Untreated Controls (untreated + control)

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Distribution within Medical Sciences

Terms modified by Untreated Controls

  • untreated control cell
  • untreated control group
  • untreated control sample

  • Selected Abstracts

    The effect of high-pressure food processing on the sorption behaviour of selected packaging materials

    C. Caner
    Abstract The sorption behaviour and flavour-scalping potential of selected packaging films in contact with food simulant liquids (FSLs) (ethanol and acetic acid solutions) were evaluated after high-pressure processing (HPP). The films used were monolayer polypropylene (PP), a multilayer (polyethylene/nylon/ethylene vinyl alcohol/polyethylene: PE/nylon/EVOH/PE), film and a metallized (polyethylene terephthalate/ethylene,vinyl acetate/linear low-density polyethylene: metallized PET/EVA/LLDPE) material. D-limonene was used as the sorbate and was added to each of the FSLs. After HPP treatment at 800,MPa, 10,min, 60°C, the amount of D-limonene sorbed by the packaging materials and the amount remaining in the FSL was measured. Untreated controls (1,atm, 60°C and 40°C) were also prepared. Extraction of the D-limonene from the films was performed using a purge/trap method. D-limonene was quantified in both the films and the FSL, using gas chromatography (GC). The results showed that D-limonene concentration, in both the films and the food simulants, was not significantly affected by HPP, except for the metallized PET/EVA/LLDPE. Significant differences in D-limonene sorption were found in comparison with the control pouches. The results also showed that changes in temperature significantly affected the sorption behaviour of all films. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    3,-azido-3,-deoxythymidine induces deletions in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells,,

    Jianyong Wang
    Abstract 3,-Azido-3,-deoxythymidine (AZT), a nucleoside analogue used for the treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), induced a significant dose-related increase in the thymidine kinase (Tk) mutant frequency (MF) in L5178Y/Tk+/, 3.7.2C mouse lymphoma cells. Treatment with 1 mg/ml (3,742 ,M) AZT for 24 hr resulted in a MF of 407 × 10,6 compared to a control MF of 84 × 10,6. The MFs of the large and small colony mutants resulting from AZT exposure were 142 × 10,6 and 265 × 10,6, respectively. One hundred and fifty mutants from the 1 mg/ml (3,742 ,M) AZT-treated culture and sixty-nine mutants from independent untreated cultures were isolated and analyzed. LOH analysis using a heteromorphic microsatellite locus located in the Tk gene was performed to determine the presence or absence of the Tk+ allele. Eight other microsatellite markers spanning the entire mouse chromosome 11 also were examined for heterozygosity to determine the extent of LOH. In addition, Tk gene dosage analysis was conducted using Real-Time PCR in those mutants showing LOH at the Tk locus. The presence of only one Tk allele based on Real-Time PCR indicated that the mutant resulted from deletion while the presence of two alleles was consistent with a recombination event. More mutants from the AZT-treated culture showed Tk LOH than did independent mutants from the untreated cultures (91% vs. 64%) and the induced mutants also showed distinct chromosome 11 LOH patterns. The mutation spectrum of mutants from AZT-treated cells was also significantly different from that of spontaneous mutants. More deletions and fewer intragenic mutations were observed in the mutants from the AZT-treated culture than independent mutants from the untreated control. Our data indicate that AZT primarily induced LOH mutations in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells and a large number of LOH mutations resulted from deletions. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2007. Published 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Production and clearance of cyclobutane dipyrimidine dimers in UV-irradiated skin pretreated with 1% pimecrolimus or 0.1% triamcinolone acetonide creams in normal and atopic patients

    Laurence Doelker
    Background:, Ultraviolet (UV)-induced pyrimidine dimers are an early step in skin carcinogenesis, which is accelerated in the setting of long-term immunosuppression with systemic calcineurin inhibitors. It is not known whether topical application of calcineurin inhibitors exposes to a similar risk. Objective:, To assess the formation and clearance of UV-induced dipyrimidine dimers in human epidermis treated with topical pimecrolimus as compared to topical steroid, vehicle and untreated control. Methods:, Pretreated buttock skin of 20 human volunteers with (10) or without (10) atopic dermatitis was exposed to two minimal erythema doses (MED) of simulated solar radiation. DNA was extracted from epidermis 1 and 24 h postirradiation. Pyrimidine dimers were visualized by immuno slot blots and quantified by chemoluminescence image analysis. Results:, One-hour postirradiation, pimecrolimus-treated epidermis contains less DNA damage as compared to untreated control, but there were no statistically significant differences between pimecrolimus, triamcinolone acetonide and vehicle. Dimer levels at 24 h postirradiation showed no significant differences between different treatments. Conclusion:, Treatment with pimecrolimus cream, triamcinolone acetonide cream and vehicle is not associated with increased epidermal DNA damage at 1 and 24 h post-UV exposure. [source]

