Undergraduate Students (undergraduate + student)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Undergraduate Students

  • dental undergraduate student
  • female undergraduate student

  • Terms modified by Undergraduate Students

  • undergraduate student nurse

  • Selected Abstracts

    Examining the Impact of Opportunity Bursaries on the Financial Circumstances and Attitudes of Undergraduate Students in England

    Anne West
    Notwithstanding the expansion of higher education across the OECD, there continues to be concern about the levels of participation amongst those from disadvantaged backgrounds. In response to this, a new form of financial support for students from low-income families, the ,opportunity bursary', was introduced for a limited period in England from 2001/02. Surveys of two cohorts of opportunity-bursary applicants were carried out and these suggested possible psychological, behavioural and economic impacts. Fewer opportunity-bursary recipients than non-recipients reported that part-time work had interfered with their studies and more reported that the bursary had made them less worried about meeting the costs of going to university. There was some evidence that the scheme led to increased retention in the first year of university study; it also appeared to lead to lower levels of debt, in particular bank overdrafts or credit card debt. [source]

    Deferring to resources: collaborations around traditional vs computer-based notes

    C. Crook
    Abstract Undergraduate students were observed engaged in a species of collaboration rarely studied and yet which is grounded in an authentic form of normal study practice: namely, revising a course in preparation for an exam. Pairs of undergraduates were convened for recorded sessions in which they did this around either their own personal lecture notes or around a set of notes authored by the lecturer and made available as web-readable computer documents. Although the goals, motives and orientations of these pairings were similar, the nature of the collaborative resource effected the character and rhythm of the joint conversation. The computer-based documents led to less on-task collaborative talk. Moreover, these documents sustained conversation that was more fragmented around successive short topics. Observations are made regarding how certain discursive openings are more readily afforded when revision talk is mediated by a less singular, authorised, and directive form of document. [source]

    Deterring illegal downloading: the effects of threat appeals, past behavior, subjective norms, and attributions of harm,

    Aron M. Levin
    The study employs two experiments to examine the effectiveness of various strategies used to dissuade consumers from downloading music illegally. The research investigates two specific strategies that the recording industry has used: (1) fear or threat appeals (e.g., the threat of punishment, such as fines and/or jail time), and (2) attribution of harm (informing consumers of the harm caused by the illegal downloading of music, such as financial loss to either the artist or the recording company). The study also considers whether past illegal downloading behavior reduces the effectiveness of these disincentive strategies. Finally, the impact of subjective norms (i.e., whether subjects think their friends would approve of downloading music) was also investigated. A 3 (level of threat: low, moderate, or high) X 2 (who is harmed by illegal downloading: artist or recording company) experimental design was employed for study one. Undergraduate students (n,=,388) participated in the study. Study two expanded on the design of the first study by adding a variable of subjective norms and by including previous downloading behavior in the model. Undergraduate students (n,=,211) also participated in the second experiment. Findings indicate a significant effect of threat appeal such that stronger threat appeals were found to be more effective than weaker threat appeals in reducing illegal downloading. The first study also showed that prior illegal downloading behavior does not curtail the effects of threat appeals aimed at reducing illegal downloading. In addition, results reveal no differences in downloading behavior in terms of attribution of harm deterrent strategy (harm to either the recording artist or company). The most interesting finding from the second study is that subjective norms appear to equalize low versus high past downloaders, but only under conditions of weak fear. The current manuscript is the first to examine the impact of four different variables (threat appeals, attribution of harm, subjective norms, and previous downloading behavior) on subjects' likelihood to illegally download music in the future. In particular, this research illuminates the potential importance of social norms in discouraging a type of undesirable consumer behavior but shows that this occurs only under a restricted set of conditions: when threat is low and the consumer is not a habitually high downloader. It should be of interest to those in fields where intellectual property can be pirated on the Internet. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Density of Familial Alcoholism and Its Effects on Alcohol Use and Problems in College Students

