led to formation of carbonate veins following grain boundaries and cracks. With a molar MgO/(MgO + FeO) of 0.68, DaG 476 is the most magnesian member among the basaltic shergottites. Compositions of augite and pigeonite and some of the bulk element concentrations are intermediate between those of lherzolitic and basaltic shergottites. However, major elements, such as Fe and Ti, as well as LREE concentrations are considerably lower than in other shergottites. Noble gas concentrations are low and dominated by the mantle component previously found in Chassigny. A component, similar to that representing martian atmosphere, is virtually absent. The ejection age of 1.35 ± 0.10 Ma is older than that of EETA79001 and could possibly mark a distinct ejection. Dar al Gani 476 is classified as a basaltic shergottite based on its mineralogy. It has a fine-grained groundmass consisting of clinopyroxene, pigeonite and augite, feldspathic glass and chromite, Ti-chromite, ilmenite, sulfides, and whitlockite. Isolated olivine and single chromite grains occur in the groundmass. Orthopyroxene forms cores of some pigeonite grains. Shock-features, such as shock-twinning, mosaicism, cracks, and impact-melt pockets, are abundant. Severe weathering in the Sahara led to significant formation of carbonate veins crosscutting the entire meteorite. Dar al Gani 476 is distinct from other known shergottites. Chemically, it is the most magnesian member among known basaltic shergottites and intermediate in composition for most trace and major elements between Iherzolitic and basaltic shergottites. Unique are the very low bulk REE element abundances. The CI-normalized abundances of LREEs are even lower than those of Iherzolitic shergottites. The overall abundance pattern, however, is similar to that of QUE 94201. Textural evidence indicates that orthopyroxene, as well as olivine and chromite, crystallized as phenocrysts from a magma similar in composition to that of bulk DaG 476. Whether such a magma composition can be a shergottite parent melt or was formed by impact melting needs to be explored further. At this time, it cannot entirely be ruled out that these phases represent relics of disaggregated xenoliths that were incorporated and partially assimilated by a basaltic melt, although the texture does not support this possibility. Trapped noble gas concentrations are low and dominated by a Chassigny-like mantle component. Virtually no martian atmosphere was trapped in DaG 476 whole-rock splits. The exposure age of 1.26 ± 0.09 Ma is younger than that of most shergottites and closer to that of EETA79001. The ejection age of 1.35 ± 0.1 Ma could mark another distinct impact event. [source]

    Relations Between Social Support and Psychological and Parental Distress for Lesbian, Single Heterosexual by Choice, and Two-Parent Heterosexual Mothers

    Tomer Shechner
    Relations between family type and psychological and parental distress and the moderating role of social support were studied for 90 Israeli lesbian mothers, single heterosexual mothers by choice and 2-parent heterosexual mothers who completed measures of psychological distress, well-being, parental distress, and direct and indirect social support. Findings indicated differences on psychological and parental outcome between mothers from the two heterosexual groups. Social support was higher for lesbian than single heterosexual mothers and was correlated with psychological and parental indices. Unique because of the distinctive demographics of Israeli society (especially in relation to Western Europe and North America), this study highlights ways in which social and individual processes affect psychological outcomes among minority groups. [source]

    Plasma protein profiling: Unique and stable features of individuals

    Gary L. Nelsestuen Dr.
    Abstract Carefully controlled ZipTip extraction of diluted human plasma or serum was combined with MALDI-TOF-MS to produce highly reproducible protein profiles. Components detected included apolipoproteins CI, CII and CIII as well as transthyretin and several isoforms of each protein that are created by glycosylation or other modification and by proteolytic processing. Profiles of healthy individuals all contained the same 15,components. Others were found in plasma from individuals with disease. Profiles were analyzed by peak ratios within the same spectrum. Reproducibility for multiple assays was generally 4 to 10%. Within the healthy population, a given peak ratio occurred with a range of about fourfold. However, peak ratios of multiple samples from the same individual showed a much lower range, typically ±10%. In fact, each individual displayed a personal protein profile that changed very little over time. Because of the stability of protein profiles over time within individuals, these results suggest further studies may discover that certain profile characteristics or changes in an individual's profile may be a sign of current or future disease, even when the altered profile remains within the range for healthy individuals. [source]