    In vivo astaxanthin treatment partially prevents antioxidant alterations in dental pulp from alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    M. F. Leite
    Leite MF, de Lima A, Massuyama MM, Otton R.In vivo astaxanthin treatment partially prevents antioxidant alterations in dental pulp from alloxan-induced diabetic rats. International Endodontic Journal, 43, 959,967, 2010. Abstract Aim, To evaluate the effect of astaxanthin on antioxidant parameters of dental pulp from diabetic rats. The hypothesis tested was that supplementation of diabetic rats with astaxanthin might eliminate, or at least attenuate, the defect in their antioxidative status. Methodology, Wistar rats (n = 32) were divided into four groups: untreated control, treated control, untreated diabetic and treated diabetic rats. A prophylactic dose of astaxanthin (20 mg kg,1 body weight) was administered daily by gavage for 30 days. On day 23, diabetes was induced by injection of alloxan (60 mg kg,1 body weight). After 7 days of diabetes induction, the rats were killed, and pulp tissue from incisor teeth removed. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and reductase activities were determined. Data were compared by anova and the Newman,Keuls test (P < 0.05). Results, Diabetes caused a reduction in SOD, GPx and reductase activity in dental pulp tissue. Astaxanthin had no effect on SOD and catalase activities; however, it stimulated GPx in control and diabetic rats. Conclusions, Diabetes altered the antioxidant system in dental pulp tissue; astaxanthin partially improved the diabetic complications. [source]

    The effect of drying conditions on the development of the hard-to-cook defect in steam-treated cowpeas

    Nicole S. Affrifah
    Summary A three-factor,three-level Box,Behnken design was used to evaluate the effect of drying time, temperature and humidity on textural and physicochemical characteristics during storage of steamed cowpeas. The treatment significantly improved cooked texture and prevented hardening during storage under severe conditions (42 °C/80% relative humidity, RH). Before storage, the cooked texture of treated samples was between 535,628 and 602 N for the untreated control, and between 516,649 and 1394 N after storage at 42 °C/80% RH. The peak force of stored cowpeas significantly decreased as the drying temperature increased. Steaming and drying reduced phytase activity to 59,64% of the original activity and decreased phytate content from 0.133% to 0.074,0.105%. Drying time had a significant effect on phytase activity whereas all drying parameters significantly affected phytate concentration and water absorption. The drying conditions applied after steaming significantly influences seed characteristics; therefore, selection of optimum drying conditions may be used to control seed quality, especially texture. [source]

    Response of pea (Pisum sativum L.) to mepiquat chloride under varying application doses and stages

    E. Elkoca
    Abstract Grown as a monoculture, peas (Pisum sativum L.) exhibit severe lodging after flowering and lodging causes yield reductions considerable. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dose (untreated, 25, 50, 75 and 100 g a.i. ha,1) and stage (late vegetative, early blooming and early pod filling) of mepiquat chloride (MC) application on the growth, lodging control, seed yield and yield parameters of pea (Pisum sativum L.) under field conditions in Erzurum, Turkey in 2002 and 2003. Application doses of 25, 50, 75 and 100 g a.i. ha,1 significantly reduced stem height by 5.3 %, 7.2 %, 7.5 % and 6.4 % and increased stem width by 7.5 %, 12.7 %, 12.3 % and 15.7 % respectively, when compared with the untreated control, and thereby reduced the tendency of the crop to lodging. Increases of the seed yield under different application doses of MC ranged between 13.7 % and 20.1 % over the untreated control. However, in all parameters investigated, except for stem width, higher application doses of MC gave no clear advantages compared with the application dose of 25 g a.i. ha,1. Seed yield was also significantly influenced by application stage of MC and application at early blooming stage of crop, MC significantly increased seed yield by 11.4 % and 10.2 % when compared with the late vegetative and the early pod filling stages respectively. Furthermore, the interaction of application dose and stage was significant, and spraying of pea plants with 25 g a.i. ha,1 MC at early blooming stage has the most beneficial effects on the characters evaluated. [source]

    Organic farming-compatible insecticides against the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) in peach orchards

    C. Karagounis
    Abstract:, Three products allowed in organic farming (kaolin, mineral oil and insecticidal soap) as alternatives to chemical insecticides, were evaluated for the control of Myzus persicae (Sulzer) in a peach orchard. Their efficacy was compared with the neonicotinoid imidacloprid and an untreated control. The experiment was replicated for 2 years (2003 and 2004). The products were applied once in May every year and aphid infestation was recorded three to four times post-treatment. In 2004, the effect of the products on the predatory coccinellid species was also recorded. In 2003, all four products showed good control with average Abbott's efficiency ranging from 80% to 88%. In the next year, however, the products were less effective and only imidacloprid and kaolin reduced aphid population significantly compared with the untreated control, with an average Abbott's efficiency of 62% and 31%, respectively. This reduced efficiency was attributed to high rainfall occurring post-treatment. Regarding the effects on beneficial coccinellids, only imidacloprid and mineral oil reduced their numbers after application. The results showed that the three alternative products and especially kaolin are promising for aphid control in peach orchards. Kaolin has also low side-effects on beneficials and it could be used in organic peach orchards. [source]

    Processed kaolin as an alternative insecticide against the European pear sucker, Cacopsylla pyri (L.)

