Unclassified Variants (unclassified + variants)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The counsellees' view of an unclassified variant in BRCA1/2: recall, interpretation, and impact on life

JoŽl Vos
Abstract Objective: Unclassified variants (UVs, variants of uncertain clinical significance) are found in 13% of all BRCA1/2 mutation analyses. Little is known about the counsellees' recall and interpretation of a UV, and its psychosocial/medical impact. Method: Retrospective semi-structured interviews with open questions and five-point Likert scales were carried out in 24 counsellees who received a UV result 3 years before (sd=1.9). Results: Sixty-seven percent (16/24) recalled the UV result as a non-informative DNA result; 29% recalled a pathogenic result. However, 79% of all counsellees interpreted the UV result as a genetic predisposition for cancer. Variations in recall and interpretation were unexplained by demographics, cancer history of themselves and relatives, and communication aspects of UV disclosure. Sixty-seven percent perceived genetic counselling as completed, whereas 71% expected to receive new DNA information. Although most counsellees reported that UV disclosure had changed their lives in general little, one in three counsellees reported large changes in specific life domains, especially in surveillance behavior and medical decisions. Ten out of 19 participants who interpreted the UV as pathogenic had undergone preventive surgery against none of the 5 counsellees who interpreted the UV as non-informative. Conclusion: Counsellors and researchers need to address discrepancies between the counsellees' factual recall and their subjective interpretation of non-informative BRCA1/2-test results. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Intronic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 that affect RNA splicing can be reliably selected by splice-site prediction programs,

HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 1 2009
Maaike P.G. Vreeswijk
Abstract A large number of sequence variants identified in BRCA1 and BRCA2 cannot be distinguished as either disease-causing mutations or neutral variants. These so-called unclassified variants (UVs) include variants that are located in the intronic sequences of BRCA1 and BRCA2. The purpose of this study was to assess the use of splice-site prediction programs (SSPPs) to select intronic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 that are likely to affect RNA splicing. We performed in vitro molecular characterization of RNA of six intronic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2. In four cases (BRCA1, c.81,6T>A and c.4986+5G>T; BRCA2, c.7617+2T>G and c.8754+5G>A) a deleterious effect on RNA splicing was seen, whereas the c.135-15_-12del variant in BRCA1 showed no effect on RNA splicing. In the case of the BRCA2 c.68,7T>A variant, RNA analysis was not sufficient to establish the clinical significance. Six SSPPs were used to predict whether an effect on RNA splicing was expected for these six variants as well as for 23 intronic variants in BRCA1 for which the effect on RNA splicing has been published. Out of a total of 174 predictions, 161 (93%) were informative (i.e., the wild-type splice-site was recognized). No false-negative predictions were observed; an effect on RNA splicing was always predicted by these programs. In four cases (2.5%) a false-positive prediction was observed. For DNA diagnostic laboratories, these programs are therefore very useful to select intronic variants that are likely to affect RNA splicing for further analysis. Hum Mutat 0,1,8, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Functional analysis helps to clarify the clinical importance of unclassified variants in DNA mismatch repair genes,

HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 11 2007
Jianghua Ou
Abstract Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) or Lynch syndrome is caused by DNA variations in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes MSH2, MLH1, MSH6, and PMS2. Many of the mutations identified result in premature termination of translation and thus in loss-of-function of the encoded mutated protein. These DNA variations are thought to be pathogenic mutations. However, some patients carry other DNA mutations, referred to as unclassified variants (UVs), which do not lead to such a premature termination of translation; it is not known whether these contribute to the disease phenotype or merely represent rare polymorphisms. This is a major problem which has direct clinical consequences. Several criteria can be used to classify these UVs, such as: whether they segregate with the disease within pedigrees, are absent in control individuals, show a change of amino acid polarity or size, provoke an amino acid change in a domain that is evolutionary conserved and/or shared between proteins belonging to the same protein family, or show altered function in an in vitro assay. In this review we discuss the various functional assays reported for the HNPCC-associated MMR proteins and the outcomes of these tests on UVs identified in patients diagnosed with or suspected of having HNPCC. We conclude that a large proportion of MMR UVs are likely to be pathogenic, suggesting that missense variants of MMR proteins do indeed play a role in HNPCC. Hum Mutat 28(11), 1047,1054, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Population-based detection of Lynch syndrome in young colorectal cancer patients using microsatellite instability as the initial test

Lyn Schofield
Abstract Approximately 1,2% of colorectal cancers (CRC) arise because of germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes, referred to as Lynch syndrome. These tumours show microsatellite instability (MSI) and loss of expression of mismatch repair proteins. Pre-symptomatic identification of mutation carriers has been demonstrated to improve survival; however, there is concern that many are not being identified using current practices. We evaluated population-based MSI screening of CRC in young patients as a means of ascertaining mutation carriers. CRC diagnosed in patients aged <60 years were identified from pathology records. No prior information was available on family history of cancer. PCR techniques were used to determine MSI in the BAT-26 mononucleotide repeat and mutation in the BRAF oncogene. Loss of MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 protein expression was evaluated in MSI+ tumours by immunohistochemistry. MSI+ tumours were found in 105/1,344 (7.8%) patients, of which 7 were excluded as possible Lynch syndrome because of BRAF mutation. Of the 98 "red flag" cases that were followed up, 25 were already known as mutation carriers or members of mutation carrier families. Germline test results were obtained for 35 patients and revealed that 22 showed no apparent mutation, 11 showed likely pathogenic mutations and 2 had unclassified variants. The proportion of MSI+ cases in different age groups that were estimated to be mutation carriers was 89% (<30 years), 83% (30,39), 68% (40,49) and 17% (50,59). We recommend MSI as the initial test for population-based screening of Lynch syndrome in younger CRC patients, regardless of family history. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

ATM germline mutations in Spanish early-onset breast cancer patients negative for BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations

J Brunet
Heterozygous carriers of ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated gene) mutations have increased risk of breast cancer (BC). We have estimated the prevalence of mutations in the ATM gene among Spanish patients with early-onset BC. Forty-three patients diagnosed with BC before the age of 46 years, and negative for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations, were analysed for the presence of ATM mutations. A total of 34 ATM sequence variants were detected: 1 deleterious mutation, 10 unclassified variants and 23 polymorphisms. One patient (2.3%) carried the ATM deleterious mutation (3802delG that causes ataxia telangiectasia in the homozygous state) and 13 patients carried the 10 ATM unclassified variants. The truncating mutation 3802delG and eight of the rare variants were not detected in a control group of 150 individuals. Different bioinformatic sequence analysis tools were used to evaluate the effects of the unclassified ATM changes on RNA splicing and function protein. This in silico analysis predicted that the missense variants 7653 T>C and 8156 G>A could alter the splicing by disrupting an exonic splicing enhancer motif and the 3763 T>G, 6314 G>C, and 8156 G>A variants would affect the ATM protein function. These are the initial results concerning the prevalence of germline mutations in the ATM gene among BC cases in a Spanish population, and they suggest that ATM mutations can confer increased susceptibility to early-onset BC. [source]