Underlying Muscle (underlying + muscle)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The Laser-Assisted Neck Lift: Modifications in Technique and Postoperative Care to Improve Results

F. Richard Noodleman MD
background. Conventional submental tumescent liposuction has proved disappointing for some patients with anterior neck laxity, ptotic platysma muscles, and increased subplatysmal fat. Many of these patients are facelift candidates but are unwilling to undergo this extensive procedure. We describe our hybrid approach, which offers consistently improved results and enhanced patient satisfaction. objective. To establish a sharper cervicomental angle by more completely removing subplatysmal fat. We also wished to achieve more consistent, smoother results, minimizing ripples, folds, and hematomas with a novel postoperative dressing system. methods. Extensive tumescent liposuction of the lower face, jowls, and anterior neck was performed. Following this, subplatysmal fat was removed by dissection, the platysma muscle was imbricated, and the CO2 laser utilized in a defocused, low-power mode to partially treat the dermal undersurface and underlying muscle. Our postoperative dressing included a 10 cm mineral oil polymer gel disc in the submental location, covered by tape, silicone foam, and a lower face and neck garment to provide both support and even compression over the entire neck for at least the first 24 hours. results. Results proved uniformly satisfying for most patients, even those in their senior years. Benefits included an improved cervicomental angle, a decrease in jowling, and a marked reduction in the laxity and wrinkling of the neck skin and horizontal neck creases. Problems related to postoperative rippling or folding of the redraped skin and hematoma formation were minimized. conclusion. Laser neck tightening combined with tumescent liposuction and an advanced postoperative dressing for superior support and uniform compression has resulted in consistently excellent outcomes with improved patient satisfaction. [source]

Non-viral VEGF165 gene therapy , magnetofection of acoustically active magnetic lipospheres (,magnetobubbles') increases tissue survival in an oversized skin flap model

Thomas Holzbach
Abstract Adenoviral transduction of the VEGF gene in an oversized skin flap increases flap survival and perfusion. In this study, we investigated the potential of magnetofection of magnetic lipospheres containing VEGF165 -cDNA on survival and perfusion of ischemic skin flaps and evaluated the method with respect to the significance of applied magnetic field and ultrasound. We prepared perfluoropropane-filled magnetic lipospheres (,magnetobubbles') from Tween60-coated magnetic nanoparticles, Metafectene, soybean-oil and cDNA and studied the effect in an oversized random-pattern-flap model in the rats (n= 46). VEGF-cDNA-magnetobubbles were administered under a magnetic field with simultaneously applied ultrasound, under magnetic field alone and with applied ultrasound alone. Therapy was conducted 7 days pre-operative. Flap survival and necrosis were measured 7 days post-operatively. Flap perfusion, VEGF-protein concentration in target and surrounding tissue, formation and appearance of new vessels were analysed additionally. Magnetofection with VEGF-cDNA-magnetobubbles presented an increased flap survival of 50% and increased flap perfusion (P < 0.05). Without ultrasound and without magnetic field, the effect is weakened. VEGF concentration in target tissue was elevated (P < 0.05), while underlying muscle was not affected. Our results demonstrate the successful VEGF gene therapy by means of magnetobubble magnetofection. Here, the method of magnetofection of magnetic lipospheres is equally efficient as adenoviral transduction, but has a presumable superior safety profile. [source]

Spatial organization and isotubulin composition of microtubules in epidermal tendon cells of Artemia franciscana

Godelieve R.J. Criel
Abstract Epidermally derived tendon cells attach the exoskeleton (cuticle) of the Branchiopod crustacean, Artemia franciscana, to underlying muscle in the hindgut, while the structurally similar transalar tendon (epithelial) cells, which also arise from the epidermis and are polarized, connect dorsal and ventral exopodite surfaces. To establish these latter attachments the transalar tendon cells interact with cuticles on opposite sides of the exopodite by way of their apical surfaces and with one another via basal regions, or the cuticle attachments may be mediated through linkages with phagocytic storage cells found in the hemolymph. In some cases, phyllopod tendon cells attach directly to muscle cells. Tendon cells in the hindgut of Artemia possess microtubule bundles, as do the transalar cells, and they extend from the basal myotendinal junction to the apical domain located near the cuticle. The bundled microtubules intermingle with thin filaments reminiscent of microfilaments, but intermediate filament-like structures are absent. Microtubule bundles converging at apical cell surfaces contact structures termed apical invaginations, composed of cytoplasmic membrane infoldings associated with electron-dense material. Intracuticular rods protrude from apical invaginations, either into the cuticle during intermolt or the molting fluid in premolt. Confocal microscopy of immunofluorescently stained samples revealed tyrosinated, detyrosinated, and acetylated tubulins, the first time posttranslationally modified isoforms of this protein have been demonstrated in crustacean tendon cells. Microfilaments, as shown by staining with phalloidin, coincided spatially with microtubule bundles. Artemia tendon cells clearly represent an interesting system for study of cytoskeleton organization within the context of cytoplasmic polarity and the results in this article indicate functional cooperation of microtubules and microfilaments. These cytoskeletal elements, either acting independently or in concert, may transmit tension from muscle to cuticle in the hindgut and resist compression when connecting exopodite cuticular surfaces. 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Imaging of the Calf Vocal Fold With High-Frequency Ultrasound,

Conor J. Walsh MSME
Abstract Objectives/Hypothesis: High-frequency ultrasound imaging offers the potential for assisting in the diagnosis and treatment of vocal fold pathology if it allows aspects of vocal fold microstructure to be visualized noninvasively. The objective of this study was to assess the ability of high-frequency ultrasound to image vocal fold anatomy and injected biomaterials. Study Design: The vocal folds of two excised calf larynges were imaged ex vivo and compared with corresponding histological sections. Methods: High-frequency ultrasound imaging was performed under saline submersion using 40 and 50 MHz transducers, and corresponding cryostat cross-sections were stained with H&E, Trichome, and Verhoeff's Van Gieson stains. Results: The epithelial surface, lamina propria, and underlying muscle were easily identified with the high-frequency ultrasound as verified with histological sections representing each imaged region. The arytenoid cartilage vocal process can also be clearly distinguished from the surrounding tissue, as can the full extent of injected biomaterials within the superficial lamina propria. Useful ultrasound resolution was obtained to depths of at least 10 mm within the tissue with the 40 MHz transducer. Conclusions: This preliminary study demonstrates the capability of high-frequency ultrasound to image the layered anatomy of the calf vocal fold and to discern materials injected into the superficial lamina propria, indicating that this technology holds a strong potential for use in phonosurgery. [source]