    C. Daniel
    Abstract:, Application of processed kaolin particle film (Surround® WP; Engelhard Corporation, Iselin, NJ, USA) repels insects without lethal effects; hence side effects on beneficial arthropods are low. Processed kaolin may be an alternative to broad-spectrum insecticides used against European pear sucker, Cacopsylla pyri (L.), in organic and conventional pear production. A small-plot field trial was conducted in spring 2003 to assess this hypothesis. Multiple applications of processed kaolin during the first flying period of C. pyri significantly reduced the number of nymphs compared to the untreated control. Processed kaolin protected pear trees at least as good as the standard organic insecticide rotenone. Since the effects on the summer population could not be assessed in this small-plot trial due to the high mobility of the adult C. pyri, a large-plot trial was conducted in 2004. Thereby, the processed kaolin showed a very high efficacy and the population of C. pyri was kept under a damaging level over the whole season. At the end of June the population density of C. pyri in the processed kaolin treated area was lower than in the IPM treated plot. In conclusion, kaolin shows promise as an alternative control for C. pyri in organic and IPM orchards. [source]

    Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes in chicken cold cuts by addition of sakacin P and sakacin P-producing Lactobacillus sakei

    T. Katla
    Aims: To evaluate the potential of sakacin P and sakacin P-producing Lactobacillus sakei for the inhibition of growth of Listeria monocytogenes in chicken cold cuts, by answering the following questions. (i) Is sakacin P actually produced in food? (ii) Is sakacin P produced in situ responsible for the inhibiting effect? (iii) How stable is sakacin P in food? Methods and Results:Listeria monocytogenes, a Lact. sakei strain and/or the bacteriocin sakacin P were added to chicken cold cuts, vacuum packed and incubated at 4 or 10°C for 4 weeks. Each of two isogenic Lact. sakei strains, one producing sakacin P and the other not, had an inhibiting effect on the growth of L. monocytogenes. The effect of these two isogenic strains on the growth of L. monocytogenes was indistinguishable, even though sakacin P was produced in the product by one of the two Lact. sakei strains. The addition of purified sakacin P had an inhibiting effect on the growth of L. monocytogenes. A high dosage of sakacin P (3·5 ,g g,1) had a bacteriostatic effect throughout the storage period of 4 weeks, while a low dosage (12 ng g,1) permitted initial growth, but at a slow rate. After 4 weeks of storage, the number of L. monocytogenes in the samples with a low dosage of sakacin P was 2 logs below that in the untreated control. When using a high dosage of sakacin P, the bacteriocin was detected in samples stored for up to 6 weeks. Conclusions: (i) Sakacin P is produced by a Lact. sakei strain when growing on vacuum-packed chicken cold cuts. (ii) Inhibiting effects of Lact. sakei, other than sakacin P, are active in inhibiting the growth of L. monocytogenes growing on chicken cold cuts. (iii) Sakacin P is stable on chicken cold cuts over a period of 4 weeks. Significance and Impact of the Study: Both sakacin P and Lact. sakei were found to have potential for use in the control of L. monocytogenes in chicken cold cuts. [source]

    Adverse effects of arecoline and nicotine on human periodontal ligament fibroblasts in vitro