    EDITORIAL: Keeping The Journal of Sexual Medicine Unique

    Irwin Goldstein MD Editor-in-Chief

    Early Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Humans Is Dominated by IL-6 Release from the Allograft

    D. K. De Vries
    The pathophysiology of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is complex, and current knowledge of I/R injury in humans is incomplete. In the present study, human living-donor kidney transplantation was used as a highly reproducible model to systematically study various processes potentially involved in early I/R injury. Unique, direct measurements of arteriovenous concentration differences over the kidney revealed massive release of interleukin (IL)-6 in the first 30 minutes of graft reperfusion and a modest release of IL-8. Among the assessed markers of oxidative and nitrosative stress, only 15(S)-8- iso -PGF2, was released. When assessing cell activation, release of prothrombin factor 1 + 2 indicated thrombocyte activation, whereas there was no release of markers for endothelial activation or neutrophil activation. Common complement activation complex sC5b-9 was not released into the bloodstream, but was released into urine rapidly after reperfusion. To investigate whether IL-6 plays a modulating role in I/R injury, a mouse experiment of renal I/R injury was performed. Neutralizing anti-IL-6 antibody treatment considerably worsened kidney function. In conclusion, this study shows that renal I/R in humans is dominated by local IL-6 release. Neutralization of IL-6 in mice resulted in a significant aggravation of renal I/R injury. [source]

    In vitro study of magnetic resonance imaging artefacts of six supraglottic airway devices

    ANAESTHESIA, Issue 6 2010
    M. Zaballos
    Summary We investigated the artefacts created during magnetic resonance imaging by five different laryngeal mask airways: the Classic (cLMAÔ); the LMA ProSealÔ; the LMA UniqueÔ; the Ambu® Disposable Laryngeal Mask; the LMA SupremeÔ; and one other supraglottic airway device, the i-gel supraglottic airway. The devices were placed on top of and inside a phantom simulator to resemble the position in vivo. The artefacts with the cLMA, Unique and Supreme were similar and related to ferromagnetic material in the pilot balloon valve. Artefacts were more prominent with the ProSeal. There were no artefacts with the Ambu Disposable Laryngeal Mask or the i-gel. [source]

    The Laryngeal Mask Airway SupremeTM, a single use laryngeal mask airway with an oesophageal vent.

    ANAESTHESIA, Issue 1 2009
    A randomised, anaesthetised patients, cross-over study with the Laryngeal Mask Airway ProSealTM in paralysed
    Summary The LMA SupremeTM is a new extraglottic airway device which brings together features of the LMA ProSealTM, FastrachTM and UniqueTM. We test the hypothesis that ease of insertion, oropharyngeal leak pressure, fibreoptic position and ease of gastric tube placement differ between the LMA ProSealTM and the LMA SupremeTM in paralysed anesthetised patients. Ninety-three females aged 19,71 years were studied. Both devices were inserted into each patient in random order. Two attempts were allowed. Digital insertion was used for the first attempt and guided insertion for the second attempt. Oropharyngeal leak pressure and fibreoptic position were determined during cuff inflation from 0 to 40 ml in 10 ml increments. Gastric tube insertion was attempted if there was no gas leak from the drain tube. First attempt and overall insertion success were similar (LMA ProSealTM, 92% and 100%; LMA SupremeTM 95% and 100%). Guided insertion was always successful following failed digital insertion. Oropharyngeal leak pressure was 4,8 ml higher for the LMA ProSealTM over the inflation range (p < 0.001). Intracuff pressure was 16,35 cm higher for the LMA ProSealTM when the cuff volume was 20,40 ml (p < 0.001). There was an increase in oropharyngeal leak pressure with increasing cuff volume from 10 to 30 ml for both devices, but no change from 0 to 10 ml and 30,40 ml. There were no differences in the fibreoptic position of the airway or drain tube. The first attempt and overall insertion success for the gastric tube was similar (LMA ProSealTM 91% and 100%; LMA SupremeTM 92% and 100%). We conclude that ease of insertion, gastric tube placement and fibreoptic position are similar for the LMA ProSealTM and LMA SupremeTM in paralysed, anaesthetised females, but oropharyngeal leak pressure and intracuff pressure are higher for the LMA ProSealTM. [source]

    Effects of human,carnivore conflict on tiger (Panthera tigris) and prey populations in Lao PDR

