Uniaxial Compression (uniaxial + compression)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by Uniaxial Compression

  • uniaxial compression test

  • Selected Abstracts


    MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF UNPRESSED SEMI-HARD CHEESES BY UNIAXIAL COMPRESSION

    JOURNAL OF TEXTURE STUDIES, Issue 2 2000
    BRIGITTE WEINRICHTER
    ABSTRACT Different lots of Tilsit cheeses, which are characterized by their open structure caused by pressing under their own weight during manufacture, were subjected to uniaxial compression, a quasi-standard for the evaluation of mechanical properties of hard and semi-hard cheeses. Additionally, video films showing the behaviour of the specimens during compression were analysed. For standard Tilsit with a fat content of 35% in dry matter, the cheese mass proved to be highly anisotropic with respect to stress response and lateral expansion expressed as apparent Poisson number. Specimens cut perpendicular to the flat side of the cheese wheels, which had lentil-shaped eyes with their major axis parallel to the compression plates, showed significantly higher stresses and lower Poisson numbers than specimens sampled parallel to the flat side of the cheese wheels. Therefore, stress values calculated on the basis of actual specimen diameter were different from those calculated by assuming constant specimen's volume. However, for samples with a fat content of approx. 60% in dry matter no differences caused by compression direction were observed. [source]


    Nanostructure Fracturing: Brittle-to-Ductile Transition in Uniaxial Compression of Silicon Pillars at Room Temperature (Adv. Funct.

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 15 2009
    Mater.
    On page 2439, F. Östlund et al. report on an interesting effect observed during the compression of sub-micrometer silicon pillars; a critical diameter separates pillars that are observed to crack from pillars that exhibit metal-like ductility. This observation allows for the development of a quantitative method for measuring the fracture toughness of such structures, which can be used to predict and explain small-volume fracture behavior. [source]


    Brittle-to-Ductile Transition in Uniaxial Compression of Silicon Pillars at Room Temperature

    ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 15 2009
    Fredrik Östlund
    Abstract Robust nanostructures for future devices will depend increasingly on their reliability. While great strides have been achieved for precisely evaluating electronic, magnetic, photonic, elasticity and strength properties, the same levels for fracture resistance have been lacking. Additionally, one of the self-limiting features of materials by computational design is the knowledge that the atomistic potential is an appropriate one. A key property in establishing both of these goals is an experimentally-determined effective surface energy or the work per unit fracture area. The difficulty with this property, which depends on extended defects such as dislocations, is measuring it accurately at the sub-micrometer scale. In this Full Paper the discovery of an interesting size effect in compression tests on silicon pillars with sub-micrometer diameters is presented: in uniaxial compression tests, pillars having a diameter exceeding a critical value develop cracks, whereas smaller pillars show ductility comparable to that of metals. The critical diameter is between 310 and 400,nm. To explain this transition a model based on dislocation shielding is proposed. For the first time, a quantitative method for evaluating the fracture toughness of such nanostructures is developed. This leads to the ability to propose plausible mechanisms for dislocation-mediated fracture behavior in such small volumes. [source]


    Microstructure and Texture Formation During Near Conventional Forging of an Intermetallic Ti,45Al,5Nb Alloy,

    ADVANCED ENGINEERING MATERIALS, Issue 12 2009
    Andreas Stark
    Abstract Texture formation was studied in an intermetallic Ti-45at%Al-5at%Nb alloy after uniaxial compression and near conventional forging. Depending on the deformation conditions the texture of the , -TiAl phase is formed by pure deformation components, components related to dynamic recrystallization, or transformation components. This changing corresponds with microstructural observations. The ,2 -Ti3Al and the , -Ti(Al) phase show a similar texture as it is known for Ti and Ti-base alloys after compressive deformation at elevated temperatures. In contrast to the , texture, no significant change of the ,/,2 texture was observed in the temperature range between 800,°C and just below the , -transus temperature (T,,=,1295,°C). [source]


    Martensite Formation in a Ductile Cu47.5Zr47.5Al5 Bulk Metallic Glass Composite,

    ADVANCED ENGINEERING MATERIALS, Issue 6 2007
    S. Pauly
    A Cu47.5Zr47.5Al5 alloy was solidified into rods of 2, 3 and 5 mm diameter and the microstructures as well as the elastic and plastic properties were investigated along the length of each rod. It was found that neither the microstructure nor the mechanical properties vary significantly along the length of the specimens, except for the 5 mm diameter rod where the top part was proved to be fully crystalline containing cubic B2 CuZr (austenite) and monoclinic CuZr (martensite) phases. The differently solidified alloys show high strength and a distinct deformability under uniaxial compression and a work hardening-like behavior. [source]


