Underlying Diagnoses (underlying + diagnosis)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Hepatitic pattern of graft versus host disease in children

Héctor Melín-Aldana MD
Abstract Background Liver involvement by graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is characterized histologically by bile duct damage, which may be severe. A different pattern, "hepatitic GVHD," has been described in adult patients. This pattern also shows marked lobular hepatitis and hepatocellular damage. We report the development of hepatitic GVHD in six pediatric patients. Procedure Clinical information and histologic features of liver biopsy samples were retrospectively reviewed. Results Patients' ages ranged from 3 to 11 years. Underlying diagnosis, pre-transplant conditioning and GVHD prophylaxis varied. Peripheral blood stem cells were the source of the allograft in four patients, matched sibling in one, and matched-unrelated donor in one. Hepatic GVHD was detected between 149 and 310 days post-transplant. Prior acute GVHD had developed in two patients, and involved the skin and/or gastrointestinal tract. No patients had significant ductopenia. Only one patient had significant lymphocytic infiltration of bile ducts (ductitis). Bile duct epithelial damage and significant portal/periportal inflammation were present in all patients. Lobular necro-inflammation was present in five patients. Five patients improved with immunosuppression and one died with progressive GVHD. Conclusions This series focuses on hepatitic GVHD in pediatric patients. Clinical and histologic patterns are similar to what has been described in adults. Specific etiology and pathogenesis of this entity remain unclear. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2007;49:727,730. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Decreased activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes in non-mitochondrial respiratory chain diseases

Joannie Hui MBBS
The aim of this study was to illustrate the difficulties in establishing a diagnosis of mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) disorders based on clinical grounds in combination with intermediate activities of the MRC enzyme complexes. We reviewed retrospectively all medical and laboratory records of patients initially considered likely to have MRC disorders on clinical grounds, and subsequently diagnosed with other disorders (n=20; 11 males, 9 females). Data were retrieved from hospital records, referral letters, and results of enzymatic analysis at a reference laboratory. Clinical symptoms included developmental delay, epilepsy, hypotonia, movement disorder, spastic quadriplegia, tetany, microcephaly, visual problems, carpopedal spasms, dysmorphism, hearing loss, muscle weakness and rhabdomyolysis, and fulminant hepatitis. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid lactate levels were elevated in 13/20 and 9/20 respectively. One or more MRC complex activities (expressed as ratios relative to citrate synthase and/or complex II activity) were less than 50% of control mean activity in 11/20 patients (including patients with deficiencies of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, pantothenate kinase, holocarboxylase synthetase, long-chain hydroxy acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, molybdenum co-factor, and neonatal haemochromatosis). One patient had a pattern suggestive of mitochondrial proliferation. We conclude that intermediate results of MRC enzymes should be interpreted with caution and clinicians should be actively looking for other underlying diagnoses. [source]

Survival to discharge among patients treated with CRRT

R. Wald
Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is widely used in critically ill patients with acute renal failure (ARF). The survival of patients who require CRRT and the factors predicting their outcomes are not well defined. We sought to identify clinical features to predict survival in patients treated with CRRT. We reviewed the charts of all patients who received CRRT at the Toronto General Hospital during the year 2002. Our cohort (n = 85) represented 97% of patients treated with this modality in 3 critical care units. We identified demographic variables, underlying diagnoses, transplantation status, location (medical-surgical, coronary or cardiovascular surgery intensive care units), CRRT duration, baseline creatinine clearance (CrCl), and presence of oliguria (<400 ml/d) on the day of CRRT initiation. The principal outcome was survival to hospital discharge. Among those alive at discharge, we assessed whether there was an ongoing need for renal replacement therapy. Greater than one-third (38%, 32/85) of patients survived to hospital discharge. Three (9%) of the survivors remained dialysis-dependent at the time of discharge. Survivors were younger than non-survivors (mean age 56 vs 60 y.), were on CRRT for a shorter duration (7 vs 13 d.), and had a higher baseline CrCl (79 vs 68 ml/min). Patient survival varied among different critical care units (medical surgical 33%, coronary 38%, and cardiovascular surgery 45%). Multivariable logistic regression revealed that shorter duration of CRRT, non-oliguria, and baseline CrCl > 60 ml/min were independently associated with survival to hospital discharge (p < 0.05). Critically ill patients with ARF who require CRRT continue to have high in-hospital mortality. A shorter period of CRRT dependence, non-oliguria, and higher baseline renal function may predict a more favorable prognosis. The majority of CRRT patients who survive their critical illness are independent from dialysis at the time of hospital discharge. [source]