    Yu-Chao Chang
    Abstract Background, aims: The habit of betel nut chewing impinges on the daily lives of approximately 200 million people. Betel quid chewers have a higher prevalence of periodontal diseases than non-chewers. This study examined the pathobiological effects of arecoline, a major component of the betel nut alkaloids, on human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLF) in vitro. Method: Cell viability, proliferation, protein synthesis, and cellular thiol levels were used to investigate the effects of human PDLF exposed to arecoline levels of 0 to 200 ,g/ml. In addition, nicotine was added to test how it modulated the effects of arecoline. Results: Arecoline significantly inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. At concentrations of 10 and 30 ,g/ml, arecoline suppressed the growth of PDLF by 20% and 50% (p<0.05), respectively. Arecoline also decreased protein synthesis in a dose-dependent manner during a 24-h culture period. A 100 ,g/ml concentration level of arecoline significantly inhibited protein synthesis to only 50% of that in the untreated control (p<0.05). Moreover, arecoline significantly depleted intracellular thiols in a dose-dependent manner. At concentrations of 25 ,g/ml and 100 ,g/ml, arecoline depleted about 18% and 56% of thiols (p<0.05), respectively. This suggests that arecoline itself might augment the destruction of periodontium associated with betel nut use. Furthermore, the addition of nicotine acted with a synergistic effect on the arecoline-induced cytotoxicity. At a concentration of 60 ,g/ml, arecoline suppressed the growth of PDLF by about 33%, and 5 mM nicotine enhanced the arecoline-induced cytotoxic response to cause about 66% cell death. Conclusion: During thiol depletion, arecoline may render human PDLF more vulnerable to reactive agents within cigarettes. Taken together, people who combine habits of betel nut chewing with cigarette smoking could be more susceptible to periodontium damage than betel nut chewing alone. Zusammenfassung Zielsetzung: Das Kauen von Betelnüssen gehört zum Alltag von ungefähr 200 Millionen Menschen. Betelnußkauer weisen eine höhere Prävalenz von Parodontalerkrankungen auf als Personen, die keine Betelnüsse konsumieren. In dieser Studie sollte der pathobiologische Effekt des Arekolins, das die Hauptkomponente des Betelnußalkaloides darstellt, auf menschliche Desmodontalfibroblasten (PDLF) in vitro untersuchen. Material und Methoden: Zellvitalität, Proliferationsrate, Proteinsynthese und zelluläre Thiolspiegel wurden genutzt, um zu untersuchen, welche Auswirkungen eine Exposition der PDLF gegenüber Arekolinspiegeln von 0 bis 200 ,g/ml hat. Zusätzlich wurde Nikotin beigefügt, um festzustellen wie das Nikotin den Effekt des Arekolins beeinflußt. Ergebnisse: Arekolin hemmt die Zellproliferation signifikant in dosisabhängiger Weise. Bei Konzentrationen von 10 und 30 ,g/ml unterdrückt Arekolin das Wachstum der PDLF um 20% bzw. 50% (p<0.05). Arekolin unterdrückt ebenfalls dosisabhängig die Proteinsynthese während der 24-stündigen Kultivierungsperiode. Ein Arekolinspiegel von 100 ,g/ml reduzierte die Proteinsynthese auf 50% im Vergleich zur unbehandelten Kontrollkultur (p<0.05). Auch die intrazellulären Thiolspiegel wurden dosisabhängig reduziert. Bei Konzentrationen von 25 und 100 ,g/ml wurden die Thiolspiegel um 18% bzw. 56% reduziert (p<0.05). Bei einer Konzentration von 60 ,g/ml unterdrückte das Arekolin das PDLF-Wachstum um 33%. Die Zugabe von 5 mM Nikotin verstärkte die durch Arekolin induzierte zytotoxische Wirkung, so daß es zum Zelltot von 66% kam. Schlußfolgerungen: Es scheint, daß Arekolin selbst zu der Schädigung des Parodonts beiträgt, die der Betelnuß zugeschreiben wird. Außerdem deuten die Ergebnisse darauf hin, daß Personen, die Betelnußkauen mit Nikotinkonsum kombinieren, empfindlicher für Schädigungen des Parodonts sind als solche, die nur Betelnüsse kauen. Während der Inaktivierung des Thiols könnte das Arekolin PDLF verletzlicher für andere reaktive Substanzen wie Nikotin machen. Résumé L'habitude de mastiquer de la noix de betel affecte la vie quotidienne de près de 200 millions de personnes. Les mâcheurs de betel présentent une prévalence plus élevée de maladies parodontales. Cette étude examine les effets pathologiques de l'arécoline, un composant majeur des alcaloïdes de la noix de betel, sur des fibroblastes du ligament parodontal humain (PDLF) in vitro. La viabilité cellulaire, la prolifération, la synthèse protéique, et les niveaux cellulaires de thiol ont été utilisés pour observer les effets de l'exposition de PDLF humains à des taux d'arécoline de 0 à 200 ,g/ml. De plus, de la nicotine fut ajouté pour tester la façon dont cela modulait les effets de l'arécoline. L'arécoline inhibait significativement la prolifération cellulaire de façon dose dépendante. A des concentrations de 10 à 30 ,g/ml, l'arécoline supprime la croissance des fibroblastes par 20 et 50% (p<0.05), respectivement. L'arécoline dimunuait également la synthèse des protéines de façon dose dépendante pendant une période de culture de 24 h. Une concentration de 100 ,g/ml d'arécoline inhibit la synthèse protéique à seulement 50% de celle du groupe controle non traité (p<0.05). De plus, l'arécoline réduit les thiols intracellulaires de façon dose dépendante. A des concentrations de 25 ,g/ml et 100 ,g/ml, l'arécoline réduit environ 18 à 56% des thiols, respectivement (p<0.05). Cela suggère que l'arécoline, elle même, peut augmenter la destruction du parodonte en association avec l'utilisation de noix de betel. De plus, l'addition de nicotine entrainait un effet synergique sur la cytotoxicité induite par l'arécoline. A une concentration de 60 ,g/ml, l'arécoline supprimait la croissance des PDLF d'environ 33% et 5 mM de nicotine augmentait cette réponse cytotoxique induite par l'arécoline, jusqu'à entrainer 66% de morts cellulaires. Lors de la réduction des thiols, l'arécoline pourrait rendre les PDLF humains plus vulnérables à des agents réactifs entrant dans la composition des cigarettes. Pris ensemble, les gens qui combinent des habitudes de mastication de noix de betel et de tabagisme, pourrait être plus susceptibles à des dommages parodontaux, que les gens qui utiliserait uniquement la noix de betel, mais sans fumer. [source]

