Underlying Pathophysiologic Mechanisms (underlying + pathophysiologic_mechanism)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Hypercalcemia in Cats: A Retrospective Study of 71 Cases (1991,1997)

Karine CM.
A retrospective study was conducted to characterize the diseases, clinical findings, and clinicopathologic and ultrasonographic findings associated with hypercalcemia (serum calcium concentration >11 mg/dL) in 71 cats presented to North Carolina State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital. The 3 most common diagnoses were neoplasia (n = 21), renal failure (n = 18), and urolithiasis (n = 11). Primary hyperparathyroidism was diagnosed in 4 cats. Lymphoma and squamous cell carcinoma were the most frequently diagnosed tumors. Calcium oxalate uroliths were diagnosed in 8 of 11 cats with urolithiasis. Cats with neoplasia had a higher serum calcium concentration (13.5 2.5 mg/dL) than cats with renal failure or urolithiasis and renal failure (11.5 0.4 mg/dL; P <.03). Serum phosphorus concentration was higher in cats with renal failure than in cats with neoplasia (P < .004). Despite the fact that the majority of cats with uroliths were azotemic, their serum urea nitrogen and creatinine concentrations and urine specific gravity differed from that of cats with renal failure. Additional studies are warranted to determine the underlying disease mechanism in the cats we identified with hypercalcemia and urolithiasis. We also identified a small number of cats with diseases that are not commonly reported with hypercalcemia. Further studies are needed to determine whether an association exists between these diseases and hypercalcemia, as well as to characterize the underlying pathophysiologic mechanism for each disease process. [source]

Adiponectin and visfatin concentrations in children treated with valproic acid

EPILEPSIA, Issue 2 2008
Markus Rauchenzauner
Summary Chronic antiepileptic therapy with valproic acid (VPA) is associated with increased body weight and insulin resistance in adults and children. Attempts to determine the underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms have failed. Adipocytokines have recently been defined as a link between glucose and fat metabolism. We herein demonstrate that VPA-associated overweight is accompanied by lower adiponectin and higher leptin concentrations in children. The absence of any relationship with visfatin concentration does not suggest a role of this novel insulin-mimetic hormone in VPA-associated metabolic alterations. Therefore, adiponectin and leptin but not visfatin may be considered as potential regulators of glucose and fat metabolism during VPA-therapy. [source]

The Role of Glia and the Immune System in the Development and Maintenance of Neuropathic Pain

PAIN PRACTICE, Issue 3 2010
Ricardo Vallejo MD
Abstract Neuropathic pain refers to a variety of chronic pain conditions with differing underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms and origins. Recent studies indicate a communication between the immune system and the nervous system. A common underlying mechanism of neuropathic pain is the presence of inflammation at the site of the damaged or affected nerve(s). This inflammatory response initiates a cascade of events resulting in the concentration and activation of innate immune cells at the site of tissue injury. The release of immunoactive substances such as cytokines, neurotrophic factors, and chemokines initiate local actions and can result in a more generalized immune response. The resultant neuroinflammatory environment can cause activation of glial cells located in the spinal cord and the brain, which appear to play a prominent role in nociception. Glial cells, also known as neuroglia, are nonconducting cells that modulate neurotransmission at the synaptic level. Glial cells can be subdivided into two primary categories: microglia and macroglia, which include astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Astrocytes and microglia are known to play a role in the development, spread, and potentiation of neuropathic pain. Following peripheral nociceptive activation via nerve injury, microglia become activated and release pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-,, interleukin-1,, and interleukin-6, thereby initiating the pain process. Microglia propagate the neuroinflammation by recruiting other microglia and eventually activating nearby astrocytes, which prolongs the inflammatory state and leads to a chronic neuropathic pain condition. Our review focuses on the role of glia and the immune system in the development and maintenance of neuropathic pain. [source]

Origins and treatment of airway inflammation in childhood asthma

Robert F. Lemanske Jr. MD
Abstract Several early events and risk factors are associated with the development of childhood asthma. Two significant risk factors are viral lower respiratory tract infections and atopy. Studies suggest that imbalances in TH1/TH2 cytokine responses in relationship to viral infections may play a role in the development of the childhood asthmatic phenotype. Airway inflammation is now recognized to contribute to the inception, persistence, and severity of asthmatic symptoms. The majority of information pertaining to airway inflammation in asthma has been derived from adult studies, but recent evaluations have been done in children. Available data are inconclusive as to the right medication to be used at the inception and during the evolution of the asthmatic phenotype in children. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS( are not consistently effective in young children for a variety of reasons, including underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms that are unresponsive to the pharmacologic properties of ICS. The leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs), recently approved for children as young as 2 years of age, address the relationship between leukotriene production and airway inflammation or remodeling in asthma. Therapeutic trials using LTRAs in children should prove beneficial. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2001; Supplement 21:17,25. 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]