Unintended Effects (unintended + effects)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Unintended Effects in Using Learning Technologies

Allan Herrmann
Although unintended effects cannot be anticipated, practitioners can use various frameworks to recognize and manage them. [source]

Using a Geographic Information System to identify areas with potential for off-target pesticide exposure

Thomas G. Pfleeger
Abstract In many countries, numerous tests are required as part of the risk assessment process before chemical registration to protect human health and the environment from unintended effects of chemical releases. Most of these tests are not based on ecological or environmental relevance but, rather, on consistent performance in the laboratory. A conceptual approach based on Geographic Information System (GIS) technology has been developed to identify areas that are vulnerable to nontarget chemical exposure. This GIS-based approach uses wind speed, frequency of those winds, pesticide application rates, and spatial location of agricultural crops to identify areas with the highest potential for pesticide exposure. A test scenario based on an incident in Idaho (USA) was used to identify the relative magnitude of risk from off-target movement of herbicides to plants in the conterminous United States. This analysis indicated that the western portion of the Corn Belt, the central California valley, southeastern Washington, the Willamette Valley of Oregon, and agricultural areas bordering the Great Lakes are among those areas in the United States that appear to have the greatest potential for off-target movement of herbicides via drift. Agricultural areas, such as the Mississippi River Valley and the southeastern United States, appears to have less potential, possibly due to lower average wind speeds. Ecological risk assessments developed for pesticide registration would be improved by using response data from species common to high-risk areas instead of extrapolating test data from species unrelated to those areas with the highest potential for exposure. [source]

The Dark Side of Indigeneity?: Indigenous People, Rights and Development in India

Alpa Shah
In the last two decades transnational concerns over indigenous people, indigenous rights and indigenous development has reignited a history of heated debate shrouding indigeneity. This article analyses these debates in the context of the anthropology and historiography of indigeneity in India. From the production of ,tribes of mind' to the policies that have encouraged people to identify themselves as ,Scheduled Tribes', or ,adivasis', the article reviews the context that gave rise to the tensions between claims for protection and assimilation of India's indigenous peoples. Today these debates are shown to persist through the arguments of those that seek to build a support base from an adivasi constituency and are most acute with on the one hand, the work of the Marxists and indigenous activists, and on the other hand, the Hindu right-wing. Inviting serious scholarly examination of the unintended effects of well meaning indigenous protection and development measures, the article seeks to move the debate beyond both the arguments that consider the concept of indigenous people anthropologically and historically problematic and those that consider indigeneity a useful political tool. In so doing, the article warns against a ,dark side of indigeneity' which might reveal how local appropriation and experiences of global discourses can maintain a class system that further marginalises the poorest. [source]

The definition, source, manifestation and assessment of unintended effects in genetically modified plants

Ping-Jian Deng
Abstract At present, there is consensus among many relevant international agencies that unintended effects should be paid particular attention in the process of edible safety assessment of genetically modified plants (GMPs) and their products, especially in regard to some long-term and potential food safety issues. However, with respect to the current risk assessment of GMPs, serious dissension on the apprehension of unintended effects exists. The present paper interprets and systematically analyses this dissension in order to review development on the definition, source and manifestation of unintended effects in GMPs. First, differences in the various concepts of unintended effect are discussed and compared. Then the mechanisms whereby unintended effects may arise during GMP breeding are analysed and the main unexpected variation manifestations in GMPs are presented. With regard to the safety assessment of unintended effects in GMPs, the current evaluation strategy, detection methods and several assessment cases are expounded. In addition, the unique assessment standard for unintended effects in GMPs in China is outlined. Copyright 2008 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Assessing the Effectiveness of Juvenile Justice Reforms: A Closer Look at the Criteria and the Impacts on Diverse Stakeholders

LAW & POLICY, Issue 2 2000
Daniel Mears
Research to date has taken a relatively narrow view of the criteria by which the effectiveness of juvenile justice sentencing policies are to be assessed. This narrowness is particularly striking given the comprehensive "get tough" reforms that recently have been enacted in nearly every state. Drawing on previous research and an analysis of the potential effects of a recent juvenile justice sentencing reform in Texas, this paper argues for greater attention to conceptualizing and empirically assessing effectiveness broadly, including reference to intended and unintended effects, multiple goals and means, and diverse stakeholders. The argument is sustained first by outlining and discussing these key dimensions and then by empirically illustrating the potential importance of one of these dimensions , diverse stakeholders and their respective interests. [source]

Unintended Effects in Using Learning Technologies

Allan Herrmann
Although unintended effects cannot be anticipated, practitioners can use various frameworks to recognize and manage them. [source]

What can clinical behaviour analysis contribute to nidotherapy?

David Veale
Nidotherapy is an approach that involves the assessment and modification of situational or interpersonal aspects. It is used to reduce the impact of severe mental disorder when previous therapies have failed and suggests that its methods result in improved social functioning. We describe nidotherapy as a novel intervention, and to enhance understanding, compare and contrast nidotherapy with clinical behaviour analysis. To facilitate establishing an evidence base, our recommendations include: clarification of the theory underlying nidotherapy; collaboration with clinical behaviour analysts to explore the role of situational and interpersonal changes within the theoretical system; design of single-subject experiments to gather data pertaining to individuals; consideration of Functional Analytic Psychotherapy to examine the therapeutic bond; a definition of the repertoires and competencies of nidotherapists to guarantee supervision; and long-term follow-up to rule out unintended effects of environmental changes. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Sensitivity analysis and external adjustment for unmeasured confounders in epidemiologic database studies of therapeutics,