    Aseptic Processing of Sweetpotato Purees Using a Continuous Flow Microwave System

    Pablo Coronel
    ABSTRACT: Sweetpotato purees (SPP) were aseptically processed using a continuous flow microwave system to obtain a shelf-stable product. The dielectric properties of SPP were measured, and the dielectric constant and loss factor were within the range of the published values for fruits and vegetables. Small-scale tests were conducted in a 5-kW microwave unit to determine changes in color and viscosity with different thermal treatments. The results of these tests showed that color values (L*, a*) and viscosity did not change significantly compared with the untreated control. Pilot-scale tests were then conducted in a 60-kW microwave unit where the product was heated to 135 °C and held at that temperature for 30 s. The pilot-scale test produced a shelf-stable product with no detectable microbial count during a 90-d storage period at room temperature. This is the 1st report of aseptically packaged vegetable puree processed by a continuous flow microwave heating system. [source]

    Physicochemical Properties of Frozen Red Hake (Urophycis chuss) Mince as Affected by Cryoprotective Ingredients

    P.Z. Lian
    ABSTRACT: Effects of alginate, iota-carrageenan, soy protein concentrate (SPC), sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), and sorbitol on physicochemical and sensory properties of red hake mince stored at ,20 °C for 17 wk were investigated. The addition of 0.4% alginate, 4% sorbitol, and 0.3% STPP kept the mince from hardening and improved its dispersibility during mixing. This is believed to be a result of reduced protein denaturation as evidenced by higher levels of water, salt, SDS-soluble proteins, and higher free sulfhydryl contents than the untreated control mince, which hardened with compact texture and exhibited considerable syneresis. Alginate appears to be responsible for preventing muscle fiber interaction through electrostatic repulsion and chelating Ca2+, thus improving dispersibility. Sorbitol and STPP with or without SPC and iota-carrageenan did not improve the dispersibility. [source]

    ,-glutamylcysteine ethyl ester-induced up-regulation of glutathione protects neurons against A,(1,42)-mediated oxidative stress and neurotoxicity: Implications for Alzheimer's disease

    Debra Boyd-Kimball
    Abstract Glutathione (GSH) is an important endogenous antioxidant found in millimolar concentrations in the brain. GSH levels have been shown to decrease with aging. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with aging and oxidative stress. A,(1,42) has been shown to induce oxidative stress and has been proposed to play a central role in the oxidative damage detected in AD brain. It has been shown that administration of ,-glutamylcysteine ethyl ester (GCEE) increases cellular levels of GSH, circumventing the regulation of GSH biosynthesis by providing the limiting substrate. In this study, we evaluated the protective role of up-regulation of GSH by GCEE against the oxidative and neurotoxic effects of A,(1,42) in primary neuronal culture. Addition of GCEE to neurons led to an elevated mean cellular GSH level compared with untreated control. Inhibition of ,-glutamylcysteine synthetase by buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) led to a 98% decrease in total cellular GSH compared with control, which was returned to control levels by addition of GCEE. Taken together, these results suggest that GCEE up-regulates cellular GSH levels which, in turn, protects neurons against protein oxidation, loss of mitochondrial function, and DNA fragmentation induced by A,(1,42). These results are consistent with the notion that up-regulation of GSH by GCEE may play a viable protective role in the oxidative and neurotoxicity induced by A,(1,42) in AD brain. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Failure of xenoimplantation using porcine synovium-derived stem cell-based cartilage tissue constructs for the repair of rabbit osteochondral defects

    Ming Pei
    Abstract The use of xenogeneic tissues offers many advantages with respect to availability, quality control, and timing of tissue harvest. Our previous study indicated that implantation of premature tissue constructs from allogeneic synovium-derived stem cells (SDSCs) facilitated cartilage tissue regeneration. The present study investigated the feasibility of xenoimplantation of SDSC-based premature tissue constructs for the repair of osteochondral defects. Porcine SDSCs were mixed with fibrin gel, seeded in polyglycolic acid (PGA) scaffolds, and cultured in a rotating bioreactor system supplemented for 1 month with growth factor cocktails. The engineered porcine premature tissues were implanted to repair surgically induced osteochondral defects in the medial femoral condyles of 12 rabbits. Three weeks after surgery, the xenoimplantation group exhibited a smooth, whitish surface while the untreated control remained empty. Surprisingly, 6 months after surgery, the xenoimplantation group displayed some tissue loss while the untreated control group was overgrown with fibrocartilage tissue. In the xenoimplantation group, chronic inflammation was observed in synovial tissue where porcine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II antigen positively stained in the engulfed foreign bodies. In addition, porcine source cells also migrated from the implantation site and may have been responsible for the observed loss of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) underneath surrounding articular cartilage. The histological score was much worse in the xenoimplanted group than in the untreated control. Our study suggested that SDSC-based xenogeneic tissue constructs might cause delayed immune rejection. Xenotransplantation may not be an appropriate approach to repair osteochondral defects. © 2010 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 28:1064,1070, 2010 [source]

