Undergraduate Women (undergraduate + woman)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Perceptions of Body Malleability: Linkages With Body-Related Feelings and Behaviors Among Undergraduate Women and Men

Jennifer Paff Ogle
This study explored the utility of body-related behaviors, body attitudes, normative beliefs, and body mass index (BMI) in predicting perceptions of malleability and the utility of body attitude, subjective norms, perceptions of malleability, and BMI in predicting desires to change the body and attempts to change the body. Aquestionnaire was administered to undergraduates. Regression analyses suggested that female and male perceptions of malleability were predicted by attempts to change the body. Among females, body attitudes and normative beliefs about siblings and friends predicted perceptions of malleability. For both females andmales, adding perceptions of malleability to a regression model including body attitude and subjective norm increased the variance explained in desire and attempts to change the body. BMI did not predict perceptions of malleability, desire to change the body, or attempts to change the body. [source]

Church Attendance and Marital Commitment Beliefs of Undergraduate Women

Siu-kuen Azor Hui
Marital commitment between spouses has been found to be an important predictor of successful marriages. Beliefs about marital commitment among never-married young adults are of interest because of their probable influence on subsequent marital behaviors. The current study examined social-cognitive processes; specifically, religiousness, locus-of-control beliefs, and gender role attitudes, in the prediction of marital commitment beliefs among 294 undergraduate never-married women. We found that higher religiousness and lower chance locus of control were significantly correlated with stronger marital commitment beliefs. Multiple regression analyses revealed that religiousness was the best predictor of marital commitment beliefs in this sample. Social learning processes are implicated in the development of marital commitment beliefs. Implications and limitations of the study are discussed. [source]

Lack of seasonal variation in eating attitudes and behaviours among female college students

Melissa A. Munn
Abstract Objective Previous studies have found a season of birth effect for women with eating disorders. However, findings regarding the two types of season of birth (i.e. month of birth and temperature at conception) have been conflicting, and few studies have examined relationships between season of birth and general disordered eating in non-clinical populations. The present study sought to examine this relationship more closely by investigating both month of birth and temperature at conception in undergraduate women. Method Subjects included 427 undergraduate females from a large university in the United States. Disordered eating in the areas of body dissatisfaction, compensatory behaviour, binge eating and weight preoccupation was assessed with the Minnesota Eating Behaviors Survey (MEBS). Results No significant mean differences in MEBS scores were found between those individuals born in the first versus second half of the year. Furthermore, no significant associations were found between disordered eating and temperature at conception. Discussion Our findings suggest that disordered eating symptoms do not show a season of birth effect. Discrepancies between these findings and those for clinical samples suggest the possible presence of different aetiological mechanisms for general eating symptoms versus clinical eating disorders. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

Empathy-induced altruism in a prisoner's dilemma II: what if the target of empathy has defected?

C. Daniel Batson
What if participants in a one-trial prisoner's dilemma know before making their decision that the other person has already defected? From the perspective of classic game theory, a dilemma no longer exists. It is clearly in their best interest to defect too. The empathy-altruism hypothesis predicts, however, that if they feel empathy for the other, then a dilemma remains: self-interest counsels defection; empathy-induced altruism counsels not. This motivational conflict should lead at least some empathically aroused individuals not to defect. To test this prediction, we placed 60 undergraduate women in a one-trial prisoner's dilemma in which they knew the other had already defected. Among those not induced to feel empathy, very few (0.05) did not defect in return. Among those induced to feel empathy for the other, almost half (0.45) did not defect. These results underscore the power of empathy-induced altruism to affect responses in a prisoner's dilemma. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The point prevalence of bulimic disorders from 1990 to 2004

Janis H. Crowther PhD
Abstract Objective: This study investigated the point prevalence of probable cases of bulimia nervosa (BN), eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS), and specific eating disorder symptomatology among 6,844 undergraduate women at a single site, examining changes across five 3-year time periods and on a yearly basis from 1990 to 2004. Method: Participants completed a self-report checklist that assessed the diagnostic criteria for BN (American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 1994) and the Bulimia Test (Smith and Thelen, J Consult Clin Psychol, 52, 863,872, 1984) (BULIT) or Bulimia Test-Revised (Thelen et al., Psychol Assess, 3, 119,124, 1991) (BULIT-R). Results: Chi-square analyses comparing the percentages of probable cases of BN and EDNOS and the percentages of women who reported frequent binge eating and most compensatory weight control strategies were nonsignificant. Only the percentages of women who endorsed overconcern with weight and shape and diuretic use and excessive exercise as compensatory weight control strategies changed over time. Conclusion: Consistent with Keel et al.'s (Keel et al., Psychol Med, 36, 119,127, 2006) findings regarding the point prevalence rates of BN from 1992 to 2002, results indicated that probable cases of eating disorders remained relatively stable. Methodologically, this research illustrates the importance of examining multiple data points when investigating stability or change in behavior. 2008 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2008 [source]

