Underlying Principles (underlying + principle)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts


BIOETHICS, Issue 3 2010
ABSTRACT Despite the wide and daunting array of cross-cultural obstacles that the formulation of a global policy on advance directives will clearly pose, the need is equally evident. Specifically, the expansion of medical services driven by medical tourism, just to name one important example, makes this issue urgently relevant. While ensuring consistency across national borders, a global policy will have the additional and perhaps even more important effect of increasing the use of advance directives in clinical settings and enhancing their effectiveness within each country, regardless of where that country's state of the law currently stands. One cross-cultural issue that may represent a major obstacle in formulating, let alone applying, a global policy is whether patient autonomy as the underlying principle for the use of advance directives is a universal norm or a construct of western traditions that must be reconciled with alternative value systems that may place lesser significance on individual choice. A global policy, at a minimum, must emphasize respect for patient autonomy, provision of medical information, limits to the obligations for physicians, and portability. And though the development of a global policy will be no easy task, active engagement in close collaboration with the World Health Organization can make it possible. [source]

Systematic LC-MS/MS bioanalytical method development that incorporates plasma phospholipids risk avoidance, usage of incurred sample and well thought-out chromatography

Mohammed Jemal
Abstract This treatise summarizes the underlying principle and the road map for systematic LC-MS/MS bioanalytical method development. The three themes that have recently emerged as central to building quality during method development,phospholipids, incurred sample and sound chromatographic considerations,are the main focus of this article. In order to reduce the bioanalytical risk associated with plasma phospholipids, a dual approach involving extraction and chromatography is recommended. The use of incurred sample during method development is essential to avoid interference arising from drug-related components. This is different from the current practice of incurred sample reanalysis, which tests reproducibility during method application. LC column/mobile phase optimization is needed to achieve appropriate peak shape, sensitivity and the separation of the analyte from interfering metabolites and phospholipids. Related to sound chromatographic considerations, we lay out facts and myths related to UPLC, vis-à-vis HPLC. Incorporation of quality during method development avoids the costly experience of finding out by chance about the invalidity of a method after it has been used in support of a number of pivotal clinical and non-clinical studies. To this end, we put forth an outline of a protocol for a systematic LC-MS/MS bioanalytical method development. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

A new basis for governance effectiveness research

John Carver
Most governance research to date has consisted of descriptions of various types of governance arrangements. Absent from the literature is an underlying organizing principle, a conception of the fundamental purpose of governance. Without this underlying principle, attempts to assess effectiveness will fail. In this article, John Carver proposes a succinct definition of the purpose of governance and draws out some necessary consequences of this definition. This conception of the purpose of governance can serve as an underlying principle to guide research on the effectiveness of governance. [source]

Spherical sliding isolation bearings with adaptive behavior: Experimental verification

Daniel M. Fenz
Abstract This paper describes an experimental program to examine the force,displacement behavior of a class of multi-spherical sliding bearings. The primary goal of the experiments is to test the validity of the theory developed in a companion paper that describes the behavior of these devices. Experimental work consisted of testing the three primary variations of these bearings in several configurations of different friction and displacement capacities. Most tests were carried out at slow speeds; however, some testing was also conducted at high speed (up to approximately 400,mm/s) to examine the behavior under dynamic conditions. The results of experimental testing were generally found to be in very good agreement with the analytical results. It is shown that the forces and displacements at which transitions in stiffness occur are predictable and therefore controllable in design. Furthermore, the underlying principles of operation were confirmed by the fact that starting and stopping of sliding on the different surfaces occurred as expected from theory. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Uplift-restraining Friction Pendulum seismic isolation system

Panayiotis C. Roussis
Abstract This paper extends the scope of seismic isolation by introducing an innovative uplift-restraining Friction Pendulum system. Termed the XY-FP isolator, the new isolation device consists of two orthogonal opposing concave beams interconnected through a sliding mechanism that permits tension to develop in the bearing, thereby preventing uplift. Owing to its distinct configuration, the XY-FP isolator possesses unique properties for a seismic isolator, including uplift restraint, decoupling of the bi-directional motion along two orthogonal directions, and capability of providing independent stiffness and energy dissipation along the principal horizontal directions of the bearing. The study concentrates on introducing the concept and establishing the underlying principles of operation of the new XY-FP isolator, formulating the mathematical model for the XY-FP isolator, and presenting its mechanical behaviour through a displacement-control testing program on a single XY-FP isolator. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