    Localized failure of fibre-reinforced elastic,plastic materials subjected to plane strain loading

    INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR NUMERICAL AND ANALYTICAL METHODS IN GEOMECHANICS, Issue 7 2007
    Dunja Peri
    Abstract We consider discontinuous bifurcations as the indicator of a localized failure for a class of composites that are characterized by elastic fibres reinforcing an elastic,plastic matrix. A macroscopic tangent stiffness tensor for the fibre-reinforced composite is developed by consistently homogenizing the contribution of fibres in a spherical representative volume element. Analytical solutions are derived for the critical hardening modulus and corresponding bifurcation directions for the case of plane strain loading. Properties of the solutions are further illustrated on the example of the non-associated Drucker,Prager model at onset of yielding. Results show that presence of fibres decreases the critical hardening modulus, thus inhibiting the onset of strain localization. The rate of decrease in the critical hardening modulus is the highest for pure shear, followed by uniaxial tension, uniaxial compression, biaxial tension and biaxial compression. The main fibre parameters that control the onset of strain localization are their volumetric content and their stiffness modulus whereby very stiff fibres can produce the most significant decrease in the critical hardening modulus, especially for the state of biaxial tension. The critical hardening modulus for the non-associated Drucker,Prager model exhibits a full range of localization modes including compaction bands, dilation bands, and transition in the form of shear bands regardless of the presence of fibres. Presence of fibres affects bifurcation directions, except in the case when Poisson's ratio of the matrix is equal to 0.25. The results demonstrate stabilizing effects of fibres by which they provide the control against the onset of strain localization. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Influence of Orthogonal Overload on Human Vertebral Trabecular Bone Mechanical Properties,

    JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH, Issue 11 2007
    Arash Badiei
    Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of overload in orthogonal directions on longitudinal and transverse mechanical integrity in human vertebral trabecular bone. Results suggest that the trabecular structure has properties that act to minimize the decrease of apparent toughness transverse to the primary loading direction. Introduction: The maintenance of mechanical integrity and function of trabecular structure after overload remains largely unexplored. Whereas a number of studies have focused on addressing the question by testing the principal anatomical loading direction, the mechanical anisotropy has been overlooked. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of overload in orthogonal directions on longitudinal and transverse mechanical integrity in human vertebral trabecular bone. Materials and Methods: T12/L1 vertebral bodies from five cases and L4/L5 vertebral bodies from seven cases were retrieved at autopsy. A cube of trabecular bone was cut from the centrum of each vertebral body and imaged by ,CT. Cubes from each T12/L1 and L4/L5 pairs were assigned to either superoinferior (SI) or anteroposterior (AP) mechanical testing groups. All samples were mechanically tested to 10% apparent strain by uniaxial compression according to their SI or AP allocation. To elucidate the extent to which overload in orthogonal directions affects the mechanical integrity of the trabecular structure, samples were retested (after initial uniaxial compression) in their orthogonal direction. After mechanical testing in each direction, apparent ultimate failure stresses (UFS), apparent elastic moduli (E), and apparent toughness moduli (u) were computed. Results: Significant differences in mechanical properties were found between SI and AP directions in both first and second overload tests. Mechanical anisotropy far exceeded differences resulting from overloading the structure in the orthogonal direction. No significant differences were found in mean UFS and mean u for the first or second overload tests. A significant decrease of 35% was identified in mean E for cubes overloaded in the SI direction and then overloaded in the AP direction. Conclusions: Observed differences in the mechanics of trabecular structure after overload suggests that the trabecular structure has properties that act to minimize loss of apparent toughness, perhaps through energy dissipating sacrificial structures transverse to the primary loading direction. [source]


    Earliest Mineral and Matrix Changes in Force-Induced Musculoskeletal Disease as Revealed by Raman Microspectroscopic Imaging,