    A. Johnson
    Abstract Unique to South-east Asia, Lao People's Democratic Republic contains extensive habitat for tigers and their prey within a multiple-use protected area system covering 13% of the country. Although human population density is the lowest in the region, the impact of human occurrence in protected areas on tiger Panthera tigris and prey populations was unknown. We examined the effects of human,carnivore conflict on tiger and prey abundance and distribution in the Nam Et-Phou Louey National Protected Area on the Lao,Vietnam border. We conducted intensive camera-trap sampling of large carnivores and prey at varying levels of human population and monitored carnivore depredation of livestock across the protected area. The relative abundance of large ungulates was low throughout whereas that of small prey was significantly higher where human density was lower. The estimated tiger density for the sample area ranged from 0.2 to 0.7 per 100 km2. Tiger abundance was significantly lower where human population and disturbance were greater. Three factors, commercial poaching associated with livestock grazing followed by prey depletion and competition between large carnivores, are likely responsible for tiger abundance and distribution. Maintaining tigers in the country's protected areas will be dependent on the spatial separation of large carnivores and humans by modifying livestock husbandry practices and enforcing zoning. [source]

    Neither Hybrid nor Unique: A Reinterpretation of the East Asian Welfare Regime

    Kyung-Zoon Hong
    Some researchers have been convinced that welfare developments in East Asia, especially Japan and Korea, can be fitted into the existing three worlds of welfare model, while others have insisted that existing welfare regime theories are not able to explain East Asian welfare regimes. This article assumes that we need to go beyond both of these traditional explanations. In the welfare state research fields, welfare regime approaches tend to focus on specific contextual conditions and cross-national differences. As a result, they tend to overemphasize history at the expense of theory. This article tries to combine deductive causal modeling with an institutional,historical context by identifying the contingent rent political game model and deducing important characteristics of East Asian welfare regime from this model. This model opens out the possibility of change in East Asian welfare regimes following the processes of democratization and globalization. Details of this are given in the conclusion. [source]

    A simple method for measuring colour in wild animals: validation and use on chest patch colour in geladas (Theropithecus gelada)

    Adaptive hypotheses about colour variation are widespread in behavioural ecology, and several methods of objective colour assessment have been proposed and validated for use in a wide variety of taxa. However, to date, the most objective and reliable methods of assessing colour are not readily applied to wild animals. In the present study, we present a simple method for assessing colour in unrestrained, wild subjects using digital photography. The method we describe uses a digital camera, a colour standard, and colour analysis software, and can be used to measure any part of the visible colour spectrum. We demonstrate that the method: (1) is accurate and precise across different light conditions; (2) satisfies previous criteria regarding linearity and red, green, and blue equality; and (3) can be independently validated visually. In contrast with previous digital methods, this method can be used under natural light conditions and can be readily applied to subjects in their natural habitat. To illustrate this, we use the method to measure chest colour in wild geladas (Theropithecus gelada). Unique among primates, geladas have a red patch of skin on their chest and neck, which, for males, is thought to be a sexually selected signal. Offering some support to this hypothesis, we found differences in chest ,redness' for males across different age groups, with males in their reproductive prime exhibiting the reddest chests. © 2008 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2008, 94, 231,240. [source]

    Gabapentin withdrawal syndrome in the presence of a taper

    BIPOLAR DISORDERS, Issue 3 2005
    Kien T Tran
    Objective:, To report a case report of a geriatric patient with a 5-year history of gabapentin use for enhanced bipolar control, who was tapered off of gabapentin over 1 week. The patient displayed unique withdrawal symptoms after the taper of gabapentin. Methods:, The patient is an 81-year-old white female with a life-long history of schizoaffective disorder with bipolar type I tendencies who had been prescribed gabapentin for 5 years. Results:, The patient displayed moderate upper respiratory tract infection symptoms and somatic complaints 1 day after termination of gabapentin. These symptoms gradually worsened until 10 days after, at which time she acutely developed severe mental status changes, severe somatic chest pain, and hypertension. Physical examination, electrolytes, electrocardiogram, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and magnetic resonance angiography were all normal. Upon reintroduction of gabapentin, the patient returned to baseline within 1,2 days. Conclusions:, Gabapentin is widely utilized currently for the chronic treatment of recalcitrant migraines, bipolar illness, pain, and epilepsy. It has a wide therapeutic index with few side effects and drug interactions, is not hepatically metabolized, and is excreted by the kidneys. Past reports have suggested that some withdrawal symptoms can present after 1,2 days upon abrupt discontinuation of gabapentin after chronic use within young to middle-aged patients. These symptoms mimic that of alcohol and benzodiazepine withdrawal purportedly due to a similar mechanism of action. Unique to this case is that this geriatric patient developed debilitating withdrawal symptoms after a gradual, week-long taper of gabapentin along with flu-like symptoms. It is proposed herein that a gabapentin taper should follow a course similar to that of a benzodiazepine taper , slowly and over a period of weeks to months. [source]