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 8 2008
    Christy Capone
    Background:, Previous studies of family history of alcoholism (FHA) in college students have typically relied on dichotomous indices of paternal drinking. This study examined the prevalence of FHA and its effects on alcohol use and problems using a density measure in a sample (n = 408) of college students. Methods:, Undergraduate students completed an anonymous survey in exchange for course credit. Data was collected between 2005 and 2006. Results:, Using a density measure of FHA, we observed an overall prevalence rate of 65.9% and a rate of 29.1% for FHA in both first and second-degree relatives. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to investigate relations among FHA, alcohol use/problems and previously identified etiological risk factors for alcohol use disorders (AUD). Results indicated a significant positive association between FHA and alcohol-related problems and this relationship was mediated by age of onset of drinking, behavioral undercontrol and current cigarette use. Behavioral undercontrol also mediated the relationship between gender and alcohol problems. Additionally, FHA was associated with an earlier age of onset of drinking and this was related to greater alcohol use. Conclusions:, Assessing density of FHA in future trajectory research may capture a greater number of students at risk for acute alcohol-related problems and/or future development of AUDs. Future preventive interventions with this population, which should begin well before the college years, may benefit from considering personality factors and incorporating smoking cessation to help identify at-risk students and assist those who wish to cut down on their alcohol use but find that smoking acts as a trigger for increased drinking. [source]

    Undergraduate students' understanding of falling bodies in idealized and real-world situations

    M. Veronica Cahyadi
    This study investigates the understanding of 18 first-year undergraduate students when simultaneously presented with two contrasting dynamical situations: the idealized (without air resistance) and real-world cases of balls being dropped or thrown. Previous work has shown that getting students to recognize flaws in their mental models helps them develop their understanding. Our students were better able to answer correctly the problems in idealized cases than the problems in real-world cases. For the real-world cases, the students understood the impact of air resistance on the object's size better than the impact of air resistance on objects of the same size but different mass. In follow-up interviews, the students reported that using the two different situations in the same test did indeed encourage them to think more carefully. By recognizing the need to include air resistance, they activated their appropriate mental "resources" to deal with the situations. We conclude that using contrasting situations (i.e., with and without an idealization) is a useful teaching tool. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 41: 569,583, 2004 [source]

    Improving the quality of clinical teaching in a restorative clinic using student feedback

    Callum Youngson
    Abstract Introduction:, A large proportion of the undergraduate curriculum is spent within Restorative Dentistry at the University of Liverpool. As well as supportive "phantom head" courses the undergraduates receive significant amounts of teaching within the clinics themselves. In 2004, to help inform the clinical tutors as to their areas of strengths and weaknesses, undergraduates were invited to complete an anonymous questionnaire on the quality of teaching they received from their clinical supervisors. This process has been repeated subsequently in 2005 and 2006. Method:, A 19 parameter questionnaire, employing a 5-point Likert scale and space for open comments, was circulated to every clinical undergraduate student. Questionnaires were returned anonymously and all data collected by one researcher. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed and the staff provided with individual feedback within the context of the overall departmental profile. The pooled data from each of the years was then compared to determine if any changes had occurred. Statistical analysis used Kruskal Wallis tests to determine whether these were statistically significant. Results:, Although the range varied, median scores of 4 (agree) were gained for each question each year. Following statistical analysis 18 of the parameters showed a statistically significant improvement (P < 0.05) between 2004 and 2006 with only one remaining constant throughout. Conclusion:, It would appear that the use of a questionnaire based feedback system can result in a tangible and demonstrable improvement in the delivery of clinical teaching. [source]


