Untreated Control Group (untreated + control_group)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

The Effect of Administering Erythropoiesis-Stimulating Proteins in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure: Results From a Retrospective Study

Reynolds M. Delgado MD
Anemia is prevalent in patients with chronic heart failure and is associated with worse symptoms and poor prognosis. The authors reviewed the charts of all patients (N=467) treated at Texas Heart Institute from January 2000 to October 2003, during which time a clinical protocol offered treatment with erythropoiesis-stimulating proteins. Post-treatment, the authors observed a significant increase in mean ± SD hemoglobin, from 9.9±1.1 g/dL to 11.7±1.5 g/dL (P<.0001), improvement of renal function (a decrease in mean levels of creatinine and blood urea nitrogen), and fewer hospital admissions (1.0±1.4 vs 1.8±1.6; P=.0003) without an increase in adverse clinical events, compared with pretreatment and compared with an untreated control group. These results suggest a potential benefit of anemia treatment with recombinant erythropoiesis-stimulating proteins in patients with chronic heart failure. [source]

Efficacy of Humalog® injections before an afternoon meal and their acceptance by children and adolescents with Type 1 diabetes

D. Martin
Abstract Aims To evaluate the acceptability and efficacy of an injection of insulin lispro, before an afternoon meal. Methods The subjects, 43 patients with Type 1 diabetes, 16 boys and 27 girls, aged 12.4 ± 2.4 years, were randomly assigned to the treatment (n = 20) or the untreated control group (n = 23). The treatment was an injection of insulin lispro immediately before the afternoon meal. The control group had no injection. The treatment and the control group consumed identical types of meals for 2 months. The mean before-dinner blood glucose was measured during the last 2 weeks of the study. Results Injection of insulin lispro resulted in a significant reduction in the before-dinner blood glucose compared with the untreated control group (10.4 ± 3.8 mmol/l vs. 14.7 ± 3.9 mmol/l, respectively). The number of days on which the blood glucose was > 10 mmol/l was reduced by half in the insulin lispro group. The difference in HbA1c between baseline and endpoint differed slightly but significantly between the two groups, in boys. Treated patients ate the meal less frequently (11.4 ± 3.0 times per 15 days) than the control patients (14.4 ± 0.6 times per 15 days) and injected themselves with insulin 8.9 ± 3.6 times per 15 days. The HbA1c increased significantly with the number of meals taken without injection. There was no statistically significant difference in the frequency of hypoglycaemia or changes in weight between the two groups. Conclusions We conclude that an injection of insulin lispro before the afternoon meal can effectively lower the before-dinner blood glucose, and in boys also lowers the HbA1c. Patients were satisfied with the lower blood glucose before dinner, and did not find the insulin lispro injection difficult. However, compliance with the protocol procedures decreased during a subsequent 6-month period. Diabet. Med. 19, 1026,1031 (2002) [source]

A Multifaceted Intervention to Implement Guidelines Improved Treatment of Nursing Home,Acquired Pneumonia in a State Veterans Home

Evelyn Hutt MD
OBJECTIVES: To assess the feasibility of a multifaceted strategy to translate evidence-based guidelines for treating nursing home,acquired pneumonia (NHAP) into practice using a small intervention trial. DESIGN: Pre-posttest with untreated control group. SETTING: Two Colorado State Veterans Homes (SVHs) during two influenza seasons. PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-six residents with two or more signs of lower respiratory tract infection. INTERVENTION: Multifaceted, including a formative phase to modify the intervention, institutional-level change emphasizing immunization, and availability of appropriate antibiotics; interactive educational sessions for nurses; and academic detailing. MEASUREMENTS: Subjects' SVH medical records were reviewed for guideline compliance retrospectively for the influenza season before the intervention and prospectively during the intervention. Bivariate comparisons-of-care processes between the intervention and control facility before and after the intervention were made using the Fischer exact test. RESULTS: At the intervention facility, compliance with five of the guidelines improved: influenza vaccination, timely physician response to illness onset, x-ray for patients not being hospitalized, use of appropriate antibiotics, and timely antibiotic initiation for unstable patients. Chest x-ray and appropriate and timely antibiotics were significantly better at the intervention than at the control facility during the intervention year but not during the control year. CONCLUSION: Multifaceted, evidence-based, NHAP guideline implementation improved care processes in a SVH. Guideline implementation should be studied in a national sample of nursing homes to determine whether it improves quality of life and functional outcomes of this debilitating illness for long-term care residents. [source]