A Justification, after the Postmodern Turn, of Universal Ethical Principles and Educational Ideals1

Mark Mason
Abstract The implementation of education programmes in different cultures invites the question whether we are justified in doing so in cultures that may reject the programmes' underlying principles. Are there indeed ethical principles and educational ideals that can be justified as applicable to all cultures? After a consideration of Zygmunt Bauman's postmodern rejection of the possibility of universal ethics, , cite and extend Harvey Siegel's defence of multiculturalism as a transcultural ethical ideal. I conclude the paper with a justification of the transcultural normative reach of moral principles that I have elsewhere defended as the ethics of integrity. The paper's significance lies in its justification of educational interventions founded in these principles across different cultures. [source]

Pan Evaporation Trends and the Terrestrial Water Balance.


Pan evaporation is just that , it is the evaporation rate of water from a small dish located at the ground-surface. Pan evaporation is a measure of the evaporative demand over terrestrial surfaces. Declines in pan evaporation have now been reported in many regions of the world. The trends vary from one pan to the next, but when averaged over many pans, they are typically in the range of ,1 to ,4 mm a,2 (mm per annum per annum). In energetic terms, a trend of ,2 mm a,2 is equivalent to ,0.16 W m,2 a,1 and over 30 years this is a change of ,4.8 W m,2. For comparison, the top-of-atmosphere forcing due to doubled CO2 is estimated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to be ~3.7 W m,2. Hence, the magnitude of the pan evaporation trend is large. What is of even greater interest is the direction , a decline , given the well-established warming of the last 30,50 years. In this article, the first in a two part series, we describe the underlying principles in using and interpreting pan evaporation data and then summarise the reported observations from different countries. In the second article, we describe the interpretation of the trends in terms of changes in the terrestrial water balance. [source]

The design of an optimal filter for monthly GRACE gravity models

R. Klees
SUMMARY Most applications of the publicly released Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment monthly gravity field models require the application of a spatial filter to help suppressing noise and other systematic errors present in the data. The most common approach makes use of a simple Gaussian averaging process, which is often combined with a ,destriping' technique in which coefficient correlations within a given degree are removed. As brute force methods, neither of these techniques takes into consideration the statistical information from the gravity solution itself and, while they perform well overall, they can often end up removing more signal than necessary. Other optimal filters have been proposed in the literature; however, none have attempted to make full use of all information available from the monthly solutions. By examining the underlying principles of filter design, a filter has been developed that incorporates the noise and full signal variance,covariance matrix to tailor the filter to the error characteristics of a particular monthly solution. The filter is both anisotropic and non-symmetric, meaning it can accommodate noise of an arbitrary shape, such as the characteristic stripes. The filter minimizes the mean-square error and, in this sense, can be considered as the most optimal filter possible. Through both simulated and real data scenarios, this improved filter will be shown to preserve the highest amount of gravity signal when compared to other standard techniques, while simultaneously minimizing leakage effects and producing smooth solutions in areas of low signal. [source]

Typology in action: applying typological insights in the study of translation

Luna Filipovi
tipología; camino y manera de movimiento; transcriptos; traducción This paper provides arguments in favour of using Talmy's cognitive typology in the study of translation. I contrasted English motion expressions with those in Spanish and Serbo-Croatian. English and Spanish belong to two opposing types in the typology, and Serbo-Croatian is classified as the same type as English. I illustrate the effects that different lexicalization patterns can have in a specific context of translation, namely that of translating police interviews with witnesses and suspects from Spanish into English. I also explain the intratypological contrasts that affect translation in the case of English vs. Serbo-Croatian. I propose a number of underlying principles to be used in translation and foreign language teaching. Este articulo se trata de la importancia que una tipología lingüística tiene en el análisis de traducción. Hemos comparado los originales de dos libros en serbo-croato y dos en ingles y correspondientes traducciones de estos textos en ingles y serbo-croato. Otros materiales que hemos usado en nuestra discusión son los transcriptos originales de los interrogaciones de testigos que hablan español como lengua madre y las traducciones en inglés hechos por la parte de los intérpretes. Español e ingles marcan los dos puntos más extremos en la clasificación semántica de idiomas, mientras serbo-croato estaba clasificado en el mismo grupo con ingles. Esta clasificación tipológica es basada sobre la manera en que se lexicalizan los campos universales de experiencia humana. En este caso, hablamos de la manera de movimiento. Los resultados muestran que en español, siguiendo las predicciones de la tipología, las construcciones con los verbos de dirección son los típicos y la frecuencia y la variedad de los verbos de manera de movimiento es marginada y limitada. En ingles, que "prefiere" el uso de los verbos de manera de movimiento, las traducciones a veces tienen la información de la manera que no existe en los textos originales. Así se cambia el contenido original de las descripciones que han presentado los testigos en español. Serbo-croato tiene puntas in común con ingles y español, y por eso, que nosotros mostramos, se puede posicionar entre los otros dos idiomas en la tipología. Otros temas presentes en la nuestra discusión son la diferencia entre las construcciones sintácticos en los tres idiomas que crean problemas en la traducción y los excepciones en el uso de los verbos de movimiento que se encuentran en serbo-croato. La conclusión es que este tipo de investigación aplicada interdisciplinaria puede ayudar a entender la importancia que tiene el idioma en contextos varios. En esa manera tal vez se puede mejorar el proceso de traducción e interrogación de testigos en una comunidad multilingual y facilitar el proceso de comunicación en general. [source]