    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 1 2000
    The Changing Family in the New Millennium
    A year ago, our journal had the opportunity to publish the inaugural Meyer Elkin Address by Jonah, Peter, and Marian Wright Edelman. This past summer, the Association of Family and Conciliation Courts was honored to have George Thomson speak at its conference in Vancouver, British Columbia. Thomson was presented with this honor for his hard work and dedication to family law in Canada and throughout the world. The Family and Conciliation Courts Review is honored to publish this speech by Thomson. Described by his colleagues as a "miracle worker" and "superman", Thomson has led a fascinating career that has followed several different paths. As an undergraduate student, Thomson attained a B.A. in philosophy and English from Queen's University in Kingston, Ontario. He remained at Queen's University and received an LL.B., then completed his formal education with an LL.M. from the University of California. Thomson has had a diverse background in the legal field, serving as an educator, a judge, and a government official. From 1968 until 1971, he worked as both an associate professor and assistant dean at the University of Western Ontario in London, Ontario. After his brief stint with the university, he was appointed judge of the Provincial Court for the Province of Ontario. Thomson held this position for five years before becoming an associate deputy minister of Community and Social Services, where he served as the head of the Children's Services Division. In the 1980s, Thomson returned to the bench in the provincial court. Additionally, he was the director of education for the Law Society of Upper Canada. Most notably, however, Thomson chaired a provincial committee on social welfare reform. By 1989, Thomson had moved from the bench into governmental work. He briefly served as the deputy minister of citizenship for Ontario. He was then appointed the deputy minister of labor until 1992. From 1992 until 1994, Thomson served as Ontario's deputy attorney general. He then became the deputy minister of justice and deputy attorney general of Canada. Most recently, Thomson has been a special advisor to the minister of justice and attorney general of Canada. The following Meyer Elkin address was presented at the annual Convention of the Association of Family and Conciliation Courts in Vancouver, Canada, in June 1999. [source]

    Investigating Academic Success Factors for Undergraduate Business Students

    Mehdi Kaighobadi
    ABSTRACT Student academic performance is of major interest to all stakeholders of higher education institutions. This study questions whether or not statistical analysis of information that is readily available in most universities' official records system can be used to predict overall academic success. In particular, this study is an attempt to understand factors that affect academic success for business students by examining gender, age, ethnicity, and performance in two required core knowledge courses as predictors of academic success for a large sample of undergraduate students at a Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business,accredited business school. The results suggest that student performance is significantly related to some basic demographic variables, but the strongest predictors of overall academic success are the grades the students receive in core knowledge courses that are typically taken in the earlier semesters of business students' plans of study. [source]

    Structuring the Classroom for Performance: Cooperative Learning with Instructor-Assigned Teams*

    Gary D. Koppenhaver
    ABSTRACT The main concern is a longstanding one in classroom instruction,the determinants of effective team performance. The paper explicitly examines the effect of teacher-controlled factors on the use and functioning of student teams. From a sample of 500 undergraduate students, data are obtained on aptitude, diversity, instability, motivation, personality style, size, and performance. The regression results suggest that team motivation and instability, which are both partly controlled by the instructor, are particularly important in determining a team's performance. An implication is that instructor decisions about team make-up and incentives can have a significant impact on student achievement. [source]

    Negative appraisals and cognitive avoidance of intrusive memories in depression: a replication and extension

    Alishia D. Williams B.A. (Hons.)
    Abstract Recent research has demonstrated that intrusive negative autobiographical memories represent a shared phenomenological feature of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. A preliminary investigation (Starr and Moulds, 2006) successfully applied a cognitive appraisal model of PTSD to the maintenance of intrusive memories in depression. The current investigation sought to replicate and extend these findings. Two hundred and fifty first-year undergraduate students were interviewed to assess for the presence of a negative autobiographical memory that had spontaneously intruded in the past week. Participants completed self-report inventories assessing trait and situational employment of cognitive avoidance mechanisms in response to these memories. Consistent with Starr and Moulds, intrusion-related distress correlated with dysphoria, irrespective of intrusion frequency. Assigning negative appraisals to one's intrusive memory and attempts to control the memory were positively associated with intrusion-related distress, level of depression, and cognitive avoidance mechanisms. Additionally, negative appraisals and control influenced the employment rumination as an avoidant response to a greater degree than the corresponding trait tendency. Finally, negative appraisals and the use of cognitive mechanisms were predictive of depression concurrently. The results support the validity of borrowing from PTSD models to elucidate the cognitive mechanisms that maintain intrusive memories in depressed samples. Depression and Anxiety 0:1,8, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Portuguese version of Corah's Dental Anxiety Scale: transcultural adaptation and reliability analysis