Sebastian Schneeweiss MD
Abstract Background Large health care utilization databases are frequently used to analyze unintended effects of prescription drugs and biologics. Confounders that require detailed information on clinical parameters, lifestyle, or over-the-counter medications are often not measured in such datasets, causing residual confounding bias. Objective This paper provides a systematic approach to sensitivity analyses to investigate the impact of residual confounding in pharmacoepidemiologic studies that use health care utilization databases. Methods Four basic approaches to sensitivity analysis were identified: (1) sensitivity analyses based on an array of informed assumptions; (2) analyses to identify the strength of residual confounding that would be necessary to explain an observed drug-outcome association; (3) external adjustment of a drug-outcome association given additional information on single binary confounders from survey data using algebraic solutions; (4) external adjustment considering the joint distribution of multiple confounders of any distribution from external sources of information using propensity score calibration. Conclusion Sensitivity analyses and external adjustments can improve our understanding of the effects of drugs and biologics in epidemiologic database studies. With the availability of easy-to-apply techniques, sensitivity analyses should be used more frequently, substituting qualitative discussions of residual confounding. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Evaluation of a Non-Targeted "Omic" Approach in the Safety Assessment of Genetically Modified Plants

PLANT BIOLOGY, Issue 5 2006
S. B. Metzdorff
Abstract: Genetically modified plants must be approved before release in the European Union, and the approval is generally based upon a comparison of various characteristics between the transgenic plant and a conventional counterpart. As a case study, focusing on safety assessment of genetically modified plants, we here report the development and characterisation of six independently transformed Arabidopsis thaliana lines modified in the flavonoid biosynthesis. Analyses of integration events and comparative analysis for characterisation of the intended effects were performed by PCR, quantitative Real-time PCR, and High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Analysis by cDNA microarray was used as a non-targeted approach for the identification of potential unintended effects caused by the transformation. The results revealed that, although the transgenic lines possessed different types of integration events, no unintended effects were identified. However, we found that the majority of genes showing differential expression were identified as stress-related genes and that environmental conditions had a large impact on the expression of several genes, proteins, and metabolites. We suggest that the microarray approach has the potential to become a useful tool for screening of unintended effects, but state that it is crucial to have substantial information on the natural variation in traditional crops in order to be able to interpret "omics" data correctly within the framework of food safety assessment strategies of novel plant varieties, including genetically modified plant varieties. [source]

Identification of a spatially efficient portfolio of priority conservation sites in marine and estuarine areas of Florida

Laura Geselbracht
Abstract 1.A systematic conservation planning approach using benthic habitat and imperilled species data along with the site prioritization algorithm, MARXAN, was used to identify a spatially efficient portfolio of marine and estuarine sites around Florida with high biodiversity value. 2.Ensuring the persistence of an adequate geographic representation of conservation targets in a particular area is a key goal of conservation. In this context, development and testing of different approaches to spatially-explicit marine conservation planning remains an important priority. 3.This detailed case study serves as a test of existing approaches while also demonstrating some novel ways in which current methods can be tailored to fit the complexities of marine planning. 4.The paper reports on investigations of the influence of varying several algorithm inputs on resulting portfolio scenarios including the conservation targets (species observations, habitat distribution, etc.) included, conservation target goals, and socio-economic factors. 5.This study concluded that engaging stakeholders in the development of a site prioritization framework is a valuable strategy for identifying broadly accepted selection criteria; universal target representation approaches are more expedient to use as algorithm inputs, but may fall short in capturing the impact of historic exploitation patterns for some conservation targets; socio-economic factors are best considered subsequent to the identification of priority conservation sites when biodiversity value is the primary driver of site selection; and the influence of surrogate targets on portfolio selection should be thoroughly investigated to ensure unintended effects are avoided. 6.The priority sites identified in this analysis can be used to guide allocation of limited conservation and management resources. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Management of labour among women with epidural analgesia

Christine L. Roberts
Abstract To assess current practices in the labour management of low risk primiparous women with epidural analgesia we surveyed delivery suites in New South Wales (NSW) that annually provide at least 100 epidurals to ,standard primipara'. Epidural rates among ,standard primipara' at these hospitals ranged from 14 to 85% (median 46%). Continuous epidural infusion was the most commonly used technique (63%). For ,standard primipara' with an epidural 62% of units usually augmented labour with oxytocin, 89% discontinued the epidural in second stage and 67% had policies of delayed pushing. There is wide variation in epidural availability and in labour management, perhaps reflecting the limited evidence for effective interventions to reduce any unintended effects of epidural analgesia. [source]

Multitasking by Multivalent Circular DNA Aptamers

CHEMBIOCHEM, Issue 3 2006
Daniel A. Di Giusto
Abstract Nucleic acid aptamers are finding increasing applications in biology, especially as therapeutic candidates and diagnostic components. An important characteristic in meeting the needs of these applications is improved stability in physiological fluids, which is most often accomplished with chemical modification or unnatural nucleotides. In an alternative approach we have specified the design of a multivalent circular DNA aptamer topology that encompasses a number of properties relevant to nucleic acid therapeutic candidates, especially the ability to multitask by combining different activities together within a modular structure. Improved stability in blood products, greater conformational stability, antidoting by complementary circular antiaptamers, heterovalency, transcription factor decoy activity and minimal unintended effects upon the cellular innate immune response are desirable properties that are described here. Multitasking by circular DNA aptamers could similarly find applications in diagnostics and biomaterials, where the combination of interchangeable modules might generate new functions, such as anticoagulation coupled with reversible cell capture as, described here. These results provide a platform for further exploration of multivalent circular aptamer properties, especially in novel combinations of nucleic acid therapeutic modes. [source]