Update on medical treatment of ejaculatory disorders,

Summary Among the treatment modalities for ejaculatory disorders pharmacological treatment is the least invasive option. In this review, medical treatments for retrograde ejaculation (RE) and anejaculation (AE) are discussed systematically. Thirty-six studies dealing with patients with RE and 40 with AE evaluated the use of medical treatment and were included in this review. In addition four articles dealing with prostatic massage in anejaculatory patients were considered. Sperm quality in patients with retrograde and AE is often impaired. In patients with RE no differences in response to medical treatment could be detected between the different underlying diagnoses. Compared with ephedrine, imipramine and chlorpheniramine + phenylpropanalamine showed significantly higher reversal rates, while differences between the other treatments were not significant. Regarding the reversal of AE, the alpha agonistic drugs were significantly inferior to treatment with parasympathetic drugs. Of the different alpha agonistic medical treatments for the reversal of AE, milodrin showed significantly better rates than imipramine (p = 0.008), pseudoephidrine (p = 0.02) and ephedrine (p = 0.044), while all other treatments were not significantly different (p = 0.4). In conclusion, medical treatment for reversal of RE offers a realistic chance of conceiving offspring naturally and should be the treatment modality of first choice. In contrast, in AE, medical treatment cannot be recommended generally as treatment of first choice as it shows low overall success rates compared with electrovibration stimulation and electroejaculation. Under consideration of the mostly uncontrolled design of the majority of studies published, controlled clinical trials comparing different treatment options appear urgently warranted. [source]

The Effectiveness of Transtelephonic Monitoring of Pacemaker Function in Pediatric Patients

Background:To determine the sensitivity and specificity, rate of compliance, and predictors of failure of telephone transmission of pacemaker function in a pediatric population. Methods:A total of 2,638 pacemaker transmission records were reviewed retrospectively. Standard calculations of sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were performed. Longitudinal data analysis was used to detect factors influencing the effectiveness of transtelephonic monitoring. The proportion of missed transmissions was calculated, thus enabling assessment of compliance. Logistic regression was performed to determine predictors of poor compliance. Results:Telephone transmission of pacemaker function, as a diagnostic tool, had a sensitivity of 94.8%, specificity of 99.2%, positive predictive value of 82.1%, and negative predictive value of 99.9%. Longitudinal analysis failed to show any significant predictors of transmission failure. Compliance with a prescribed transmission reached 84.5% in our patient population. Logistic regression analysis failed to identify any predictors of noncompliance. Conclusion:Values for sensitivity and specificity indicate that telephone transmission is a useful diagnostic tool for assessing pacemaker function at a distance. Negative predictive value is 99.9%, indicating that normal telephone transmissions are very reassuring of normal pacemaker function. Telephone transmission is equally successful in all age groups, genders, distances from a tertiary referral center, underlying diagnoses, pacing modes, and pacemaker models. Compliance with telephone transmission follow-up was higher in our population than in previous studies. [source]