Sociotropy and bulimic symptoms in clinical and nonclinical samples

Jumi Hayaki
Abstract Objective The purpose of this study is to examine the relation between sociotropy and bulimic symptoms. Studies of interpersonal functioning among individuals with bulimia nervosa consistently reveal issues of social dependency, need for approval, and fear of rejection. These themes are conceptually related to sociotropy, a cognitive-personality factor that has been implicated in the development and maintenance of depression. Individuals high in sociotropy are keenly invested in attaining others' approval and avoiding social rejection. Methods The relationship between sociotropy and bulimic symptoms was examined in two samples of women: undergraduate women and community women seeking treatment at a private eating disorder facility. Results In both samples, sociotropy was significantly associated with bulimic symptoms beyond the shared relation with depressed mood. Discussion Findings are discussed in terms of the maintenance and treatment of bulimia nervosa. 2003 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 34: 172,176, 2003. [source]

Body image dissatisfaction and disordered eating in black and white women

Marisol Perez
Abstract Objective This study predicted and found that body image dissatisfaction and bulimic symptoms have a curvilinear relationship among undergraduate women. Results For the women in this sample, regardless of race, body image dissatisfaction correlated with bulimic symptoms, such that women who perceived themselves as bigger or smaller than the ideal body size for their ethnic group endorsed bulimic symptoms. Black and white women differed regarding their ethnic group's ideal body image and their self-perceptions of how they compared with the ideal image. Black women tended to report being underweight, whereas white women tended to report being overweight. Discussion The findings in this study suggest that some black women are not buffered against eating disorders as suggested in previous research. 2003 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 33: 342,350, 2003. [source]

Who Benefits From What?

Drive for Thinness as a Moderator of Responsiveness to Different Eating Disorder Prevention Messages
This research examined how women respond to different types of messages regarding eat ing disorders, and specifically whether women's degree of drive for thinness moderated their responsiveness to particular messages. In this study, 112 undergraduate women were randomly assigned to receive a condition focusing on either healthy eating or disordered eating. First, and as hypothesized, findings at an immediate posttest revealed that women found the healthy eating condition more enjoyable, personally relevant, and interesting, whereas they found the disordered eating condition more anxiety-provoking and fear-inducing. Second, and contrary to predictions, findings at the 3-month follow-up indicated that those who were high on drive for thinness were hurt by participation in the disordered eating condition, whereas those who were low on drive for thinness were helped by participation in this condition. Discussion focuses on the theoretical and applied implications of these findings. [source]

College Women's Plans for Different Types of Egalitarian Marriages

Francine M. Deutsch
This study examined college women's plans for egalitarian marriages. One hundred and forty-four heterosexual undergraduate women completed surveys about their preferences for different life scenarios and their attitudes about work and family life. The pattern of their preferences showed a distinction between home-centered, balanced, and job-centered egalitarian families. Regressions showed that gender ideology, ideas about parenting and motherhood, career orientation, and family dynamics were associated differentially with the three types of egalitarian families, which reflected the different values that underlay the pursuit of each. The results also cast doubt on whether outsourcing is truly an egalitarian path. Outsourcing domestic labor may simply be a means for women to pursue careers without achieving real equality in families. [source]

Sexual and gender-related harassment in medical education and research training: results from a Swedish survey

Charlotte Larsson
Objective, The aims of this study were to establish the level of perceived sexual and gender-related harassment in undergraduate and doctoral studies, in which environment the events occurred, which categories of persons had committed the harassment, and other aspects of sexual harassment at the Faculty of Medicine, Gothenburg University. Methods, A questionnaire was distributed to all registered male and female undergraduate students (n= 605) and doctoral students (n=743) by mail to their home addresses. Results, The response rate was 62% (840/1348). Of the total study population, 59% (495/840) of respondents reported at least one experience of derogatory jokes and comments, 54% (454/840) of respondents reported at least one experience of gender-related discrimination, and 22% (187/840) of respondents reported at least one incident of sexual harassment. More severe types of sexual harassment were reported by 9% (79/840) of respondents. Women, and especially undergraduate women, were more often exposed to all kinds of harassment than were men. Lecturers/professors, doctors and co-students were the categories most often identified as the harassers. The harassment mostly occurred during lectures, clinical work and coffee breaks. The most common types of self-perceived mistreatment were derogatory jokes and comments. Conclusion, This survey shows that sexual harassment happens to both men and women, although it is more commonly experienced by female undergraduate and doctoral students, and that it occurs in both the university and hospital environments. Universities should develop action plans to prevent such events. Students and teachers should be well informed about appropriate measures to take in situations where harassment is known or suspected to occur. [source]

Not Too "College-Like," Not Too Normal: American Muslim Undergraduate Women's Gendered Discourses

Shabana Mir
Building on an ethnographic study of American Muslim undergraduate women at two universities in Washington, D.C., I examine undergraduate Muslim women's construction of gendered discourses. Stereotypes feed into both majority and minority constructions of Muslim women's gendered identities. I highlight Muslim women's resistance to and adoption of such stereotypes as they construct various modalities of interaction with men on campus.,[higher education, gender, Muslim women, ethnography, sexuality] [source]