    JOURNAL OF BONE AND MINERAL RESEARCH, Issue 1 2004
    Catherine P Tarnowski
    Abstract Craniosynostosis, premature fusion of the skull bones at the sutures, is the second most common human birth defect in the skull. Raman microspectroscopy was used to examine the composition, relative amounts, and locations of the mineral and matrix produced in mouse skulls undergoing force-induced craniosynostosis. Raman imaging revealed decreased relative mineral content in skulls undergoing craniosynostosis compared with unloaded specimens. Introduction: Raman microspectroscopy, a nondestructive vibrational spectroscopic technique, was used to examine the composition, relative amounts, and locations of the mineral and matrix produced in mouse skulls undergoing force-induced craniosynostosis. Craniosynostosis, premature fusion of the skull bones at the sutures, is the second most common birth defect in the face and skull. The calvaria, or flat bones that comprise the top of the skull, are most often affected, and craniosynostosis is a feature of over 100 human syndromes and conditions. Materials and Methods: Raman images of the suture, the tips immediately adjacent to the suture (osteogenic fronts), and mature parietal bones of loaded and unloaded calvaria were acquired. Images were acquired at 2.6 × 2.6 ,m spatial resolution and ranged in a field of view from 180 × 210 ,m to 180 × 325 ,m. Results and Conclusions: This study found that osteogenic fronts subjected to uniaxial compression had decreased relative mineral content compared with unloaded osteogenic fronts, presumably because of new and incomplete mineral deposition. Increased matrix production in osteogenic fronts undergoing craniosynostosis was observed. Understanding how force affects the composition, relative amounts, and location of the mineral and matrix provides insight into musculoskeletal disease in general and craniosynostosis in particular. This is the first report in which Raman microspectroscopy was used to study musculoskeletal disease. These data show how Raman microspectroscopy can be used to study subtle changes that occur in disease. [source]


    Instrumental and Expert Assessment of Mahon Cheese Texture

    JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, Issue 7 2000
    J. Benedito
    ABSTRACT: To improve Mahon cheese texture assessment, the relationship between instrumental and sensory measurements was sought. For that purpose 30 pieces of Mahon cheese from different batches and 2 different manufacturers were examined. Textural characteristics at different curing times were evaluated by uniaxial compression, puncture, and sensory analysis. Significant linear correlations were found between instrumental and sensory measurements. A logarithmic model (Weber-Fechner) fitted data better than a linear one. Only 1 factor was extracted when considering all the instrumental and sensory variables, thus indicating that both sets of measurements are related to the same phenomenon. The best predictors for Mahon cheese sensory attributes were found to be cheese moisture, deformability modulus, and slope in puncture. [source]


    SENSORY AND INSTRUMENTAL EVALUATIONS OF TEXTURE IN CHEESES MADE FROM OVINE MILKS WITH DIFFERING FAT CONTENTS

    JOURNAL OF SENSORY STUDIES, Issue 2 2002
    A. IRIGOYEN
    ABSTRACT The present study considers the influence of reducing the fat content of ovine milk on the sensory and instrumental texture characteristics of the resulting cheeses. Three manufacturing runs were performed. In each run three cheese batches were manufactured using milks with differing percentage fat contents (8%, 4%, and 2% fat). Analysis of cheese samples was performed at 60, 90, and 120 days of ripening. The instrumental method used to evaluate cheese texture was uniaxial compression at constant speed, taking readings of stress, strain, and modulus of elasticity (E). Statisticalanalysis revealed differences forboth the differentfat contents and the ripening times considered. Instrumental parameter values increased with lower cheese fat contents; with a 20% reduction in the fat to dry matter content from full-fat to reduced-fat cheeses, resulting in a 35% increase in maximum stress and in the slope of the stress-strain curve at the end of ripening. The greatest sensory differences between samples were recorded for firmness. [source]


    CHARACTERISTICS OF GELLAN GUM BASED FOOD GELS

    JOURNAL OF TEXTURE STUDIES, Issue 4 2010
    DIPJYOTI SAHA
    ABSTRACT Fruit-based gels with gellan gum as the gelling agent was prepared. Textural attributes of the gellan gum gels, formed with different concentrations of the gum (0.5,3.0%) and sugar and/or pineapple juice, were determined employing the methods of large-deformation uniaxial compression and stress relaxation. Fracture stress/energy markedly increases with an increase in the concentration of gellan gum while fracture strain exhibits a marginal effect. The change in these compressive textural parameters is more pronounced for sugar added samples compared with gels without sugar. Marked decay in stress relaxation curves was observed; the extent of relaxation decreases marginally with an increase in gum content up to 2% but shows much lesser values beyond 2% addition. The sugar added samples exhibit lesser relaxation characteristics but higher relaxation times indicating elastic characteristics compared with samples without sugar. Use of gellan gum provides an innovative method for developing fruit juice based gels as a convenience food because of attractive transparent appearance and textural attributes. PRACTICAL APPLICATION The use of hydrocolloids like gellan gum can develop fabricated foods in the form of fruit juice based gels having unique textural properties. These properties can be altered to suit the consumer preference by varying the proportions of gellan gum, fruit juice and sugar. The results in the present investigation arising from compression and relaxation testing thus help in characterizing the developed gels. [source]