Benefit of Feeding Assessment Before Pediatric Airway Reconstruction ,

Jay Paul Willging MD
Abstract Objectives/Hypothesis To determine the utility of preoperative feeding assessments in children undergoing airway reconstruction, identifying parameters that correlate with functional deficits in swallowing and postoperative feeding difficulties. Study Design Prospective, sequential enrollment. Methods Two hundred fifty-five patients with structural abnormalities of the upper aerodigestive tract underwent endoscopic swallow studies. Classification of preoperative feeding abilities, specific feeding disorders, and abnormal endoscopic feeding parameters were used to predict the postoperative course of patients undergoing airway reconstruction. The relationships between diagnoses and functional feeding categories and postoperative outcomes and functional feeding categories were appraised by ,2 analysis. Results The median age of the study population was 2.5 years. Fifty-three percent of the patients were tracheotomy dependent. Only 13% of the patients had diagnoses limited to the airway, with 45% of patients having three or more diagnoses. Worse preoperative feeding abilities were associated with the presence of a tracheotomy, age 2 years or less, and multiple underlying diagnoses. Neurological diagnoses were associated with worse feeding abilities. Preoperative feeding assessments directly altered the course of management of 15% of operative patients, by recommending a delay in the surgical correction, the placement of a gastrostomy tube preoperatively, or a modification in the surgical reconstruction planned for the patient. Postoperative airway protection predictions were 80% accurate. Twelve percent of the predictions involved patients who developed unforeseen complications that required additional treatments or prolonged the hospital stay secondary to difficulties with airway protection. There was no correlation between the preoperative feeding abilities of the patients and their postoperative course after airway reconstruction. Conclusion Transient dysphagia is common after laryngotracheal reconstruction. Preoperative feeding abilities do not correlate with the postoperative airway protection abilities of a patient. Feeding assessments before pediatric airway reconstruction provide a means of identifying patients with poor airway protection mechanisms that may compromise the patient after reconstruction. Findings on swallowing evaluations that predict poor airway protective mechanisms are 1) pooling of secretions in the hypopharynx, 2) poor oral motor skills, allowing premature spillage of material into the hypopharynx where it penetrates the larynx, and 3) residue that persists in the hypopharynx after multiple swallows. The integration of information generated from the preoperative swallowing assessment promotes the selection of operative procedures that are optimal for that patient and highlights specific therapy issues that may need to be addressed in the postoperative management of the patient that may not have been obvious without the study. [source]

Problematic internet use: Proposed classification and diagnostic criteria

Nathan A. Shapira M.D., Ph.D.
Abstract Since the mid-1990s, there have been frequent reports of individuals whose use of the computer and internet is problematic. Given the recent expansion and the expected increase in internet availability and usage in the coming years, it is important that healthcare professionals be informed about this behavior and its associated problems. Recently, psychological and psychiatric literature has described individuals that exhibit problematic internet use who often suffer from other psychiatric disorders. In the face of this comorbidity, it is essential to evaluate whether these individuals represent a distinct class of disorder, or a manifestation/coping mechanism related to other underlying diagnosis. In either event, problematic internet use negatively impacts social and emotional functioning. Based on the current limited empirical evidence, problematic internet use may best be classified as an impulse control disorder. It is therefore imperative that problematic internet use be appropriately identified among symptomatic individuals. For these reasons, we propose specific diagnostic criteria that will allow for consistent identification and assist in further study of this behavior. Depression and Anxiety 17:207,216, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Should Non-Invasive Helicobacter pylori Testing Replace Endoscopy in Investigation of Dyspepsia?

Kenneth McColl
Our knowledge of Helicobacter pylori infection is now changing the way in which we investigate patients presenting with dyspepsia, with noninvasive H. pylori testing replacing endoscopy. Non-invasive H. pylori testing has been shown to be useful in predicting the underlying diagnosis in patients presenting with dyspepsia. Several studies have shown that 20,50% of dyspeptic patients with a positive H. pylori test will have evidence of underlying ulcer disease or duodenitis. In contrast, less than 5% of dyspeptic patients with a negative H. pylori test will have evidence of ulcer disease and in these subjects, the likeliest diagnosis is gastroesophageal reflux disease. This has led to many groups recommending that noninvasive H. pylori testing should be used in place of endoscopy, with all those testing positive being given anti- H. pylori therapy and those testing negative being treated symptomatically. One concern about nonendoscopic management of dyspeptic patients is the possibility of missing underlying malignancy but studies have shown that in western countries this is rare in patients less than 55 years of age presenting with dyspepsia in the absence of sinister symptoms. There is increasing evidence supporting eradication of H. pylori infection in dyspeptic patients without ulcer disease. Meta-analysis of four prospective randomized trials indicates that such treatment is superior to placebo in about 10% of subjects. H. pylori -positive dyspeptic patients are also recognized to have an increased risk of developing ulcer disease in the future which will be removed by treating the infection. Another justification for eradicating the infection in the absence of ulcer disease is the fact that H. pylori infection is now proven to be a risk factor for gastric cancer. Prospective randomized studies comparing endoscopy with noninvasive H. pylori testing in the management of dyspeptic patients indicate that managing dyspepsia by noninvasive H. pylori testing is at least as effective as endoscopic-based management in producing symptomatic resolution and saves a substantial number of endoscopic procedures. There is therefore now substantial evidence indicating that noninvasive H. pylori testing should be used in place of endoscopy to determine the management of younger dyspeptic patients without sinister symptoms and who are not taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. [source]

