Uninfected Females (uninfected + female)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts


EVOLUTION, Issue 2 2009
Ralph Haygood
Many insects, other arthropods, and nematodes harbor maternally inherited bacteria inducing "cytoplasmic incompatibility" (CI), reduced egg hatch when infected males mate with uninfected females. Although CI drives the spread of these microbes, selection on alternative, mutually compatible strains in panmictic host populations does not act directly on CI intensity but favors higher "effective fecundity," the number of infected progeny an infected female produces. We analyze the consequences of host population subdivision using deterministic and stochastic models. In subdivided populations, effective fecundity remains the primary target of selection. For strains of equal effective fecundity, if population density is regulated locally (i.e., "soft selection"), variation among patches in infection frequencies may induce change in the relative frequencies of the strains. However, whether this change favors stronger incompatibility depends on initial frequencies. Demographic fluctuations maintain frequency variation that tends to favor stronger incompatibility. However, this effect is weak; even with small patches, minute increases in effective fecundity can offset substantial decreases in CI intensity. These results are insensitive to many details of host life cycle and migration and to systematic outbreeding or inbreeding within patches. Selection acting through transfer between host species may be required to explain the prevalence of CI. [source]


EVOLUTION, Issue 9 2004
Sylvain Charlat
Abstract . -Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) is induced in arthropods by the maternally inherited bacterium Wolbachia. When infected males mate with uninfected females or with females bearing a different Wolbachia variant, paternal chromosomes behave abnormally and embryos die. This pattern can be interpreted as resulting from two bacterial effects: One (usually termed mod, for modification) would affect sperm and induce embryo death, unless Wolbachia is also present in the egg, which implies the existence of a second effect, usually termed resc, for rescue. The fact that CI can occur in crosses between males and females infected by different Wolbachia shows that mod and resc interact in a specific manner. In other words, different compatibility types, or mod/resc pairs seem to have diverged from one (or a few) common ancestor(s). We are interested in the process allowing the evolution of mod/resc pairs. Here this question is addressed experimentally after cytoplasmic injection into a single host species (Drosophila simulans) by investigating compatibility relationships between closely related Wolbachia variants naturally evolving in different dipteran hosts: D. simulans, Drosophila melanogaster, and Rhagoletis cerasi. Our results suggest that closely related bacteria can be totally or partially incompatible. The compatibility relationships observed can be explained using a formal description of the mod and resc functions, implying both qualitative and quantitative variations. [source]


EVOLUTION, Issue 9 2002
Sylvain Charlat
Abstract., The intracellular bacterium Wolbachia invades arthropod host populations through various mechanisms, the most common of which being cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). CI involves elevated embryo mortality when infected males mate with uninfected females or females infected with different, incompatible Wolbachia strains. The present study focuses on this phenomenon in two Drosophila species: D. simulans and D. sechellia. Drosophila simulans populations are infected by several Wolbachia strains, including w Ha and w No. Drosophila sechellia is infected by only two Wolbachia: w Sh and w Sn. In both Drosophila species, double infections with Wolbachia are found. As indicated by several molecular markers, w Ha is closely related to w Sh, and w No to w Sn. Furthermore, the double infections in the two host species are associated with closely related mitochondrial haplotypes, namely si I (associated with w Ha and w No in D. simulans) and se (associated with w Sh and w Sn in D. sechellia). To test the theoretical prediction that Wolbachia compatibility types can diverge rapidly, we injected w Sh and w Sn into D. simulans, to compare their CI properties to those of their sister strains w Ha and w No, respectively, in the same host genetic background. We found that within each pair of sister strains CI levels were similar and that sister strains were fully compatible. We conclude that the short period for which the Wolbachia sister strains have been evolving separated from each other was not sufficient for their CI properties to diverge significantly. [source]

What maintains noncytoplasmic incompatibility inducing Wolbachia in their hosts: a case study from a natural Drosophila yakuba population

S. Charlat
Abstract Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) allows Wolbachia to invade hosts populations by specifically inducing sterility in crosses between infected males and uninfected females. In some species, non-CI inducing Wolbachia, that are thought to derive from CI-inducing ancestors, are common. In theory, the maintenance of such infections is not possible unless the bacterium is perfectly transmitted to offspring - and/or provides a fitness benefit to infected females. The present study aims to test this view by investigating a population of Drosophila yakuba from Gabon, West Africa. We did not find any evidence for CI using wild caught females. Infected females from the field transmitted the infection to 100% of their offspring. A positive effect on female fecundity was observed one generation after collecting, but this was not retrieved five generations later, using additional lines. Similarly, the presence of Wolbachia was found to affect mating behaviour, but the results of two experiments realized five generations apart were not consistent. Finally, Wolbachia was not found to affect sex ratio. Overall, our results would suggest that Wolbachia behaves like a neutral or nearly neutral trait in this species, and is maintained in the host by perfect maternal transmission. [source]

Wolbachia infections and superinfections in cytoplasmically incompatible populations of the European cherry fruit fly Rhagoletis cerasi (Diptera, Tephritidae)

Markus Riegler
Abstract Wolbachia is an obligately intracellular, maternally inherited bacterium which has been detected in many arthropods. Wolbachia infections disperse in host populations by mechanisms such as cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). CI leads to embryonic mortality which occurs when infected males mate with uninfected females or females with a different Wolbachia strain. Populations of the European cherry fruit fly Rhagoletis cerasi (Diptera, Tephritidae) were found to be infected by two different Wolbachia strains, wCer1 and wCer2. Superinfections with both strains occurred throughout southern and central Europe and infections with wCer1 were found in northern, western and eastern Europe. Strong unidirectional CI between European populations of R. cerasi were first reported in the 1970s. From the conformity in the recent geographical distribution of the Wolbachia infections and the CI expression patterns found 25 years ago it was deduced that wCer2 potentially causes CI in R. cerasi. The comparison of the geographical distributions indicated that wCer1 + 2 must have spread into wCer1-infected populations in some areas. In other regions, a spread of wCer1 + 2 was probably prevented by dispersal barriers. There, a sharp transition from infected to superinfected populations suggested regional isolation between wCer1 and wCer1 + 2-infected populations. [source]