    Li Wen Hu Ms.C.
    Abstract This study explores the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of Corah's Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS), an instrument designed to assess the manifestations of dental anxiety. The DAS has been translated into several languages, but no adaptation and reliability analysis of the Portuguese version of the scale has yet been carried out. A total of 747 Brazilian undergraduate students participated in this study. The instrument proved to have good internal consistency and test,retest reliability. Furthermore, we observed that women are more anxious during dental treatment routines compared to men. Our findings suggest that the Portuguese version of DAS is a reliable instrument for assessing adults' dental anxiety traits, and can be used for both clinical and research purposes. Depression Anxiety 24:467,471, 2007. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    A new US,UK diagnostic project: mood elevation and depression in first-year undergraduates at Oxford and Stanford universities

    R. A. Chandler
    Objective:, To investigate differences in prevalence of mood elevation, distress and depression among first-year undergraduates at Oxford and Stanford universities. Method:, An online survey was sent to Oxford and Stanford first-year undergraduate students for two consecutive years in the winter of 2005 and 2006. Students completed a survey that assessed mood symptoms and medication use. Results:, Both universities had similar rates of distress by General Health Questionnaire (Oxford , 42.4%; Stanford , 38.3%), depression by Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (Oxford , 6.2%; Stanford , 6.6%), and psychotropic and non-psychotropic medication usage (psychotropic: Oxford , 1.5%; Stanford 3.5%; non-psychotropic: Oxford , 13.3%; Stanford , 18%). Oxford had higher rates of mood elevation by Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) (Oxford , 4%; Stanford , 1.7%). Conclusion:, Oxford and Stanford students have similar rates of mood distress, depression and general medication usage. Students at Oxford have a higher prevalence of MDQ scores that possibly indicate a bipolar disorder, while Stanford students are prescribed more psychotropics. [source]

    Core beliefs and eating disorder recovery

    C. Jones
    Abstract Objective The study aimed to investigate cognitive factors in eating disorder recovery by examining the content and intensity of negative core beliefs in women who were currently suffering from an eating disorder and women who had recovered. Method Sixty-six women with a current eating disorder, 29 women who reported that they had recovered from an eating disorder and fifty female undergraduate students completed self-report questionnaires on core beliefs and eating psychopathology. Results Currently eating-disordered women had significantly higher levels of intensely held negative core beliefs than recovered or control women. In women with a current eating disorder, abandonment and vulnerability to harm beliefs differentiated between women who reported bulimic and restrictive attitudes and behaviours. Discussion The findings provide preliminary evidence that core beliefs are important factors in eating disorder recovery. Implications for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

    Attitude and tendency of cheating behaviours amongst undergraduate students in a Dental Institution of India

    M. Monica
    Abstract Honesty and integrity are key characteristics expected of a doctor, although academic misconduct amongst medical students is not new. Academic integrity provides the foundation upon, which a flourishing academic life rests. The aim of this study was to investigate the attitude of undergraduate dental students about the seriousness of cheating behaviours and to determine the rate of malpractice amongst these students. A self designed closed ended questionnaire was distributed to 300 undergraduate students in a Dental Institution in India, to rate the seriousness of six cheating behaviours and to assess the rate of malpractice. The response rate was 100%. Two of the six cheating behaviours were considered by at least 61% of the students as very serious cheating behaviours. Almost 70% of the students agreed that they have involved in malpractice in examinations at least once. The majority also felt that cheating in examinations will not have any significant effect on their future. This study has revealed that cheating is an important issue, which needs to be addressed for the benefit of the society at large. [source]

    Student perspectives and opinions on their experience at an undergraduate outreach dental teaching centre at Cardiff: a 5-year study

    C. D. Lynch
    Abstract Aim:, Outreach teaching is now regarded as a desirable component of undergraduate dental teaching programmes in the UK. A purpose-built undergraduate dental outreach-training centre was opened in Cardiff in 2002. The aim of this paper is to report student perspectives and opinions on their experience at this unit over a 5-year period. Methods:, Final year dental students at Cardiff University were invited to report their comments on the St David's Primary Care Unit at various times during their placement there. Information was recorded for undergraduate students who commenced final year in 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2007 (n = 257). Results:, After 1 year, the most common favourable aspects reported by students included the availability of a suitably trained nurse for all procedures (n = 191), ready access to helpful/approachable teaching staff (n = 145), and closeness of learning experience to subsequent practice (n = 122). Many students commented on their growing confidence in their own abilities whilst in the unit. Conclusion:, Overwhelmingly, students reported their enthusiasm for training in an outreach teaching unit, preferring it to traditional dental school environments. Inherent in the comments recorded for each student was a sense of growing confidence in their abilities and development of reflective practice. Further work is needed to identify the impact of this form of dental student training on subsequent practices in Vocational Training and independent clinical careers. [source]