Inducible expression of a MAP kinase phosphatase-3-GFP chimera specifically blunts fibroblast growth and ras-dependent tumor formation in nude mice,

S. Marchetti
The p42/p44 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway participates in a wide range of cellular programs including proliferation, migration, differentiation, and survival. Specific pharmacological inhibitors, like PD98059 and U0126, are often used to inhibit p42/p44 MAPK signaling. However, these inhibitors are not appropriate to study the function of these kinases in whole organisms. We thus developed an inducible system designed to inhibit p42/p44 MAPK activity through the expression of a phosphatase specific for these two kinases, the MAPK phosphatase 3 (MKP-3). A fibroblast cell line was established in which MKP-3 expression is controlled by tetracycline. Tetracycline-induced MKP-3 resulted in partial de-phosphorylation of p42/p44 MAPKs in serum-stimulated cells. However, we could improve MKP-3 stability and thereby the rate of MAPK de-phosphorylation, when the C-terminal end of MKP-3 was fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP). Importantly, the fusion of GFP to MKP-3 did not alter the specificity of the phosphatase towards its MAPK substrates. We further show that conditional expression of MKP-3-GFP in this fibroblast cell line results in the inhibition of: (a) the phosphorylation of the p42/p44 MAPK substrates Elk1 and HIF-1,, (b) vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), cyclin D1, and c-fos gene transcription in response to MAPK pathway activation, and (c) cell proliferation. Finally, the MKP-3-GFP inducible cell line was transformed by Ha-ras and injected into nude mice. Treatment of mice with the tetracycline analog doxycycline resulted in a large delay in tumor emergence and growth as compared to the untreated control group, indicating that MKP-3-GFP activity is maintained in vivo. Altogether, these results show that inducible expression of MKP-3-GFP constitutes a valuable tool to study the role of p42/p44 MAPKs in various cellular responses in both cultured cell and animal models, a tool that may also be used to block unwanted cell growth in pathological conditions. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Assessment of anger coping skills in individuals with intellectual disabilities

P. Willner
Abstract Recent controlled studies have supported the effectiveness of anger management training for people with intellectual disabilities (IDs). This report describes an evaluation instrument designed to assess their usage of specific anger coping skills. The Profile of Anger Coping Skills (PACS) is designed for completion by a staff member or carer. Three situations are first elicited in which a client frequently displays anger. The respondent then rates each situation for the extent to which the client deploys each of eight behavioural and cognitive coping skills. In a preliminary reliability study, 20 users of a day service for people with IDs were rated independently by two staff members, with one of them completing the assessment on two separate occasions: the PACS showed good test,retest reliability and lower, but still acceptable, interrater reliability. The PACS was subsequently used, in a different day service, as part of the assessment pack administered before and after a 12-week anger management group, with a parallel assessment of an untreated control group. The treated group showed substantial decreases in measures of anger, which were maintained at 6-month follow-up. Increases in PACS-rated anger coping skills were also seen in all participants in the anger management group, but not in the control group. There were differences in the extent to which different coping skills were acquired by the treated group, and there were also individual differences in the profile of specific skills acquired. It is concluded that the PACS is a reliable instrument for assessing anger coping skills, particularly when used repeatedly with the same informant. It provides information that is useful for both individual care planning and the design of future anger management programmes. [source]

Failure of xenoimplantation using porcine synovium-derived stem cell-based cartilage tissue constructs for the repair of rabbit osteochondral defects

Ming Pei
Abstract The use of xenogeneic tissues offers many advantages with respect to availability, quality control, and timing of tissue harvest. Our previous study indicated that implantation of premature tissue constructs from allogeneic synovium-derived stem cells (SDSCs) facilitated cartilage tissue regeneration. The present study investigated the feasibility of xenoimplantation of SDSC-based premature tissue constructs for the repair of osteochondral defects. Porcine SDSCs were mixed with fibrin gel, seeded in polyglycolic acid (PGA) scaffolds, and cultured in a rotating bioreactor system supplemented for 1 month with growth factor cocktails. The engineered porcine premature tissues were implanted to repair surgically induced osteochondral defects in the medial femoral condyles of 12 rabbits. Three weeks after surgery, the xenoimplantation group exhibited a smooth, whitish surface while the untreated control remained empty. Surprisingly, 6 months after surgery, the xenoimplantation group displayed some tissue loss while the untreated control group was overgrown with fibrocartilage tissue. In the xenoimplantation group, chronic inflammation was observed in synovial tissue where porcine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigen positively stained in the engulfed foreign bodies. In addition, porcine source cells also migrated from the implantation site and may have been responsible for the observed loss of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) underneath surrounding articular cartilage. The histological score was much worse in the xenoimplanted group than in the untreated control. Our study suggested that SDSC-based xenogeneic tissue constructs might cause delayed immune rejection. Xenotransplantation may not be an appropriate approach to repair osteochondral defects. © 2010 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 28:1064,1070, 2010 [source]

