Underlying Causal Mechanisms (underlying + causal_mechanism)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Anorexia nervosa and psychological control: a reexamination of selected theoretical accounts

Lois J. Surgenor
Psychological control has been hypothesized to play a central role in the aetiology and maintenance of anorexia nervosa (AN). Indeed, by positioning psychological control as an important organizing or underlying causal mechanism, theoretical accounts typically rely on this construct. This paper reviews three strategically important accounts of the hypothesized relationship between psychological control and AN. These theoretically articulated relationships are complex and diverse. The implications of this situation for current clinical practice, and future research questions, are discussed. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

The island rule and a research agenda for studying ecogeographical patterns

Mark V. Lomolino
Abstract We are currently experiencing a resurgence of interest in ecogeographical rules, which describe general trends in morphology and related traits along geographical gradients. In order to develop a more comprehensive understanding of the generality and underlying causal mechanisms for these patterns, we recommend a new, more integrated research agenda. In particular, we recommend studies that simultaneously consider different clines in morphology, geographical ranges and diversity as intricately related phenomena; all being ecological, evolutionary and biogeographical responses of organisms to selection regimes that vary non-randomly over space and time, and among species with different ecological and evolutionary histories. [source]

Age-Related Changes in the Osteogenic Differentiation Potential of Mouse Bone Marrow Stromal Cells,,

Weixi Zhang
Abstract Age-dependent bone loss has been well documented in both human and animal models. Although the underlying causal mechanisms are probably multifactorial, it has been hypothesized that alterations in progenitor cell number or function are important. Little is known regarding the properties of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) or bone progenitor cells during the aging process, so the question of whether aging alters BMSC/progenitor osteogenic differentiation remains unanswered. In this study, we examined age-dependent changes in bone marrow progenitor cell number and differentiation potential between mature (3 and 6 mo old), middle-aged (12 and 18 mo old), and aged (24 mo old) C57BL/6 mice. BMSCs or progenitors were isolated from five age groups of C57BL/6 mice using negative immunodepletion and positive immunoselection approaches. The osteogenic differentiation potential of multipotent BMSCs was determined using standard osteogenic differentiation procedures. Our results show that both BMSC/progenitor number and differentiation potential increase between the ages of 3 and 18 mo and decrease rapidly thereafter with advancing age. These results are consistent with the changes of the mRNA levels of osteoblast lineage-associated genes. Our data suggest that the decline in BMSC number and osteogenic differentiation capacity are important factors contributing to age-related bone loss. [source]

Self-harm and depression in women with urinary incontinence: a record-linkage study

Michael J. Goldacre
OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between self-harm and urinary incontinence (UI), and between depression and UI, in women. PATIENTS AND METHODS The incidence of self-harm in women with UI is not well documented. We analysed a statistical database that includes hospital contact data for UI and for self-harm and depression. We calculated rate ratios for self-harm and depression in a cohort of women admitted for UI, and rate ratios for UI in cohorts of women admitted with self-harm or depression, compared with a control cohort. RESULTS After admission for UI, self-harm was significantly high in young women (aged <45 years: rate ratio 1.73, 95% confidence intervals 1.37,2.14) but not in older women. Depression was associated with UI in all age groups, e.g. after admission for depression the rate ratio for UI within 5 years was 1.46 (1.33,1.75); and for UI at ,,5 years after admission for depression, it was 1.20 (1.05,1.35). CONCLUSIONS Young women with UI are at risk of self-harm. For all age groups studied, depression was more common in women with UI than in others. Depression might be a consequence of UI, but the increase in risk at long intervals before admission with UI suggests that they might share underlying causal mechanisms. [source]