Underlying Dimensions (underlying + dimension)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Medical informatics: Market for IS/IT

Theodore Allan Morris
Following on the lead from earlier pilot studies, the present work uses co-occurrence analysis of INSPEC classification codes and thesaurus terms assigned to Medical Informatics journal articles and proceedings papers to reveal a more complete perspective of how information science and information technology authors view Medical Informatics. An important underlying dimension to this perspective portrays a continuum of interest from biophysics through biomechanics to biomedicine to (presumably) biology (which is noticeable in its absence). Medical Informatics may be described as the application of information science and information technology to the theoretical and practical problems of biomedical research, clinical practice, and medical education. However, study results suggest IS/IT considers its relationship to Medicine within Medical Informatics as that of supplier vs. market. [source]

Police interview competencies: assessment and associated traits

Filip De Fruyt
Abstract The present study empirically examines the structure of police interview competencies in self-reports of 230 police investigators suggesting five major underlying dimensions, that is, ,Careful-tenacious', ,Controlled-non-reactive', ,Dominant-insisting', ,Communicative' and ,Benevolent'. These dimensions discriminate performance in a series of interview vignettes, grouped in terms of type of case (interviewing a suspect, a witness or a victim) and type of suspect. In addition self-ratings on these dimensions are related to self-estimated interview effectiveness in the same vignettes. Participants are further administered the NEO PI-R (Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). Professional manual: Revised NEO personality inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO five-factor-inventory (NEO-FFI). Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources), enabling an examination of the relationship between the competence dimensions and their personality trait building blocks. The implications of this study for the development and coaching of police interview competencies are discussed. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Development of a Scale to Measure Patients' Trust in Health Insurers

Article first published online: 18 MAR 200
Objective.,To develop a scale to measure patients' trust in health insurers, including public and private insurers and both indemnity and managed care. A scale was developed based on our conceptual model of insurer trust. The scale was analyzed for its factor structure, internal consistency, construct validity, and other psychometric properties. Data Sources/Study Setting.,The scale was developed and validated on a random national sample (n=410) of subjects with any type of insurance and further validated and used in a regional random sample of members of an HMO in North Carolina (n=1152). Study Design.,Factor analysis was used to uncover the underlying dimensions of the scale. Internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha. Construct validity was established by Pearson or Spearman correlations and t tests. Data Collection.,Data were collected via telephone interviews. Principal Findings.,The 11-item scale has good internal consistency (alpha=0.92/0.89) and response variability (range=11,55, M=36.5/37.0, SD=7.8/7.0). Insurer trust is a unidimensional construct and is related to trust in physicians, satisfaction with care and with insurer, having enough choice in selecting health insurer, no prior disputes with health insurer, type of insurer, and desire to remain with insurer. Conclusions.,Trust in health insurers can be validly and reliably measured. Additional studies are required to learn more about what factors affect insurer trust and whether differences and changes in insurer trust affect actual behaviors and other outcomes of interest. [source]

Understanding consumers' perspectives on food labelling in India

Jabir Ali
Abstract This study aims at identifying the factors influencing consumers' perception on food labelling and its impact on food purchase decision making, through personal interviews of 631 respondents using a structured questionnaire. To analyse the consumers' perceptions on food labelling, factor analysis has been carried out to identify the underlying dimensions among a set of food labelling attributes using the principal component analysis. Based on factor analysis, four sets of components/factors have emerged, that is, (i) serving method; (ii) quality and nutrition; (iii) production and storage; and (iv) product identification, which explain 66.271% of the variance. Logit regression analysis indicates that among the socio-demographic indicators, the estimated coefficients for gender, education, income and location of residence are statistically significant. Similarly, information on quality and nutrition, production and storage processes, and basic information of the product is found to be significant, implying that these factors are more likely to influence the use of food labels in making informed purchase decisions by the consumers. The findings of the study give practical insights on food labelling issues for the food processors and policy makers. [source]

Comparison of NOHARM and DETECT in Item Cluster Recovery: Counting Dimensions and Allocating Items

Holmes Finch
This study examines the performance of a new method for assessing and characterizing dimensionality in test data using the NOHARM model, and comparing it with DETECT. Dimensionality assessment is carried out using two goodness-of-fit statistics that are compared to reference ,2 distributions. A Monte Carlo study is used with item parameters based on a statewide basic skills assessment and the SAT. Other factors that are varied include the correlation among the latent traits, the number of items, the number of subjects, skewness of the latent traits, and the presence or absence of guessing. The performance of the two procedures is judged by the accuracy in determining the number of underlying dimensions, and the degree to which items are correctly clustered together. Results indicate that the new, NOHARM-based method appears to perform comparably to DETECT in terms of simultaneously finding the correct number of dimensions and clustering items correctly. NOHARM is generally better able to determine the number of underlying dimensions, but less able to group items together, than DETECT. When errors in item cluster assignment are made, DETECT is more likely to incorrectly separate items while NOHARM more often incorrectly groups them together. [source]

Reconsidering Styles of Regulatory Enforcement: Patterns in Danish Agro-Environmental Inspection