An adenosine A2A receptor agonist reduces interleukin-8 expression and glycosaminoglycan loss following septic arthrosis,

Steven B. Cohen
Abstract The purpose of this study was to determine whether an adenosine A2A receptor agonist (ATL146e) might augment the current treatment regimen of antibiotics plus irrigation and debridement to prevent the arthritic effects associated with joint sepsis. Staphylococcus aureus bacteria were injected into knees of rabbits, which were divided into 4 treatment groups (12 rabbits per group): no treatment, ATL146e only, antibiotics only, or antibiotics plus ATL146e. Analysis at days 1, 3, and 7 consisted of gross joint appearance, synovial fluid, serum, histologic, immunohistochemical, and biochemical analysis. Synovial fluid cultures at day 7 were negative in all antibiotic and antibiotic plus ATL146e treated knees indicating clearance of bacteria. Average WBC counts from synovial fluid aspirates significantly decreased with treatment of antibiotics alone and antibiotics plus ATL146e. Treatment with antibiotics plus ATL146e significantly decreased the Interleukin-8 content when compared to other treatment groups (p < 0.001) indicating inflammatory response suppression. Histologic grading resulted in notably improved scores in the antibiotics plus ATL146e group compared to other treatment groups (p < 0.001). Glycosaminoglycan assay values were significantly greater in the ATL146e plus antibiotics group compared to the untreated control group (p < 0.04) indicating chondroprotection. The results of this study indicate that administration of an adenosine A2A agonist in combination with antibiotic therapy diminishes joint WBC chemotaxis and reduces joint inflammation, while not compromising the clearance of intraarticular bacteria in a rabbit model. Early bacterial clearance with modulation of the inflammatory response appears to prevent the early degradative effects of joint sepsis. © 2005 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. [source]

Third molar position following Bionator treatment

Calogero Dolce
Third molar eruption is an unpredictable event. The position of the third molar continuously changes during development. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of Bionator treatment on third molar position against an untreated control group. A Bionator is a loose-fitting intra-oral appliance that postures the mandible forward, thereby producing skeletal and dentoalveolar changes. Data were obtained from direct measurements of existing longitudinal panoramic radiographs taken during the course of a randomized study investigating Class II malocclusion treatment options. The following variables were analyzed: mandibular third molar depth in relation to the cemento-enamel junction of the second molar; anterior,posterior (A,P) position in relation to the anterior border of the ramus; and angulation registered at the functional occlusal plane. Analysis of variance and ordinal logistic regression were used to investigate relationships between the variables. Angulation of the third molars changed substantially with varying depths (p<0.0008) and A,P positions (p<0.0001), but did not appear to relate appreciably to dental age (p>0.5) or treatment condition (p>0.4). The A,P position was significantly correlated to dental age (p>0.004) and Bionator treatment (p<0.0001), whereas depth was marginally associated with dental age (p<0.07) and not influenced by Bionator treatment (p>0.5). Third molars adopt a position further anterior in relation to the ramus with Bionator treatment than they do in controls. As dental age increases, Bionator use appears to positively influence third molar position. [source]

Is Home Orthostatic Self-Training Effective in Preventing Neurally Mediated Syncope?