    Acetic Acid, Ethanol and Steam Effects on the Growth of Botrytis cinerea in vitro and Combination of Steam and Modified Atmosphere Packaging to Control Decay in Kiwifruit

    Anastasia L. Lagopodi
    Abstract The effects of acetic acid fumigation, ethanol fumigation, and steam heat treatment on growth of Botrytis cinerea in vitro were investigated. The effect of steam heat treatments in combination with modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on Botrytis decay development on ,Hayward' kiwifruit was also studied. The fungus was grown in Petri dishes on potato dextrose agar. Ethanol fumigation with 100 ,l/l for 3 or 6 min, or 200 ,l/l for 6 min enhanced the growth of B. cinerea. The effect of acetic acid on growth of B. cinerea was time and dosage-dependent. Fumigation with 1 ,l/l for 6 min, 2 ,l/l for 3 min, and 4 ,l/l for 3 min promoted radial growth of the fungus when compared to the growth of the untreated control. Fumigation with 2 ,l/l for 6 min delayed the growth of the fungus for the first 6 days, while fumigation with 6 ,l/l for 3 min delayed the growth of the fungus after the sixth day. Fumigation with 4 or 6 ,l/l acetic acid for 6 min, and 8 ,l/l acetic acid for 3 or 6 min resulted in complete inhibition of fungal growth. Steam heat treatment at 45°C for 6 min, and at 48, 51, and 54°C for 3 or 6 min completely inhibited fungal growth in vitro. Furthermore, steam treatments at 47, 50, and 53°C for 3 or 6 min completely inhibited decay at the stem end of kiwifruit kept at 10°C in MAP for 12 days. However, none of the steam treatments inhibited decay in wounds on the surface of the fruit kept in MAP. [source]

    Identity and Pathogenicity of Fungi Associated with Root and Crown Rot of Soft Red Winter Wheat Grown on the Upper Coastal Plain Land Resource Area of Mississippi

    M. S. Gonzalez
    Seedling stand, disease severity and fungal incidence were determined from untreated ,Wakefield' soft red winter wheat planted on a Leeper silty clay loam in field tests conducted at the Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station, Plant Science Research Center, Mississippi State University, Starkville, Mississippi during the 1996,97 and 1997,98 growing seasons. Seedling stand was reduced by 40% each year in plots established with untreated seed. Cochliobolus sativus was the most frequently isolated fungus. Fusarium acuminatum, Fusarium equiseti and Fusarium solani were the most prevalent Fusarium spp. Seven other Fusarium spp. and 23 species of other fungal genera were isolated. Pathogenicity tests with three isolates each of C. sativus, Cochliobolus spicifer, F. acuminatum, F. solani, F. equiseti, Fusarium compactum, Embellisia chlamydospora and Microdochium bolleyi were performed in test tube culture and two isolates each of C. sativus, C. spicifer, F. acuminatum, E. chlamydospora and M. bolleyi under greenhouse conditions. In test tubes and in the greenhouse, seedlings infected with isolates of C. sativus developed seedling blight, discoloration and necrosis, primarily in seminal roots and crowns. In the greenhouse, C. sativus induced lesions on the lower leaf sheath and reduced seedling height, seedling emergence, dry and fresh weight of roots and shoots. Isolates of F. acuminatum, F. solani, F. equiseti, F. compactum, E. chlamydospora and M. bolleyi induced slight to moderate orange to light-brown discoloration of crown and seminal roots in test tubes. Cochliobolus spicifer isolates had the most pre-emergence activity, inducing black root discoloration and root pruning of wheat seedlings and reducing seedling emergence, root fresh weight and shoot dry weight. In the greenhouse, F. acuminatum reduced seedling height, seedling emergence and root and shoot dry weights. Microdochium bolleyi and E. chlamydospora reduced fresh and dry weight of roots, plant emergence and shoot dry weight. Fusarium acuminatum and C. spicifer reduced the growth rate of wheat seedlings. All fungi evaluated showed increased disease severity compared to the untreated control. The high frequency of isolation of C. sativus from crown and root tissues can be partially explained by the dry, warm conditions during the early stages of wheat seedling development in the Upper Coastal Plain Land Resource Area of Mississippi. Zusammenfassung Die Auflaufrate von Sämlingen, die Stärke des Krank-heitsbefalls sowie die Häufigkeit von Pilzarten wurden bei nicht behandelten roten Weichwinterweizen der Sorte Wakefield ermittelt, welche in einem Leeper schlammigen Tonboden an der Mississippi Agricultural & Forestry Experiment Station, Plant Science Research Center, Mississippi State University, Starkville, Mississippi in der 1996,97 und 1997,98 Saison gesät worden waren. In beiden Jahren wurde die Auflaufrate von nicht behandeltem Saatgut um 40% reduziert. Cochliobolus sativus wurde am häufigsten isoliert. Fusarium acuminatum, Fusarium equiseti und Fusarium solani waren die überwiegenden Fusarium spp. Außierdem wurden sieben weitere Fusarium spp. sowie 23 weitere Pilzarten isoliert. Pathogenitätstests mit je 3 Isolaten von C. sativus, Cochliobolus spicifer, F. acuminatum, F. solani, F. equiseti, Fusarium compactum, Embellisia chlamydospora und Microdochiumbolleyi wurden in Reagenzröhrchen durchgeführt, sowie mit je 2 Isolaten von C. sativus, C. spicifer, F. acuminatum, E. chlamydospora und M. bolleyi unter Gewächshausbedingungen. Sowohl in den Reagenzröhrchen als auch im Gewächshaus entwickelten Sämlinge, die mit C. sativus inokuliert worden waren, eine Fäule, Verfärbung sowie Nekrosis, hauptsächlich in den sekundären Wurzeln und in den Halmbasen. Unter Gewächshausbedingungen verursachte C. sativus außierdem Läsionen der unteren Blattscheide sowie eine Reduzierung des Sämlingswachstums, des Sämlingsauflaufs, des Trocken-und Frischgewichts der Wurzeln und Sprossen. Im Reagenzröhrchentest induzierten Isolate von F. acuminatum, F. solani, F. equiseti, F. compactum, E. chlamydospora und M. bolleyieine schwache bis mäßiige orange bis hell braune Verfärbung des Halmbasis und der Sekundärwurzeln. Isolate von C. spicifer besaßien die höchste Vorauflaufaktivität und induzierten eine Verschwärzung und Verkürzung der Wurzeln sowie eine Reduzierung des Sämlingsauflaufs, des Wurzelfrischgewichts sowie des Sproitrockengewichts. Unter Gewächshausbedingungen reduzierte F. acuminatum die Sämlingshöhe, die Auflaufrate sowie das Trockengewicht der Wurzeln und Sproien. Microdochium bolleyi und E. chlamydospora reduzierten das Frisch-und Trockengewicht der Wurzeln, die Auflaufrate sowie das Sproßitrockengewicht. Die Wachstumsrate der Sämlinge wurde durch F. acuminatum und C. spicifer reduziert. Alle untersuchten Pilzarten erhöhten die Befallsstärke verglichen mit der unbehandelten Kontrolle. Die hohe Isolierungsrate von C. sativus aus dem Halmbasis-und Wurzelgewebe kann zum Teil dadurch erklärt werden, dass während der Frühentwicklungsphase der Sämlinge trockene und warme Wachstumsbedingungen in diesem Gebiet herrschten. [source]