    An Efficient and Facile One-Pot Synthesis of Structurally Unique 2,4,6-Tris(arylchalcogeno)-1,3,5-triazine and 1,3,5-Tris(arylchalcogeno)-2,4,6-trimethylbenzene.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 48 2004
    Marilyn Daisy Milton
    Abstract For Abstract see ChemInform Abstract in Full Text. [source]

    Embedded Phases: A Way to Active and Stable Catalysts

    Loredana De, Rogatis Dr.
    Abstract Industrial catalysts are typically made of nanosized metal particles, carried by a solid support. The extremely small size of the particles maximizes the surface area exposed to the reactant, leading to higher reactivity. Moreover, the higher the number of metal atoms in contact with the support, the better the catalyst performance. In addition, peculiar properties have been observed for some metal/metal oxide particles of critical sizes. However, thermal stability of these nanostructures is limited by their size; smaller the particle size, the lower the thermal stability. The ability to fabricate and control the structure of nanoparticles allows to influence the resulting properties and, ultimately, to design stable catalysts with the desired characteristics. Tuning particle sizes provides the possibility to modulate the catalytic activity. Unique and unexpected properties have been observed by confining/embedding metal nanoparticles in inorganic channels or cavities, which indeed offers new opportunities for the design of advanced catalytic sytems. Innovation in catalyst design is a powerful tool in realizing the goals of more green, efficient and sustainable industrial processes. The present Review focuses on the catalytic performance of noble metal- and non precious metal-based embedded catalysts with respect to traditional impregnated systems. Emphasis is dedicated to the improved thermal stability of these nanostructures compared to conventional systems. [source]

    Image modification for immersive projection display based on pseudo-projection models

    Toshio Moriya
    Abstract This paper describes a practical method that enables actual images to be converted so that they can be projected onto an immersive projection display (IPD) screen. IPD screens are particularly unique in that their angle of view is extremely wide; therefore, the images projected onto them need to be taken on a special format. In practice, however, it is generally very difficult to shoot images that completely satisfy the specifications of the targeting IPD environment due to cost, technical problems or other reasons. To overcome these problems, we developed a method to modify the images by abandoning geometrical consistency. We were able to utilize this method by assuming that the given image was shot according to a special projection model. Because this model differed from the actual projection model with which the image was taken, we termed it the pseudo-projection model. Since our method uses simple geometry, and can easily be expressed by a parametric function, the degree of modification or the time sequence for modification can readily be adjusted according to the features of each type of content. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Prepulse inhibition of startle, intelligence and familial primary nocturnal enuresis

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 4 2000
    EM Ornitz
    Previous studies have shown a significant reduction of prepulse inhibition of startle in boys with primary nocturnal enuresis. Those enuretic boys who had higher IQs showed less prepulse inhibition. This study evaluates the association of prepulse inhibition and IQ in primary nocturnal enuresis in respect to family history of primary nocturnal enuresis. Prepulse inhibition of startle was studied in 83 boys with primary nocturnal enuresis and 57 non-enuretic boys using an interval of 120 ms between the onset of a 75 dB 1000 Hz tone and a 104 dB noise burst. Of the boys with primary nocturnal enuresis, 56 had a family history of primary nocturnal enuresis and 27 had no family history (no first-degree relative). Of the 57 non-enuretic boys, 42 also had no family history (no first-degree relative) of primary nocturnal enuresis, while 15 did have a positive family history. Associations between prepulse inhibition and IQ scores were compared among these four groups. Strong and significant associations between prepulse inhibition deficit and higher IQ scores in the enuretic group with familial primary nocturnal enuresis were unique in comparison to the other groups. Conclusions: The strong heritabilities of primary nocturnal enuresis, intelligence and prepulse inhibition suggest genetic mediation of the association of prepulse inhibition with intelligence in familial primary nocturnal enuresis. [source]