    INFLUENCE OF AROMA COMPOUNDS ON LARGE DEFORMATION PROPERTIES OF STARCH-BASED SYSTEMS DURING AGING

    JOURNAL OF TEXTURE STUDIES, Issue 3 2001
    G. ARVISENET
    The effect of aroma compounds on the texture of gelled aqueous corn starch systems was studied by uniaxial compression during aging for 18 days. Three different types of behavior were observed, depending on the nature of the added aroma compound. Isoamyl acetate did not modify the measured parameters, compared with nonflavored products. Linalool, known for its ability to form inclusion complexes with amylose, modified the parameters which are usually considered to be governed by the rearrangement of amylose chains. Ethyl hexanoate modified the parameters depending mostly on amylopectin. These results suggest that the nature of the aroma compound may play a major role in interactions with starch. These interactions can be different from inclusion complexes involving amylose chains only, the latter being widely described by different authors. [source]


    EFFECT OF HEN EGG PRODUCTION AND PROTEIN COMPOSITION ON TEXTURAL PROPERTIES OF EGG ALBUMEN GELS

    JOURNAL OF TEXTURE STUDIES, Issue 2 2001
    MARIANNE HAMMERSHŘJ
    The effect of hen age, strain and dietary amino acid intake on the egg albumen gel textural properties was studied in two experiments by textural profile analysis (TPA) and uniaxial compression (UC) tests. In experiment 1, eggs from 4 different hen flocks were heat processed industrially. Egg rejection due to poor albumen gelling was correlated to hen age (r = 0.502), albumen dry matter (r =,0.632), gel hardness of 1st compression (r =,0.765), and gel work of 1st compression (r =,0.740) in TPA. In experiment 2 two hen strains, representing two levels of egg production, were fed diets with supplementation of L-lysine, methionine or both amino acids compared to a control diet. The lysine intake ranged from 818,1272 mg/hen/day and methionine intake from 377,575 mg/hen/day among hen groups, but without significant effect on the albumen gel texture parameters. The hen strains differed significantly in egg production (P<0.001), physical (P<0.001), chemical (P<0.05) and gel textural parameters of egg albumen (P<0.01). Hen age was essential, and correlated to the industrial egg rejection (r = 0.729), albumen dry matter (r =,0.902) and gel stress at fracture (r =,0.884). Albumen gels with high fracture stress values were found to contain a modified form of ovofransferrin. [source]


    VARIATIONS IN FLEXURAL AND COMPRESSIVE FRACTURE BEHAVIOR OF A BRITTLE CELLULAR FOOD (DRIED BREAD) IN RESPONSE TO MOISTURE SORPTION

    JOURNAL OF TEXTURE STUDIES, Issue 5 2000
    Y. P. CHANG
    Mechanical properties of dried bread (a cellular baked product) equilibrated at different water activities (Aw) were measured using three-point bending and uniaxial compression to compare their responses to moisture sorption. The glass-to-rubber transition was clearly demarcated in all the mechanical property-Aw curves, although there were differences in critical Aw (0.32,0.56) at which the dramatic changes in mechanical properties occurred. The role of water appeared to be strictly that of a plasticizer where flexural mechanical parameters were concerned, leading to reduced modulus and fracture stress but increased fracture strain with increasing Aw. Uniaxial compression tests revealed moisture-induced mechanical antiplasticization effects on the material in the glassy state which resulted in maximum compressive fracture stress but minimum fracture strain over the Aw range from 0,0.56. Compressive modulus apparently was not affected much by moisture sorption up to an Aw of 0.43, above which it decreased sharply. [source]


    MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF UNPRESSED SEMI-HARD CHEESES BY UNIAXIAL COMPRESSION

    JOURNAL OF TEXTURE STUDIES, Issue 2 2000
    BRIGITTE WEINRICHTER
    ABSTRACT Different lots of Tilsit cheeses, which are characterized by their open structure caused by pressing under their own weight during manufacture, were subjected to uniaxial compression, a quasi-standard for the evaluation of mechanical properties of hard and semi-hard cheeses. Additionally, video films showing the behaviour of the specimens during compression were analysed. For standard Tilsit with a fat content of 35% in dry matter, the cheese mass proved to be highly anisotropic with respect to stress response and lateral expansion expressed as apparent Poisson number. Specimens cut perpendicular to the flat side of the cheese wheels, which had lentil-shaped eyes with their major axis parallel to the compression plates, showed significantly higher stresses and lower Poisson numbers than specimens sampled parallel to the flat side of the cheese wheels. Therefore, stress values calculated on the basis of actual specimen diameter were different from those calculated by assuming constant specimen's volume. However, for samples with a fat content of approx. 60% in dry matter no differences caused by compression direction were observed. [source]