    Photoprotection of bacterial-derived melanin against ultraviolet A,induced cell death and its potential application as an active sunscreen

    J Geng
    Abstract Background, The increase in the incidence of non-melanoma skin tumours, photoaging, and immunosuppression demand for more effective sunscreen on ultraviolet A (UVA) irradiation. Objectives, The aim of the study is to evaluate the photoprotective effects of a bacterial-derived melanin against UVA-induced damages in vitro and in vivo. Methods, Human fibroblasts were used to assess the role of the bacterial-derived melanin on cell viability against UVA. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and nuclear morphology were employed to evaluate the photoprotection at the cellular level. Fluorometric assays were performed to detect the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cells. Evaluations of the bacterial-derived melanin as a sunscreen were measured by transmission test and persistent pigment darkening on human skin. Results, Bacterial-derived melanin efficiently scavenged ROS in the fibroblasts after UVA irradiation. The cell viability of xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) fibroblast treated with varied doses of melanin increased dramatically in comparison with untreated control and the treated XP fibroblasts became more resistant to UVA-induced apoptosis than normal fibroblasts. Although the relative transmission didn't change too much with different concentration of bacterial-derived melanin, this melanin could keep UVA-irradiated skin from pigment darkening and act as an active sunscreen on skin. Conclusions, The bacterial-derived melanin provided significant protection to fibroblast cell and human skin against the UVA radiation. It has the potential to be developed as an active sunscreen for the patients with photosensitivity skin to sun exposure. [source]

    Nitrogen fertilisation in coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.): a review and meta-analysis

    Alessandra Carrubba
    Abstract Nitrogen (N) fertilisation is one of the most important external inputs in assessing coriander seed yield and plant growth. Recent concerns related to the misuse of N fertilisers in agricultural environments, however, stress the opportunity for a fine-tuning of N management in order to optimise the use of this element, avoiding losses and reducing environmental hazards. In this study, some results from the literature concerning N fertilisation in coriander are reviewed and, by means of statistical analysis, an attempt is made to derive from them some general suggestions about practices of N fertilisation. In most cases examined, N fertilisation allowed a 10,70% increase in seed yields in comparison with each respective untreated control. The efficiency of use of this element, however, has proven to be greatly dependent on the overall fertility conditions of the growing site. The greatest yield advantages were actually found in more favourable environments, whereas in low-yielding environments plants reached their maximum yield with a comparatively reduced N supply. In low-yielding environments a careful risk/benefit assessment of this practice is therefore advisable. No definite conclusion could be drawn at this stage about essential oil yield and composition in relation to N fertilisation. Copyright © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    A lethal ovitrap-based mass trapping scheme for dengue control in Australia: II.