Background:Repeated orthostatic stress may prove to be of benefit in the regulation of neurally mediated syncope. But the role of home orthostatic self-training is not established to prevent symptoms in patients with neurally mediated syncope. We performed a prospective and randomized study to evaluate the effectiveness of repeated home orthostatic self-training in preventing tilt-induced neurally mediated syncope. Methods and Results:Fourty-two consecutive patients (24 males and 18 females, mean age 39 years, 16,68 years) with recurrent neurally mediated syncope were randomized into the tilt training and control groups. The home orthostatic self-training program consisted of daily sessions for 7 days a week for 4 weeks. In order to determine the effects of home orthostatic self-training, we repeated the head-up tilt test in both groups 4 weeks later. Among the tilt-training group, 9 of 16 patients (56%) had a positive response on follow-up head-up tilt test. Among the untreated control group, 9 of 17 patients (53%) had a positive response on follow-up head-up tilt test. In subgroup analyses according to the number of tilt-training sessions or the classified type, we found no differences in the follow-up head-up tilt test responses. Spontaneous syncope or presyncope over mean follow-up of 16.9 months were observed in 42.9% versus 47.1% in the tilt-training and control group, respectively. Conclusions:Home orthostatic self-training was ineffective in reducing the positive response rate of head-up tilt test in patients with recurrent neurally mediated syncope. [source]

Hyperglycemia not hypoglycemia alters neuronal dendrites and impairs spatial memory

John I Malone
Background/Objective:, We previously reported that chronic hyperglycemia, but not hypoglycemia, was associated with the reduction of neuronal size in the rat brain. We hypothesized that hyperglycemia-induced changes in neuronal structure would have negative consequences, such as impaired learning and memory. We therefore assessed the effects of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia on neuronal dendritic structure and cognitive functioning in young rats. Design/Methods:, Experimental manipulations were conducted on male Wistar rats for 8 wk, beginning at 4 wk of age. At the completion of the treatments, all rats were trained in the radial-arm water maze, a spatial (hippocampus-dependent) learning and memory task. Three groups of rats were tested: an untreated control group, a streptozotocin-induced diabetic (STZ-D) group, and an intermittent hypoglycemic group. Following behavioral training, the brains of all animals were examined with histologic and biochemical measurements. Results:, Peripheral hyperglycemia was associated with significant increases in brain sorbitol (7.5 ± 1.6 vs. 5.84 ± 1.0 ,M/mg) and inositol (9.6 ± 1.4 vs. 7.1 ± 1.1 ,M/mg) and reduced taurine (0.65 ± 0.1 vs. 1.3 ± 0.1 mg/mg). Histologic evaluation revealed neurons with reduced dendritic branching and spine density in STZ-D rats but not in control or hypoglycemic animals. In addition, the STZ-D group exhibited impaired performance on the water maze memory test. Conclusions:, Hyperglycemia, but not hypoglycemia, was associated with adverse effects on the brain polyol pathway activity, neuronal structural changes, and impaired long-term spatial memory. This finding suggests that the hyperglycemic component of diabetes mellitus has a greater adverse effect on brain functioning than does intermittent hypoglycemia. [source]

Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Activities of the Aqueous Extract of Acacia karroo Stem Bark in Experimental Animals

Adeolu A. Adedapo
The extract at 100 and 200 mg/kg reduced significantly the formation of oedema induced by carrageenan and histamine. In the acetic acid-induced writhing model, the extract showed a good analgesic effect characterized by a significant reduction in the number of writhes with two doses (100 and 200 mg/kg) used when compared to the untreated control group. In the tail immersion test, the extract at the doses used (100 and 200 mg/kg) increased reaction time to pain after 30 min. of oral administration of the extract. Indomethacin at 10 mg/kg served as reference drug in all these tests. The results gave a scientific basis to the traditional uses of Acacia karroo mainly for wound poultices, eye treatments and cold remedies. [source]

Effects of the combination of rapamycin with tacrolimus or cyclosporin on experimental intimal hyperplasia

Dr J. R. Waller
Background: Allograft vasculopathy remains the leading cause of late allograft failure following transplantation and can be inhibited by the antiproliferative drug rapamycin. This study assessed the efficacy of combining rapamycin therapy with calcineurin inhibition. Methods: Male Sprague,Dawley rats received rapamycin 0·05 mg/kg daily and either tacrolimus 0·1 mg/kg or cyclosporin 5 mg/kg daily, and findings were compared with those in an untreated control group. Animals underwent left common carotid artery balloon angioplasty; the artery was explanted after 2 weeks. Morphometric analysis was performed on transverse sections and the intima: media ratio was calculated. Profibrotic gene expression was measured with competitive reverse transcriptase,polymerase chain reaction at 14 and 28 days. Proliferation was determined with proliferating cell nuclear antigen at 14 and 28 days. Extracellular matrix deposition was quantified with Sirius red. Results: The combination of rapamycin and tacrolimus was associated with the greatest reduction in intimal thickening. Furthermore, treatment with rapamycin and tacrolimus significantly attenuated extracellular matrix deposition compared with rapamycin and cyclosporin (P < 0·02). Conclusion: The effects of rapamycin in combination with tacrolimus were better than those observed with rapamycin and cyclosporin. © 2002 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd [source]