    INFLUENCE OF UNIAXIAL COMPRESSION RATE ON RHEOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND SENSORY TEXTURE PREDICTION OF COOKED POTATOES

    JOURNAL OF TEXTURE STUDIES, Issue 1 2000
    ANETTE KISTRUP THYBO
    ABSTRACT The effect of uniaxial compression rate (20,1000 mm/min) on the parameters: Stress (,ftrue), strain (,fHencky) and work to fracture (Wf), modulus of deformability (Ed), maximum slope before fracture (Emax) and work during 75% compression (Wtotal) was investigated for ten potato varieties. Multivariate data analysis was used to study the correlation between and within the sensory and nonsensory measurements by Principal Component Analysis (PCA) which showed ,ftrue, Emax, Wf, and Wtotal to explain the same type of information in the data, and ,fHencky versus Ed another type of information in the data. The deformation rate had a large effect on ,fHencky. Nine sensory texture attributes covering the mechanical, geometrical and moistness attributes were evaluated. Relationships between uniaxial compression data at various deformation rates and the sensory texture attributes were studied by Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR). A minor effect of deformation rate on the correlation with the sensory texture properties was obtained. Mechanical properties were predicted to a higher extent than the geometrical attributes and moistness. The prediction of the mechanical, geometrical and moistness attributes increased largely by using uniaxial compression supplemented by chemical measures such as dry matter and pectin methylesterase, but here no relevant effect of deformation rate was obtained. [source]


    Constrained Sintering of Low-Temperature Co-Fired Ceramics

    JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CERAMIC SOCIETY, Issue 6 2006
    Aravind Mohanram
    This paper discusses the effect of uniaxial compressive stress and pressureless constraint on the microstructure, density, and shrinkage anisotropy during the sintering of two commercial low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) systems, i.e., Heraeus CT2000 (CT) and DuPont 951Tape (DU). Under uniaxial compression, the ratio of axial to transverse shrinkage of DU is significantly higher than that of CT. A simple linear viscous theory was used to estimate the change in the strain rates produced by the external stress and the stress required to produce zero shrinkage. The theory was found to overestimate the measured stress-induced strain rates. The uniaxial compressive stress required for zero overall shrinkage was estimated to be ,60 kPa for DU and 80 kPa for CT. The estimate for the DU materials was in good agreement with the experimental data, but there was significant deviation for the CT material. Higher viscosity and higher constraining stresses led to lower densities in pressure-less constrained CT specimens compared with DU. [source]


    Compaction of Powders due to Vibrations and Shocks

    PARTICLE & PARTICLE SYSTEMS CHARACTERIZATION, Issue 4 2004
    Roman Linemann
    Abstract Bulk density and compactibility of bulk materials play an important role in process engineering. Reliable data are required for dimensioning plants and for supplying load data for static design. Furthermore, the data are useful for the production of sintered materials or catalyst beds and the characterization of bulk materials. While compression by normal stress can be reproduced and mathematically described, the influence of shocks and vibrations remains very poorly understood. All known standard methods for bulk material compression under vibrations and shocks are based on individual equipment. The parameters of shocks or vibrations, however, have not yet been defined. Therefore, an investigation was carried out to examine the influence of uniaxial stress and defined shocks and vibrations on bulk material compression. The shocks and vibrations were controlled by an electrodynamic shaker. The first results for highly disperse Kaolin powders are presented. Using the chosen parameters, the random mode and the uniaxial compression cause the highest increase in density. High compression rates can also be obtained by shocks. With sinusoidal vibrations much lower bulk densities can be reached. [source]


    On the Ekberg, Kabo and Andersson calculation of the Dang Van high cycle fatigue limit for rolling contact fatigue

    FATIGUE & FRACTURE OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS AND STRUCTURES, Issue 6 2004
    M. CIAVARELLA
    ABSTRACT Recently, various methods have been proposed to assess the risk of rolling contact fatigue failure by Ekberg, Kabo and Andersson, and in particular, the Dang Van multiaxial fatigue criterion has been suggested in a simple approximate formulation. In this note, it is found that the approximation implied can be very significant; the calculation is improved and corrected, and focused on the study of plane problems but for a complete range of possible friction coefficients. It is found that predicted fatigue limit could be much higher than that under standard uniaxial tension/compression for ,hard materials' than for ,ductile materials.' This is in qualitative agreement, for example, with gears' design standards, but in quantitative terms, particularly for frictionless condition, the predicted limit seems possibly too high, indicating the need for careful comparison with experimental results. Some comments are devoted to the interplay of shakedown and fatigue. [source]