Understanding heterogeneity in meta-analysis: the role of meta-regression

W. L. Baker
Summary Background:, Meta-regression has grown in popularity in recent years, paralleling the increasing numbers of systematic reviews and meta-analysis published in the biomedical literature. However, many clinicians and decision-makers may be unfamiliar with the underlying principles and assumptions made within meta-regression leading to incorrect interpretation of their results. Aims:, This paper reviews the appropriate use and interpretation of meta-regression in the medical literature, including cautions and caveats to its use. Materials & Methods:, A literature search of MEDLINE (OVID) from 1966-February 2009 was conducted to identify literature relevant to the topic of heterogeneity and/or meta-regression in systematic reviews and meta-analysis. Results:, Meta-analysis, a statistical method of pooling data from studies included in a systematic review, is often compromised by heterogeneity of its results. This could include clinical, methodological or statistical heterogeneity. Meta-regression, said to be a merging of meta-analytic and linear regression principles, is a more sophisticated tool for exploring heterogeneity. It aims to discern whether a linear relationship exists between an outcome measure and on or more covariates. The associations found in a meta-regression should be considered hypothesis generating and not regarded as proof of causality. Conclusions:, The current review will enable clinicians and healthcare decision-makers to appropriately interpret the results of meta-regression when used within the constructs of a systematic review, and be able to extend it to their clinical practice. [source]

WebQuests as perceived by teachers: implications for online teaching and learning

R. Zheng
Abstract The WebQuest as an instructional tool has recently been widely adopted in K-16 education. However, its underlying principles and functionality are not well understood, which has resulted in an inconsistency in practice. This study identifies the underlying constructs of WebQuests as perceived by teachers and variables affecting their perceptions on WebQuests. A survey was conducted on teachers (n = 226) recruited from one large research university in the USA and a professional listserv. The findings reveal three constructs perceived by teachers as critical to WebQuests: constructivist problem solving, social interaction and scaffolded learning. Results also show that variables like purpose of WebQuest use, years of teaching, years of WebQuest use and gender predict, at various degrees, teachers' perceptions on WebQuests. Discussions are made on how the constructs identified can be used to improve online teaching and learning. Suggestions for future study are included by examining the influences of social, psychological and affective factors on learners' learning in WebQuests. [source]

Co-evolutionary Dynamics Within and Between Firms: From Evolution to Co-evolution

Henk W. Volberda
abstract The extensive selection,adaptation literature spans diverse theoretical perspectives, but is inconclusive on the role of managerial intentionality in organizational adaptation. Indeed this voluminous literature has more to say about selection and sources and causes of structural inertia than about self-renewing organizations that might counteract such inertia. In this introductory essay, we identify four co-evolutionary generative mechanisms (engines) , naïve selection, managed selection, hierarchical renewal and holistic renewal , which illustrate the extensive range of evolutionary paths that can take place in a population of organizations. In particular, the managed selection engine provides the foundations of the underlying principles of co-evolving self-renewing organizations: managing internal rates of change, optimizing self-organization, and balancing concurrent exploration and exploitation. However, it is altogether clear that empirical co-evolution research represents the next frontier for empirically resolving the adaptation selection debate. The essay concludes with a discussion of requirements for co-evolutionary empirical research and introduces the empirical papers in this Special Research Symposium. [source]