    The development of a primary dental care outreach course

    P. Waterhouse
    Abstract The aim of this work was to develop the first north-east based primary dental care outreach (PDCO) course for clinical dental undergraduate students at Newcastle University. The process of course design will be described and involved review of the existing Bachelor of Dental Surgery (BDS) degree course in relation to previously published learning outcomes. Areas were identified where the existing BDS course did not meet fully these outcomes. This was followed by setting the PDCO course aims and objectives, intended learning outcomes, curriculum and structure. The educational strategy and methods of teaching and learning were subsequently developed together with a strategy for overall quality control of the teaching and learning experience. The newly developed curriculum was aligned with appropriate student assessment methods, including summative, formative and ipsative elements. [source]

    The effect of a community dental service outreach programme on the confidence of undergraduate students to treat children: a pilot study

    M. Lindsay Hunter
    Objective:, To examine the effect of a community dental service (CDS) outreach teaching programme on undergraduates' confidence to undertake a range of paediatric dental procedures. Method:, Eighteen final year dental students completed a questionnaire prior to, and following participation in an outreach teaching programme. At each time point, the students were asked to identify how confident they felt to carry out a range of procedures commonly encountered in the treatment of children, employing a Likert scale modified to comprise six points where a rating of 1 represented ,not at all confident' and a rating of 6 ,very confident'. Results:, The distribution of scores at each time point indicated that students were more confident to carry out each of the listed procedures following participation in the outreach teaching programme than they had been on completion of their paediatric dentistry sessions within the School of Dentistry. At the individual student level, 16 of the 18 students indicated that they were, overall, more confident following their placement than previously. Conclusions:, It can be concluded that the long-established CDS outreach teaching programme run by the School of Dentistry, Wales College of Medicine in conjunction with the staff of Cardiff and Vale NHS Trust is a valuable adjunct to undergraduate teaching in paediatric dentistry. [source]

    Quality of root canal fillings performed by undergraduate dental students on single-rooted teeth,

    C. D. Lynch
    Introduction:, Root canal therapy is an accepted and successful form of tooth conservation. Educational guidelines require dental schools to ensure that their graduates are competent on graduation at performing root canal therapy. The aim of this investigation was to assess the technical quality of root canal fillings placed by undergraduate students in single-rooted teeth. Materials and methods:, A total of 100 radiographs of root canal fillings placed by undergraduate students in single-rooted teeth were examined under even illumination in a darkened room using ×2 magnification. These were graded as ,adequate', where the root canal filling was within 2 mm of the radiographic apex, ,under-filled', where the root canal filling was >2 mm from the radiographic apex, and ,over-filled', where the root canal filling was extruded beyond the radiographic apex. The presence of voids, fractured instruments, and root perforations were also noted. Results:, All teeth were obturated with gutta-percha and sealer (Roth Cement), using a cold lateral condensation technique. Of 100 teeth, 10% (n = 10) had voids. Of the remainder, 70% (n = 63) were judged to be ,acceptable', 21% (n = 19) were ,under-filled', and 9% (n = 8) were ,over-filled'. There was no evidence of fractured instruments or root perforations in any root filling examined. Conclusions:, The quality of root canal fillings placed in single-rooted teeth by undergraduate dental students at the University Dental School and Hospital, Cork was acceptable (63% of root fillings placed in single rooted teeth were graded as ,adequate'). The probable reasons for this are multi-factorial, but may be linked to the amount of pre-clinical and clinical teaching in endodontics at the University Dental School and Hospital, Cork. It should be remembered that factors other than radiographic quality/evidence must be considered when determining the outcome of root canal therapy. [source]

    Learner-control vs. program-control instructional multimedia: a comparison of two interactions when teaching principles of orthodontic appliances