    Object combining: a new aggressive optimization for object intensive programs

    Ronald Veldema
    Abstract Object combining tries to put objects together that have roughly the same life times in order to reduce strain on the memory manager and to reduce the number of pointer indirections during a program's execution. Object combining works by appending the fields of one object to another, allowing allocation and freeing of multiple objects with a single heap (de)allocation. Unlike object inlining, which will only optimize objects where one has a (unique) pointer to another, our optimization also works if there is no such relation. Object inlining also directly replaces the pointer by the inlined object's fields. Object combining leaves the pointer in place to allow more combining. Elimination of the pointer accesses is implemented in a separate compiler optimization pass. Unlike previous object inlining systems, reference field overwrites are allowed and handled, resulting in much more aggressive optimization. Our object combining heuristics also allow unrelated objects to be combined, for example, those allocated inside a loop; recursive data structures (linked lists, trees) can be allocated several at a time and objects that are always used together can be combined. As Java explicitly permits code to be loaded at runtime and allows the new code to contribute to a running computation, we do not require a closed-world assumption to enable these optimizations (but it will increase performance). The main focus of object combining in this paper is on reducing object (de)allocation overhead, by reducing both garbage collection work and the number of object allocations. Reduction of memory management overhead causes execution time to be reduced by up to 35%. Indirection removal further reduces execution time by up to 6%. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Data structures in Java for matrix computations

    Geir Gundersen
    Abstract In this paper we show how to utilize Java's native arrays for matrix computations. The disadvantages of Java arrays used as a 2D array for dense matrix computation are discussed and ways to improve the performance are examined. We show how to create efficient dynamic data structures for sparse matrix computations using Java's native arrays. This data structure is unique for Java and shown to be more dynamic and efficient than the traditional storage schemes for large sparse matrices. Numerical testing indicates that this new data structure, called Java Sparse Array, is competitive with the traditional Compressed Row Storage scheme on matrix computation routines. Java gives increased flexibility without losing efficiency. Compared with other object-oriented data structures Java Sparse Array is shown to have the same flexibility. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Hypersensitivity Myocarditis Presenting as Atrioventricular Block and Wide Complex Tachycardia in a Toddler

    Neil Bhogal MD
    ABSTRACT A 13-month-old boy presented with acute onset of complete atrioventricular block and wide complex tachycardia but normal hemodynamics. Endomyocardial biopsy disclosed active myocarditis with eosinophils, suggesting a hypersensitivity reaction. With no treatment, the rhythm disturbance resolved within days of onset. Our patient's presentation and self-limited illness is unique. To our knowledge, this is only the second reported case of eosinophilic myocarditis in a young child or infant. [source]

    Strategies for Successful Marine Conservation: Integrating Socioeconomic, Political, and Scientific Factors

    áreas marinas protegidas; planificación de conservación; reservas marinas Abstract:,As the process of marine-protected-area design and implementation evolves, the incorporation of new tools will advance our ability to create and maintain effective protected areas. We reviewed characteristics and approaches that contribute to successful global marine conservation efforts. One successful characteristic emphasized in most case studies is the importance of incorporating stakeholders at all phases of the process. Clearly defined goals and objectives at all stages of the design process are important for improved communication and standardized expectations of stakeholder groups. The inclusion of available science to guide the size and design of marine protected areas and to guide clear monitoring strategies that assess success at scientific, social, and economic levels is also an important tool in the process. Common shortcomings in marine conservation planning strategies include government instability and resultant limitations to monitoring and enforcement, particularly in developing nations. Transferring knowledge to local community members has also presented challenges in areas where in situ training, local capacity, and existing infrastructure are sparse. Inaccessible, unavailable, or outdated science is often a limitation to conservation projects in developed and developing nations. To develop and maintain successful marine protected areas, it is necessary to acknowledge that each case is unique, to apply tools and lessons learned from other marine protected areas, and to maintain flexibility to adjust to the individual circumstances of the case at hand. Resumen:,A medida que evoluciona el proceso de diseño e implementación de áreas marinas protegidas, la incorporación de nuevas herramientas mejorará nuestra habilidad para crear y mantener áreas protegidas efectivas. Revisamos las características y enfoques que contribuyen a los esfuerzos exitosos de conservación marina global. La importancia de incorporar a los actores en todas las fases del proceso es una característica exitosa enfatizada en la mayoría de los estudios de caso. Es importante que haya metas y objetivos claramente definidos para todas las etapas del proceso de diseño para mejorar la comunicación y estandarizar las expectativas de los grupos interesados. La inclusión de la ciencia disponible para guiar el tamaño y diseño de áreas marinas protegidas y para guiar las estrategias de monitoreo que evalúa el éxito a nivel científico, social y económico también son herramientas importantes en el proceso. Defectos comunes en las estrategias de planificación de conservación marina incluyen la inestabilidad gubernamental y las resultantes limitaciones para el monitoreo y vigilancia, particularmente en países en desarrollo. La transferencia de conocimiento a miembros de la comunidad local también ha enfrentado retos en áreas donde el entrenamiento in situ, la aptitud local y la infraestructura existente son escasos. La ciencia inaccesible, no disponible u obsoleta a menudo es una limitación para los proyectos de conservación en países desarrollados y en desarrollo. Para desarrollar y mantener áreas marinas protegidas exitosas, es necesario reconocer que cada caso es único, aplicar herramientas y lecciones aprendidas en otras áreas marinas protegidas y mantener la flexibilidad para ajustarse a las circunstancias individuales de cada caso. [source]