Bronchial hyperresponsiveness, atopy, and bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophils in persistent middle lobe syndrome

Kostas N. Priftis MD
Abstract Most cases of middle lobe syndrome (MLS) in children are considered to be due to asthma and may recover spontaneously; however, in persistent MLS, repeated episodes of infection often institute a vicious cycle that may lead to persistent symptoms and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR). The present study was undertaken to investigate whether asthma, as an underlying diagnosis, is predictive of a favorable outcome of children with persistent MLS. We evaluated 53 children with MLS who underwent an aggressive management protocol that included fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). These patients were compared to two other groups: one consisting of children with current asthma but no evidence of MLS (N,=,40) and another of non-asthmatic controls (N,=,42), matched for age and sex. Prevalence of sensitization (,1 aeroallergen) did not differ between patients with MLS and "non-asthmatics" but was significantly lower than that of "current asthmatics." A positive response to methacholine bronchial challenge was observed with increased frequency among children with MLS when compared to "current asthmatic" and non-asthmatic children. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed a positive correlation between an increased number of eosinophils in the BAL fluid (BALF) and a favorable outcome, whereas no correlation was detected between sensitization or BHR and BAL cellular components. In conclusion, children with MLS have an increased prevalence of BHR, even when compared to asthmatics, but exhibit prevalence of atopy similar to that of non-asthmatics. An increased eosinophilic BALF count is predictive of symptomatic but not radiographic improvement of MLS patients after aggressive anti-asthma management. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Emesis predicts bacteremia in immunocompromised children with central venous catheters and fever,

CANCER, Issue 14 2009
Matthew W. Richardson MD
Abstract BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to determine whether vomiting at presentation of a febrile illness in immunocompromised children with central venous catheters (CVCs) predicts bacteremia. METHODS: A chart review was conducted of children who were admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of cancer or aplastic anemia, fever, and a CVC. Data were collected on the presence or absence of vomiting, catheter type, presence or absence of severe neutropenia, C-reactive protein (Crp) value, and culture results. RESULTS: There were 143 admissions for fever among 48 children. Among 35 admissions with emesis, 19 included bacteremia; whereas, among 107 admissions without emesis, 19 included bacteremia (P < .001). There was a 5-fold greater risk of bacteremia in children with children without vomiting (odds ratio, 5.50; 95% confidence interval, 2.20-13.67). Gram-negative organisms were more likely to be associated with vomiting than Gram-positive organisms (P = .008). Children with severe neutropenia did not have a significantly higher rate of bacteremia than children who had neutrophil counts >500 cells/mm3. Other factors that were associated with higher rates of bacteremia were underlying diagnosis and catheter type. CONCLUSIONS: Immunocompromised children with a CVC and a fever who presented with vomiting were more likely to have bacteremia than similar children who presented without vomiting. Gram-negative organisms were more likely to be associated with emesis than Gram-positive organisms. The absence of severe neutropenia was not associated with a decreased likelihood of bacteremia. These findings may be useful in identifying children who are at high risk for bacteremia and in determining initial, empiric therapy. Cancer 2009. © 2009 American Cancer Society. [source]