    M. Aly
    Abstract Background:, Many studies have compared computer assisted learning (CAL) to more traditional learning formats and have shown CAL to be as effective as or superior to the alternative resources. However, there are only scarce attempts to show which style of CAL leads to the best learning outcomes in orthodontics. Aim:, To compare the effectiveness of a learner-control (group A) vs. program-control (group B) multimedia learning environment courseware packages regarding knowledge, understanding and transfer of content when applied to teaching principles of orthodontic appliances to undergraduate students. Methods:, Pre- and post-test assessments of undergraduate dental students (n = 30) who either studied a learner-control multimedia learning environment courseware package (n = 15) or a program-control version (n = 15) on equivalent material of the orthodontic appliances curriculum. Both groups were evaluated by means of multiple-choice questions covering knowledge, understanding and application. A one-way ANOVA was carried out in order to check for statistical difference between the two groups. The P -value was set at 0.05. Results:, There was no difference in prior knowledge between both groups at baseline. Although, both groups significantly improved their scores after having studied the course, no significant difference was found between both groups in relation to answers to questions about knowledge, understanding and application. Conclusions:, In this study, the learner-control instructional multimedia program was found to be as effective as the program-control version when teaching principles of the orthodontic appliances to undergraduate students. The focus needs to be on improving the value of CAL. Comparative evaluations of how different CAL approaches compare with or complement one another are certainly needed. [source]

    Self-reported changes in clinical behaviour by undergraduate dental students after video-based teaching in paediatric dentistry

    M. Kalwitzki
    Abstract, Four cohorts of undergraduate students (n = 113) were filmed on video tapes whilst performing paediatric treatments. Selected parts of these tapes were shown the day after. Thus, within one term each student was able to view his performance on a videotape as well as those of fellow students. After completion of the clinical course in paediatric dentistry students were asked by means of a questionnaire about behavioural changes in their clinical work regarding different topics. Considerable changes in behaviour were reported for various topics. Most of the students emphasised the viable role of the video for changing their behaviour. This was especially true for aspects of verbal and non-verbal communication where mainly female students benefited. Moreover, video was thought to have been useful for improving capacities to deal with patients in fear or pain and for ergonomics. About two-thirds of the students (64.6%) thought that watching the video had made it easier for them to put theoretical knowledge into action. Video does not seem to play an important role for confirmation and maintenance of behaviour patterns. In conclusion however, it can be stated that video has a high impact on the modification of behaviour patterns of undergraduate students for many aspects of clinical work. The use of video can thus attribute to dental education in an effective way. [source]

    Dental undergraduate expectations and opinions of Web-based courseware to supplement traditional teaching methods

    R. Eynon
    The rapid growth of Internet for the delivery of information has enabled teaching materials to be placed on websites allowing student access to course material. It is the aim of this paper to evaluate a cohort of dental undergraduate students who have used Web-based courseware in prosthetic dentistry for a semester. A questionnaire was distributed to clinical undergraduate students prior to the use of the prosthetics course to determine their experience of using the World Wide Web (WWW) and their expectations of an online course. A second questionnaire was distributed at the end of 6 months which asked about their usage and opinions of the prosthetics Web-based courseware. The main concerns raised at the beginning of the course were related to computer access, the ability to use computers, the time involved and their conception that the e-course would be an additional burden. The main potential benefits were perceived to be convenience, availability of information and the ability to reinforce or catch up on aspects of the module they did not understand or had missed. Feedback at the end of the year showed that most students had accessed the Web-based courseware site at least once a month and, generally, their comments were favourable, dispelling some of the initial perceived fears. They felt that the website was a quick and convenient way to access information and was a good additional resource. Access to the site and printing information were the main problems raised by the students who had to use a shared cluster. In conclusion, Web-based courseware was felt to be a useful additional resource for students. However, this research showed that sufficient computers and printers must be available for such a resource to become an integrated part of the dental course. [source]

    Teaching oral surgery to undergraduate students: a pilot study using a Web-based practical course