    Forest Stand Dynamics and Livestock Grazing in Historical Context

    clima; incendio forestal; pastoreo histórico; pino ponderosa; supresión de fuego Abstract:,Livestock grazing has been implicated as a cause of the unhealthy condition of ponderosa pine forest stands in the western United States. An evaluation of livestock grazing impacts on natural resources requires an understanding of the context in which grazing occurred. Context should include timing of grazing, duration of grazing, intensity of grazing, and species of grazing animal. Historical context, when and under what circumstances grazing occurred, is also an important consideration. Many of the dense ponderosa pine forests and less-than-desirable forest health conditions of today originated in the early 1900s. Contributing to that condition was a convergence of fire, climate, and grazing factors that were unique to that time. During that time period, substantially fewer low-intensity ground fires (those that thinned dense stands of younger trees) were the result of reduced fine fuels (grazing), a substantial reduction in fires initiated by Native Americans, and effective fire-suppression programs. Especially favorable climate years for tree reproduction occurred during the early 1900s. Exceptionally heavy, unregulated, unmanaged grazing by very large numbers of horses, cattle, and sheep during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries occurred in most of the U.S. West and beginning earlier in portions of the Southwest. Today, livestock numbers on public lands are substantially lower than they were during this time and grazing is generally managed. Grazing then and grazing now are not the same. Resumen:,El pastoreo de ganado ha sido implicado como una causa de la mala salud de los bosques de pino ponderosa en el occidente de Estados Unidos. La evaluación de los impactos del pastoreo sobre los recursos naturales requiere de conocimiento del contexto en que ocurrió el pastoreo. El contexto debe incluir al período de ocurrencia, la duración y la intensidad del pastoreo, así como la especie de animal que pastoreó. El contexto histórico, cuando y bajo que circunstancias ocurrió el pastoreo, también es una consideración importante. Muchos de los bosques densos de pino ponderosa y de las condiciones, menos que deseables, de salud de los bosques actuales se originaron al principio del siglo pasado. Contribuyó a esa condición una convergencia de factores, fuego, clima y pastoreo, que fueron únicos en ese tiempo. Durante ese período, hubo sustancialmente menos incendios superficiales de baja intensidad (que afectaron a grupos densos de árboles más jóvenes) como resultado de la reducción de combustibles finos (pastoreo), una reducción sustancial en los incendios iniciados por Americanos Nativos y programas efectivos de supresión de incendios. Al inicio del siglo pasado hubo años con clima especialmente favorable para la reproducción de árboles. Al final del siglo diecinueve y comienzo del veinte hubo pastoreo no regulado ni manejado, excepcionalmente intensivo, por una gran cantidad de caballos, reses y ovejas en la mayor parte del oeste de E.U.A. y aun antes en porciones del suroeste. En la actualidad, el número de semovientes en terrenos públicos es sustancialmente menor al de ese tiempo, y el pastoreo generalmente es manejado. El pastoreo entonces y el pastoreo ahora no son lo mismo. [source]

    Situations of opportunity , Hammarby Sjöstad and Stockholm City's process of environmental management