Bodensystematik und Bodenklassifikation Teil I: Grundbegriffe

Christoph Albrecht
Abstract Bodenordnungssysteme lassen sich meist nach zwei Prinzipien entwickeln: Entweder werden nur rein bodenkundliche Informationen als kategorisierendes Merkmal verwendet (pedogenetische Faktoren/Prozesse), oder die Kategorienbildung erfolgt problemorientiert anhand ausgewählter Parameter. Die meisten der weltweit verwendeten Bodenordnungssysteme lassen sich nach ihrer Grundausrichtung einem der beiden Typen zuordnen. Diese Betrachtungsweise ist nicht neu und wird in der Literatur mit unterschiedlichen Begriffen und Begriffsinhalten dargestellt. In der vorliegenden Arbeit werden die verschiedenen Definitionen von Systematik, Klassifikation, Taxonomie und Identifizierung zusammengefasst und geordnet. Dabei fällt auf, dass Begriffe mit sehr unterschiedlichen Inhalten oft synonym verwendet werden. Grundgedanke unserer Überlegungen ist die Trennung von Systematik, Klassifikation und Identifizierung. Systematik ist die grundsätzliche wissenschaftlich-deduktive Gliederung von Objekten in systematische Einheiten. Dabei soll das gesamte Wissen eines Fachgebietes in eine überschaubare Form gebracht werden, im Mittelpunkt stehen sowohl die umfassende Beschreibung einzelner Objekte als auch die Beziehungen zwischen den Objekten. Im Gegensatz dazu ist eine Klassifikation die zielorientiert-induktive Gliederung von Objekten. Die entstehenden Klassen werden nur anhand ausgewählter Parameter abgegrenzt, womit ein schneller Überblick bei speziellen Fragestellungen ermöglicht wird. Die Identifizierung ist die Einordnung von neuen Objekten in eine bestehende Systematik oder Klassifikation. Eine zweifelsfreie Identifizierung erfordert die Messbarkeit der kategorisierenden Merkmale. Bei einer genetisch angelegten Bodensystematik sind die Merkmale die Boden bildenden Prozesse und Faktoren. Da sie beim gegenwärtigen Kenntnisstand oft nicht messbar sind, bleiben Versuche, einen Boden in eine Systematik einzuordnen, häufig hypothetisch und dadurch subjektiv. Die Ergebnisse einer Bodensystematisierung sind daher oft anfechtbar, weil sie nicht durch Messwerte verifiziert werden können. Im Gegensatz dazu erlauben Bodenklassifikationen objektive Profilansprachen. Da jedoch die Festlegung der Grenzwerte eher pragmatisch nach Zweckmäßigkeit geschieht und nicht wissenschaftlich anhand von Prozessintensitäten, ist die Verwendung als grundlegendes Ordnungssystem eines Wissenschaftsgebietes nicht möglich. Die Bodenkunde benötigt beide Arten von Ordnungssystemen, um wissenschaftliche und praktische Ansprüche gleichermaßen erfüllen zu können, jedoch erfordern die Vollendung und Verifizierung der Systematik umfangreiche Forschungsarbeiten. Kurzfristig ist dieses Problem nur durch die Entwicklung einer kennwertbasierten Klassifikation lösbar, mit der die Kategorien der bestehenden Systematik so gut wie möglich nachgebildet werden. Langfristig ist die exakte Erforschung und Modellierung der Boden bildenden Prozesse aber unumgänglich. Soil systematics and classification systems Part I: Fundamentals Soil-ordering systems are primarily based and developed on one of two underlying principles: They are either categorized according to soil-forming processes, or the formation of categories develops by chosen parameters. This perspective has already been established in the literature, though it is often confusing as many terms are defined and applied differently. In this contribution, the various definitions of systematics, classification, taxonomy, and identification will be clearly differentiated and summarized. The core of our work is to clearly define and contrast three terms: systematics, classification, and identification. Systematics is the fundamental scientific and deductive ordering of objects into systematic units. The purpose of this approach is to organize the entire spectrum of knowledge within a discipline into a transparent and manageable form. Classification, in direct contrast to systematics, is goal-oriented and an inductive ordering of objects. Thus, the ordering scheme consists of classes which are clearly parameterized. Identification is the ordering of new objects into an already existing systematics or classification system. Close attention is paid to both the differences and the similarities between a systematics and a classification system, especially pertaining to their practical applications. The identification requires that the category-forming characteristics can be measured (e.g., for soil systematics, these are the soil-forming processes and factors). Currently, it is unfortunately not feasible to objectively quantify most soil-forming processes. Thus, most attempts at categorizing soils by systematics are hypothetical and highly subjective in nature. The resulting identification derived from the soil systematics approach is open to questions and contestable, since a graded measuring system does not yet exist to verify these determinations. In contrast, a soil-classification system does allow an objective soil-profile identification, although such systems are conceived pragmatically and designed for a practical purpose (e.g., not scientifically based on process intensities). Unfortunately, such a classification system cannot be applied as a universal scientific categorization system due to this method of conception. Both categorization approaches are required in soil science in order to satisfy both the practical and the scientific aspects of the field. However, substantial research must be done to complete and verify systematics. The only viable short-term solution is through the development of a graded classification system where the categories of the system are directly derived from the current systematics approach. In the long run both the exact investigation and the detailed modeling of the soil-forming processes are inevitable. [source]