Pretargeted radioimmunotherapy in rapidly progressing, metastatic, medullary thyroid cancer,

CANCER, Issue S4 2010
Françoise Kraeber-Bodéré MD
Abstract Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) patients with localized residual disease and/or distant metastases may survive for several years or rapidly progress and die of their disease. Thus, highly reliable prognostic factors are needed for an early distinction between high-risk patients who need to be treated and low-risk patients who warrant a watch-and-wait approach. Calcitonin doubling time is an independent predictor of survival, with a high predictive value in a population of patients who have not normalized their calcitonin, even after repeated surgery. Several imaging methods should be proposed for patients with abnormal residual calcitonin levels persisting after complete surgery: ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) for neck exploration, and CT for chest, abdomen, and pelvis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appears to have an advantage over CT for the detection of liver metastases from endocrine tumors. Moreover, MRI appears to be a sensitive imaging technique for detecting the spread of MTC to bone/bone marrow. 2-Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/CT could be used for staging patients with progressive MTC, with possible prognostication by standard uptake value quantification. For systemic treatment of patients with rapidly progressing metastatic MTC, chemotherapy is not considered a valid therapeutic option. It is too early to evaluate the potential effectiveness of multikinase inhibitors, although interesting results of phase 2 studies have shown a transient stabilization in 30% to 50% of patients. Pretargeted radioimmunotherapy has been the only innovative treatment modality convincingly showing some survival benefit when compared with a historical untreated control group. Cancer 2010;116(4 suppl):1118,25. © 2010 American Cancer Society. [source]

Promotion of stem cell proliferation by vegetable peptone

J. Lee
Objectives:, Technical limitations and evolution of therapeutic applications for cell culture-derived products have accelerated elimination of animal-derived constituents from such products to minimize inadvertent introduction of microbial contaminants, such as fungi, bacteria or viruses. The study described here was conducted to investigate the proliferative effect of vegetable peptone on adult stem cells in the absence of serum, and its possible mechanisms of action. Materials and methods:, Cell viability and proliferation were determined using the MTT assay and Click-iTÔ EdU flow cytometry, respectively. In addition, changes in expression of cytokine genes were analysed using MILLIPLEXÔ human cytokine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Results:, Viability of cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (CB-MSC) and adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSC) increased significantly when treated with the peptone. In addition, median value of the group treated with peptone shifted to the right when compared to the untreated control group. Furthermore, quantitative analysis of the cytokines revealed that production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-,1), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) increased significantly in response to treatment with our vegetable peptone in both CB-MSCs and ADSCs. Conclusions:, Our findings revealed that the vegetable peptone promotes proliferation of CB-MSCs and ADSCs. In addition, results of this study suggest that induction of stem cell proliferation by vegetable peptone is likely to be related to its induction of VEGF, TGF-,1, and IL-6 expression. [source]

Caffeic acid phenetyl ester accelerates cutaneous wound healing in a rat model and decreases oxidative stress

G. Serarslan
Summary Background., Cutaneous injury causes a depression in antioxidant status, as reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced in response to injury., Aim., To determine the effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, on wound healing in rats. Methods., In total, 40 male rats were divided into two groups: one group treated with CAPE (n = 20) and a second untreated control group (n = 20). A linear full-thickness incision was performed on the back of each rat and sutured. After incision, CAPE was given to the treatment group and saline to the control group. On days 1, 3, 7 and 14, five animals in each group were killed, and wound tissues dissected for biochemical and histopathological analysis. Results., Wound tissues showed a significant increase in glutathione and nitric oxide levels, and a significant decrease in malondialdehyde levels and superoxide dismutase levels in the CAPE group compared with the control group. Histopathology of the wound tissues displayed rapid epithelium development in the CAPE group compared with the control group. Conclusion., This study has demonstrated that CAPE partly accelerates full-thickness wound healing by its antioxidant and ROS-scavenging capabilities. [source]