    Örjan Svane
    Abstract Hammarby Sjöstad is a large brownfield development in Stockholm guided by extensive environmental objectives. This case study focuses on the environmental management of the city's project team. A main aim was methodology development related to the concept of situations of opportunity , how to study those periods when the team had great influence over the process. Goal conflicts on for example energy use and the lake view were identified. The team used policy instruments such as development contracts and design competitions. Some of the situations identified contributed little to the environmental management, for example the detailed planning. Others were more successful, for example the integration of infrastructural systems. Success situations were unique or created by the team, and had less formal power. Other situations had more power, but were burdened with a prehistory of routines and agreements. The methodology should also be applicable to other processes of environmental management. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]

    Developing a successful sector sustainability strategy: six lessons from the UK construction products industry

    Ian Holton
    Abstract Sector sustainability strategies can provide frameworks to help business sectors identify and manage economic, environmental and social risks in an integrated way, and unlock opportunities to improve competitiveness and enhance reputation. They can also help trade associations to become more effective champions for their members; however, little research has been undertaken on their development. Current best practice guidance simply provides frameworks for managing the strategy development process. To add to this guidance, the context, purpose, process and content of three strategies from the UK construction products industry have been investigated. Strategy context and content were found to be unique; it is therefore not considered feasible to develop a generic sector sustainability strategy. However, six lessons have been identified with respect to strategy purpose and process, which may improve the chances of success of a sector sustainability strategy. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]

    Environmental management in large-scale building projects,learning from Hammarby Sjöstad

    Rolf Johansson
    In an old industrial and harbour area of Stockholm, a new city for 30 000 people will be built in the next ten years. The Hammarby Sjöstad project is unique in its size and municipal organization as well as in its ambitious environmental objectives. In a case study based on interviews and document analysis, the environmental management process of this project is researched. The City of Stockholm will follow up the compliance with set goals; our study is a qualitative one focusing on the management process. We develop concepts and models as an aid for municipal management of future construction projects. Many factors outside the formal ones are considered important. Data is structured chronologically as events and from a stakeholder perspective, including the City, the developers and the contractors. The main focus is, however, on the City's Project Management Team. Collected data is furthermore analysed with the aid of key concepts, derived from organization theory, planning and construction practice and as suggested by the data. Preliminary results indicate that the continued study of informal means of control is just as important as that of the formal ones, and that identifying key situations and tools for environmental management should be in focus for the rest of the research study. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. and ERP Environment [source]

    REMEDIATION AND LOCAL GLOBALIZATIONS: How Taiwan's "Digital Video Knights-Errant Puppetry" Writes the History of the New Media in Chinese

    This article analyzes the Pili International Multimedia Company's "digital video knights-errant puppetry" serials, a popular culture genre unique to Taiwan, to answer two questions. First, how do digital technologies, originally developed to meet the needs of the American military and entertainment industries, become embedded in a different cultural context? Second, how does this embedding allow media technologies to become something through which distinctly local models of globalization itself may be imagined? Analyzing both the style of the serials and the discourse of producers and fans, I argue that new media technologies, despite their foreign origins, may not only be adapted or resisted, but may also come to be imagined as emerging from local aesthetics and local needs. Through the specific ways they utilize both digital and traditional technologies, the Pili producers and fans construct a utopian vision of what globalization might look like if Taiwan were at the center. [source]

    Making the Monkey: How the Togean Macaque Went from "New Form" to "Endemic Species" in Indonesians' Conservation Biology

    Celia Lowe
    Indonesian scientists inhabit a postcolonial world where they are both elite (within the nation) and subaltern (within transnational science) at precisely the same moments. A study of science that is neither "ethno" nor "Euro" requires a postcolonial refiguration not only of how science's matter is made but of where and by whom. In the 1990s, the Togean macaque (Macaca togeanus) was proposed as a new species endemic to the Togean Islands, the proposed site of a new conservation area in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. In the scientific production of biodiverse nature, Indonesian primatologists identified the monkey first as a "new form," then as a "dubious name," and subsequently, as an "endemic species." Throughout these acts of making, unmaking, and remaking the monkey, its unique and endemic status was important for developing Indonesian conservation biology, attracting foreign donors, and enlisting government and public interest in Togean Island nature, even as forms of nature important to Togean peoples were overwritten in this process. [source]