LAW & POLICY, Issue 2 2000
Peter May
This study addresses enforcement styles of regulatory inspectors, based on an examination of the municipal enforcement of agro-environmental policies in Denmark. Our findings make three contributions to the regulatory literature. One contribution is to add empirical support for theorizing about inspectors' enforcement styles as consisting of multiple components, rather than a single continuum. We show that inspectors' enforcement styles comprise the degree of formalism and the degree of coercion that they exercise when carrying out inspections. A second contribution is in showing the relationship of different types of enforcement styles to the two underlying dimensions of the concept. A third contribution is an examination of the ways in which inspectors' enforcement styles relate to their enforcement actions. The consistency of our findings with those of other studies suggests that the dimensions and types of inspectors' enforcement styles that we observed in Denmark can be generalized to other settings. [source]

Forgiveness in Marriage: Implications for Psychological Aggression and Constructive Communication

Frank D. Fincham
Two studies examined whether forgiveness in married couples predicted partner reports of psychological aggression and constructive communication. Study 1 found that forgiveness of hypothetical acts of psychological aggression predicted partner reports of psychological aggression. Study 2 examined actual transgressions and found two underlying dimensions of forgiveness (positive and negative). The negative dimension predicted partner reports of psychological aggression, and, for husbands, the positive dimension predicted partner reports of constructive communication. All findings were independent of both spouses' marital satisfaction. The implications for understanding marital interaction and future research on forgiveness are discussed. [source]

Attachment and spousal caregiving

A community sample of 362 married couples participated in a study of attachment and spousal caregiving, which combined qualitative and quantitative components. The qualitative component focused on actual experiences of caregiving, assessed by participants' semi-structured accounts of a situation involving their role as caregiver for their spouse. Attachment styles and their underlying dimensions (comfort with closeness, anxiety over relationships) were related to the type of support provided, the coping strategies used in the situation, caregivers' feelings about the quality of their care, perceived effects on the couple bond, and the emotional tone of the accounts. The quantitative component tested a theoretical model of factors predicting willingness to provide care for the spouse if he or she should become dependent in later life. Measures of attachment and caregiving styles, attachment to spouse, and anticipated burden provided reliable prediction of willingness to care. The results support the conceptualization of attachment and caregiving as interrelated features of marital bonds, and they have important implications for patterns of family caregiving. [source]

Compassion Fatigue and Psychological Distress Among Social Workers: A Validation Study

Richard E. Adams PhD
Few studies have focused on caring professionals and their emotional exhaustion from working with traumatized clients, referred to as compassion fatigue (CF). The present study had 2 goals: (a) to assess the psychometric properties of a CF scale, and (b) to examine the scale's predictive validity in a multivariate model. The data came from a survey of social workers living in New York City following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center. Factor analyses indicated that the CF scale measured multiple dimensions. After overlapping items were eliminated, the scale measured 2 key underlying dimensions,secondary trauma and job burnout. In a multivariate model, these dimensions were related to psychological distress, even after other risk factors were controlled. The authors discuss the results in light of increasing the ability of professional caregivers to meet the emotional needs of their clients within a stressful environment without experiencing CF. [source]

Product innovativeness from the firm's perspective: Its dimensions and their relation with project selection and performance

Erwin Danneels
There has recently been tremendous interest in product innovativeness. However, it seems that we need a better understanding of exactly what product innovativeness means. This article presents a conceptual framework to clarify its meaning. The framework first distinguishes customer and firm perspectives on product innovativeness. From the customer's perspective, innovation attributes, adoption risks, and levels of change in established behavior patterns are regarded as forms of product newness. Within the firm's perspective, environmental familiarity and project-firm fit, and technological and marketing aspects are proposed as dimensions of product innovativeness. Next, the article offers a tentative empirical test of the proposed dimensions of product innovativeness from the firm's perspective. A well-known dataset of 262 industrial new product projects is used to: I) clarify the product innovativeness construct and examine its underlying dimensions, 2) examine the relation of product innovativeness with the decision to pursue or kill the project, and 3) examine the relationship between product innovativeness and product performance. Five dimensions of product innovativeness are found which have distinct relations with the Go/No Go decision and product performance: market familiarity, technological familiarity, marketing fit, technological fit, and new marketing activities. Most strikingly, measures of fit are related to product performance, whereas measures of familiarity are not. The article concludes that researchers need to be careful about which definitions and measures of product innovativeness they employ, because depending on their choice they may arrive at different findings. New product practitioners are encouraged to evaluate new product opportunities primarily in terms of their fit with their firm's resources and skills rather than the extent to which they are "close to home". [source]

Distress and post-traumatic stress disorders in high risk professionals: adult attachment style and the dimensions of anxiety and avoidance

Frédéric Declercq
This study examines the relationship between adult attachment and psychological distress in a population of 544 people working for a security company and for the Belgian Red Cross. The results indicate that fearful,avoidant and preoccupied attached individuals report more stress than secure attached and insecure attached individuals of the dismissive type. Next, the same attachment styles appear to differentiate between individuals who do and individuals who do not develop a post-traumatic stress syndrome (PTSD) after being confronted with a critical incident. Breaking the attachment styles into the two underlying dimensions of attachment anxiety and avoidance, our results suggest that anxiety is more of an issue than avoidance in psychological distress and the occurrence of PTSD.,Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]