    Luciana Corrêa
    The Internet has been used in oral surgery teaching mainly to deliver learning material across the World Wide Web and to make use of online interactivity resources in everyday surgical practice, such as by e-mails, discussion groups, and chats. The aim of this paper is to describe and evaluate a Web-based practical course on oral surgery principles, which was applied to undergraduate students. This course was investigated as a distance learning simulation in which the student would be performing surgical activities at home, and the teacher and the school environment would be absent. A Web site was created containing the course material. For this study, the students participated in the Web-based course in a multimedia lab equipped with computers and Internet, internal sound system and TV circuits. In the event of significant mistakes by students, the TV circuit could be used to show the correct procedure for all the participants at the same time. Microcameras were used to monitor the student's actions during the Internet use. Students' impressions were determined by a questionnaire. Computer manipulation with ease and antiergonomic postures were observed. We concluded that distance learning courses with practical modules must be considered as a special type of educational modality, with reference to the relationship between the student and the computer. [source]

    Information and communication technology among undergraduate dental students in Finland

    Jorma I. Virtanen
    Use of information and communication technology (ICT) is rapidly increasing in medical and dental education. The aim of the present study was to determine the knowledge, skills and opinions of dental undergraduate students regarding ICT and to analyze possible shifts in the acquisition of these resources. For these purposes a survey of all undergraduate dental students at the University of Oulu, Finland, was conducted during the spring term 2000. All the students in the 5 years of study (n = 140) were asked to answer a questionnaire presented during a lecture or demonstration. An overall response rate of 95% was achieved. The frequencies and percentage distributions of the items were analyzed separately for each year (1,5). All the students in the faculty are provided with personal e-mail addresses at the beginning of their studies and special emphasis has been laid on the utilization of their ICT knowledge and skills. An overwhelming majority of the students, more than 95%, judged themselves to have good or satisfactory skills in word processing, but only a slight majority considered that they could manage some advanced operating system functions. Use of ICT services was high, as about 60% of the students used e-mail and one-third WWW services daily. Literature retrieval was widely employed, so that almost 80% of the students had used literature databases (including Ovid Medline and collections of electronic full-text articles), which were introduced and provided by the Medical Library when the students were in their second year. More than 50% had received educational material in electronic form often or sometimes, and almost 80% had communicated by e-mail with a faculty teacher. A clear trend (P < 0.05) was found for the younger students to use ICT services in general and for educational purposes more often than the older ones. In conclusion, e-mail and WWW have been widely adopted for both private and educational purposes by dental students in Finland and are employed together with WWW-based medical and dental publication databases. The younger students have more interest in ICT and better skills, which presents a challenge for dental education in the future. [source]

    Multidisciplinary case-based learning for undergraduate students

    M. Thérèse Garvey
    This report describes the introduction of case-based learning into the final-year dental programme at the Dublin Dental School. Students attended a series of one-hour sessions in groups of 8. Each group appointed a chairman for each session and a tutor facilitated the discussion. Case details were provided during the session with relevant diagnostic records. At weekly discussion sessions, the group findings and treatment options were considered. The diagnosis and treatment plans were then discussed by clinicians involved in the treatment of the case. Following the last session, the case-based learning programme was evaluated by means of a questionnaire distributed to both tutors and students. Both students and tutors rated the sessions positively. Case-based learning was found to be a worthwhile progression from problem-based learning. [source]

    From Scientific Apprentice to Multi-skilled Knowledge Worker: changes in Ph.D education in the Nordic-Baltic Area

    There is no doubt that what is generally referred to as ,Ph.D education' has undergone dramatic changes in Europe in recent years. Whereas the Bologna Process, launched in 1999, originally had in mind to make it easier for undergraduate students to gain international experience and enhance their employability by facilitating mobility and transparency of higher education in Europe, the idea of a ,third cycle' of doctoral studies came relatively late in the discussion (2003). For some academic cultures, the idea of educating doctoral students was and still is perceived as a threat against academic freedom, originality and credibility. Other academic cultures have already long adopted Ph.D training schemes as an integrated part of training future scientists and knowledge workers. This article presents the result of a recent survey on Ph.D training in the Nordic-Baltic Area (Andreas Önnerfors: ,Ph.D-training/PGT in the Nordic-Baltic Area', Exploring the North: papers in Scandinavian Culture and Society 2006:1, Lund 2006) initiated by the Nordic research organisation NordForsk, which discusses new concepts of doctoral education and training in the five Nordic and the three Baltic countries as well as in Russia, Poland and three northern states of the Federal Republic of Germany. Whereas there is great correspondence in the performance of doctoral training and education in the Nordic countries and changes have been introduced permanently for about 30 years, Poland, Germany and Russia are battling with their academic traditions and the challenge of adapting their academic cultures to joint European standards. This concerns especially the phenomenon of two postgraduate degrees (the Ph.D and a further degree) and the view upon training elements in doctoral studies. After their independence, the three Baltic countries rapidly adapted their systems of higher education to the Nordic model. [source]