Impact of Policy Shifts on South Asian Carers in the United Kingdom

Elizabeth Hensel
Abstract, The aim of this study was to assess how the introduction of new service policies in the United Kingdom , such as person-centered planning and the active development of support networks , was impacting the lives of carers of people with intellectual disability from South Asian backgrounds. Using a semistructured interview schedule, 19 families of South Asian background living in an urban conurbation were interviewed about their service use and needs with respect to providing care for their family member with an intellectual disability. The families experienced material disadvantage, poor health, and did not access services to the same extent as did the general population in the UK. Overall, community participation was low and only two individuals with an intellectual disability had a care plan as outlined in the latest UK government policies. The introduction of these new policies did not appear to have positively impacted the lives of the individuals interviewed in this study. The results were similar to findings of studies in other parts of Britain: that is, the culture of caring and protecting the individual with an intellectual disability, combined with the importance of family life over an outside social life, ran somewhat counter to the underlying principles of current national disability policy (i.e., promoting individual rights and independent living). It is suggested that attempts to implement these policies risks alienating carers of South Asian descent from service providers and their implementation must be done in a culturally sensitively context. [source]

The International Legal Framework for the Safeguarding and Promotion of Languages

Janet Blake
There are a sizeable number of international law provisions that answer the needs of speaker communities for the safeguarding and promotion of their languages, most of them rights-based. Some of UNESCO's cultural heritage instruments are also of relevance. This article analyses the existing law, its effectiveness and underlying principles and considers whether there is a need for further legal development in this area, as well as the usefulness of non-normative approaches. [source]

Acute kidney injury and renal replacement therapy in the intensive care unit

Peter Faber
Abstract Background:, Renal replacement therapy (RRT) is now offered as a routine treatment in most intensive care units (ICU) in the UK for patients suffering from acute kidney injury (AKI). It is important for all ICU staff to understand the underlying principles of the available therapeutic options and the possible complications thereof. Aims and objectives:, The objective of this review was to provide an accessible theoretical and practical update on the management of RRT. In addition to a detailed discussion of the underlying principles and indications for the various modes of RRT, we will discuss the assessment of kidney function, possible complications and anticoagulation during RRT, following a review of the current literature. Search strategies:, Pubmed, Medline and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature were searched using the keywords renal function, RRT, dialysis, renal failure kidney injury, together with intensive care, intensive therapy and critical care. We included only studies published in English from 1998 to 2008 and from these identified and included additional publications. The 12 most relevant publications are referenced in this review. Conclusion:, AKI is associated with increased mortality in ICU, and RRT should be considered early in the disease process. Continuous haemofiltration is the most common modality of treatment in this group of patients, and a detailed knowledge of the management of such patients is required. [source]

Cryogenic extinguishment of liquid pool fires

Yiannis Levendis
Abstract Results on fire extinguishment using direct application of liquid nitrogen are presented in this article. This technique targets challenging fires, such as burning hazardous chemicals or fuels, in which cases prompt suppression or extinguishment is paramount to prevent explosions, avoid release of toxic fumes and avert environmental catastrophes. Liquid nitrogen is a rather environmentally benign extinguishing agent that does not cause property damage or groundwater contamination. Application of this cryogen onto a hot pyrolyzing/burning surface induces abrupt vaporization, spread and expansion. The pyrolyzing gases are inerted, the surface is cooled and hence its pyrolysis rate is reduced, air is separated from the fuel, and the fire extinguishes. To demonstrate this technique, experiments were conducted with pool fires of ethanol, propanol, and diesel fuel. To examine the underlying principles, analysis of the results was conducted based on simplified calculations. Sufficient quantities of the cryogen extinguished the fires nearly instantaneously. Half-liter quantities were sufficient to extinguish 1 m2 pool fires. The method of dispensing and distributing the cryogen on the pool fires proved to be of considerable importance. The existence of wind, which disturbed the flame, was not found to prevent extinguishment. © 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Process Saf Prog 2010 [source]