    Loving styles: relationships with personality and attachment styles

    Patrick C. L. Heaven
    We investigated the ability of the major personality dimensions, some of their underlying facet scales, and attachment styles to predict primary and secondary loving styles, as conceptualized by Lee. Personality was assessed using the International Personality Item Pool, and attachment styles through an inventory devised by Collins and Read. Respondents were 302 undergraduate students (212 females; 90 males) who participated in the study in exchange for course credit. Results of regression path analysis showed that N was the only personality dimension without direct predictive links to loving styles. Instead, the influence of N was through an anxious attachment style. There were no personality predictors of Agape, and similarities were also observed between these results and those obtained in Hong Kong. The results are discussed with reference to previous studies and some suggestions for further research are also noted. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Linking motivation to personality: causality orientations, motives and self-descriptions

    Antonella Deponte
    This study examines how motives and personality traits differ in people with distinct causality orientations, which refer to the predominant way a person interprets the events that initiate his/her own behaviour. First, a validation of the General Causality Orientation Scale for the Italian language was conducted on 702 undergraduate students. Then, in order to test the hypothesis that causality orientations correspond to different motive patterns and self-descriptions, relations between the GCOS and other constructs were analysed through correlational analysis applied to smaller sub-samples. The conclusion is that the autonomy orientation represents an active and creative way of interacting with the social environment. Conversely, the control and impersonal orientations indicate a lower degree of adjustment and psychological well-being. Conclusions are drawn about the causality orientation theory as a link between personality and motivation. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Personality, cognition, and university students' examination performance

    Pru Phillips
    A prospective study explored the relationship between personality traits (as defined by the five factor model), type of motivation (as defined by self-determination theory), and goal-specific cognitions (including those specified by the theory of planned behaviour) as antecedents of degree performance amongst undergraduate students. A sample of 125 students completed a questionnaire two to three months before their final examinations. Structural equation modelling was used to explore relationships. Intention and perceived behavioural control explained 32% of the variance in final degree marks, with intention being the strongest predictor. Controlling for theory of planned behaviour variables, anticipated regret, good-student identity, controlled extrinsic motivation, Conscientiousness, and Openness had direct significant effects on intention. In total, 65% of the variance in intention was explained. The resultant model illustrates how personality traits may affect examination performance by means of mediators such as intention, anticipated regret, student identity, and autonomous intrinsic motivation. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Self-confirmation strivings in depression: An extension to the affective domain using an experimental design

    Uzma S. Rehman
    The purpose of the present study was to compare the emotional reactions of depressed and nondepressed individuals to experiences of romantic rejection versus acceptance. We tested our hypotheses in a sample of 28 depressed and 43 nondepressed undergraduate students. In support of self-consistency theories, the results showed that depressed individuals reported significantly greater negative mood in the romantic acceptance versus rejection condition, while there was no significant difference across the two conditions in the self-reported mood of nondepressed individuals. Further, symptoms of anxiety mediated the interactive effects of depression status and rejection status on mood. Our findings demonstrate how the responses of depressed individuals to interpersonal feedback contribute to their affective disturbance. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Advanced Undergraduate French Composition: Problems and Solutions

    Daniel J. Calvez
    ABSTRACT, This article presents the results of a study undertaken to determine the number and nature of the problems encountered by advanced undergraduate students in a French composition course. It was hoped that, after identifying the problems, explanations could be found for the frequency and repetition of students' errors. The primary objective was to use the study findings to modify the approach or content of the course. A secondary and broader objective was to further the development of the methodology used at the beginning and intermediate levels of the study of French. This report explains why the study was undertaken, how it was conducted, what the quantitative results were, and what conclusions were reached. [source]