Diffusion of innovations: Anatomical informatics and iPods

Robert B. Trelease
Abstract Over the course of many centuries, evolving scientific methods and technologies have advanced the study of anatomy. More recently, such dissemination of innovations has been formally studied in multidisciplinary psychosocial contexts, yielding useful knowledge about underlying principles and processes. We review these precepts and show how diffusion of innovations theory and principles apply to the development and dissemination of anatomical information methods and resources. We consider the factors affecting the late-20th-century dissemination of personal computers and World Wide Web hypermedia into widespread use in anatomical research and instruction. We report on the results of a small experiment in applied diffusion, the development and Internet-based distribution of learning resources for a popular, widely distributed personal media player. With these wearable microcomputer devices already in use by a variety of students, new opportunities exist for widespread dissemination of anatomical information. The continuing evolution of wearable computing devices underscores the need for maintaining anatomical information transportability via standardized data formats. Anat Rec (Part B: New Anat) 289B:160,168, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Keynes's Principles of Writing (Innovative) Economics,

In recent years, discourse and rhetoric in economics have received increasing discussion among economists. This paper contributes to the general debate by investigating the hitherto neglected topic of Keynes's views on the writing of economics, especially the writing of innovative or ground-breaking works. Five underlying principles are distilled from the ideas he presented in the 1920s and 1930s in essays on other economists and in reflections on his own experiences. These principles are replete with implications for all writing, reading and conversation in economics, regardless of time, place, type or participant. [source]

Path Dependency and Comparative Industrial Relations: The Case of Conflict Resolution Systems in Ireland and Sweden

Paul Teague
This article uses the theory of path dependency to explain the evolution of employment conflict resolution systems in Ireland and Sweden. It argues that the traditional ,voluntarist' conflict management path followed in Ireland has fragmented as a result of a series of internal developments that have reduced trade union density, increased the importance of employment law in the settlement of workplace disputes and established social partnership as the main wage-setting mechanism. By contrast, the Swedish system has experienced reform within the boundaries of the established conflict management path, which is largely attributable to the still powerful role played by trade unions within the country. Thus, while the operating rules of the system have changed, its core underlying principles , collectivism and self-regulation , remain intact. [source]

Reconstructing child welfare through participatory and child-centred professional practice: a conceptual approach,

Heather D'Cruz
ABSTRACT The ,child' in child welfare/protection is seen as a dependent waif and an object of interest, on whose behalf adults speak and act. An alternative perspective has argued for child-centredness, and includes concepts of child liberation, rights and citizenship. Policymakers and practitioners who may accept the underlying principles may be concerned about the appropriateness and applicability of such principles in relation to practice with children and their parents in child welfare/protection cases. This paper discusses a conceptual framework for research that aims to explore participatory and child-centred professional practice by critically evaluating and developing, for professional practice, the practical meanings of ,participatory' and ,children as citizens'. We do not present research outcomes based on empirical data; instead, we present our conceptual framework as the first stage of research in progress into participatory and child-centred professional practice. [source]

Participatory evaluation (II) , translating concepts of reliability and validity in fieldwork

B. Crishna
Abstract Background In developing countries participatory methods are a viable way of evaluating social development projects. It provides a means to look constructively at the strengths and weaknesses in projects, and use the lessons learned to improve planning and implementation. One of the challenges faced, however, is being able to ensure that the study is sound, reliable and valid, and that it is free from bias, thus making the final results trustworthy and of use to a larger population. Methods This article looks at five steps involved in a participatory evaluation process and the ways in which reliability and validity have been considered. Results Participatory studies may be different, but all have similar underlying principles as traditional quantitative and qualitative studies. Examples from fieldwork in Asia have been used to demonstrate how studies can be made credible, so that they have value, influence or the ability to encourage changes in thinking, while evaluating social development projects. At every stage, the role of the external evaluator remains crucial, and has to be that of a facilitator, encouraging participation from everyone. Conclusion Hence project evaluations using such a method must be clear in how to remove bias and ensure reliability and validity in all the stages of the evaluation, from planning to making recommendations. Imaginative and alternative strategies need to be developed to examine reliability and validity in the qualitative evaluation. [source]