    Impact on populations of the mosquito Aedes aegypti
    Abstract. In Cairns, Australia, the impacts on Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) populations of two types of ,lure & kill' (L&K) lethal ovitraps (LOs), the standard lethal ovitrap (SLO) and the biodegradable lethal ovitrap (BLO) were measured during three mass-trapping interventions. To assess the efficacy of the SLO, two interventions (one dry season and one wet season) were conducted in three discrete areas, each lasting 4 weeks, with the following treatments: (i) SLOs (>200 traps, ,4/premise), BG-sentinel traps (BGSs; ,15, 1/premise) and larval control (container reduction and methoprene treatment) and (ii) larval control alone, and (iii) untreated control. Female Ae. aegypti populations were monitored for 4 weeks pre- and post-treatment in all three areas using BGSs and sticky ovitraps (SOs) or non-lethal regular ovitraps (ROs). In the dry season, 206 SLOs and 15 BGSs set at 54 and 15 houses, respectively, caught and killed an estimated 419 and 73 female Ae. aegypti, respectively. No significant decrease in collection size of female Ae. aegypti could be attributed to the treatments. In the wet season, 243 SLOs and 15 BGSs killed ,993 and 119 female Ae. aegypti, respectively. The mean number of female Ae. aegypti collected after 4 weeks with SOs and BGSs was significantly less than the control (LSD post-hoc test). The third mass-trapping intervention was conducted using the BLO during the wet season in Cairns. For this trial, three treatment areas were each provided with BLOs (>500, ,4/premise) plus larval control, and an untreated control area was designated. Adult female Ae. aegypti were collected for 4 weeks pre- and post-treatment using 15 BGSs and 20 SOs. During this period, 53.2% of BLOs contained a total of 6654 Ae. aegypti eggs. Over the intervention period, collections of Ae. aegypti in the treatment areas were significantly less than in the control area for BGSs but not SOs. An influx of relatively large numbers of young females may have confounded the measurement of changes in populations of older females in these studies. This is an important issue, with implications for assessing delayed action control measures, such as LOs and parasites/pathogens that aim to change mosquito age structure. Finally, the high public acceptability of SLOs and BLOs, coupled with significant impacts on female Ae. aegypti populations in two of the three interventions reported here, suggest that mass trapping with SLOs and BLOs can be an effective component of a dengue control strategy. [source]

    PGPR and entomopathogenic fungus bioformulation for the synchronous management of leaffolder pest and sheath blight disease of rice

    Loganathan Karthiba
    Abstract BACKGROUND: The biological control of plant pests and diseases using a single organism has been reported to give inconsistent and poor performance. To improve the efficacy, bioformulations were developed possessing mixtures of bioagents. RESULTS: Bioformulations combining Pseudomonas fluorescens Migula strains Pf1 and AH1 and Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuill. isolate B2 were developed and tested for their efficacy against leaffolder pest and sheath blight disease on rice under glasshouse and field conditions. The combination of Pf1, AH1 and B2 effectively reduced the incidence of leaffolder insect and sheath blight disease on rice compared with other treatments. An in vitro assay of leaffolder preference to rice leaf tissues treated with Pf1 + AH1 + B2 biformulation showed variation from normal growth and development of leaffolder larvae. Plants treated with the Pf1 + AH1 + B2 combination showed a greater accumulation of enzymes, lipoxygenase and chitinase activity against leaffolder insect compared with other treatments. Similarly, the plants showed a higher accumulation of defence enzymes, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activity against sheath blight pathogen in Pf1 + AH1 + B2 treatment compared with the untreated control. The bioformulation mixture attracted the natural enemy population of leaffolder under field conditions. In addition, a significant increase in rice grain yield was observed in Pf1 + AH1 + B2 treatment compared with the untreated control. CONCLUSION: The combination of P. fluorescens strains and B. bassiana isolate effectively reduced the incidence of leaffolder insect and sheath blight disease on rice plants and showed the possibility of controlling both pest and disease using a single bioformulation. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Toxicity of insecticides to the sweetpotato whitefly (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and its natural enemies

    Leandro Bacci
    Abstract Efficient chemical control is achieved when insecticides are active against insect pests and safe to natural enemies. In this study, the toxicity of 17 insecticides to the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), and the selectivity of seven insecticides to natural enemies of this insect pest were evaluated. To determine the insecticide toxicity, B. tabaci adults were exposed to abamectin, acephate, acetamiprid, cartap, imidacloprid, malathion, methamidophos, bifenthrin, cypermethrin, deltamethrin, esfenvalerate, fenitrothion, fenpropathrin, fenthion, phenthoate, permethrin and trichlorphon at 50 and 100% of the field rate (FR), and to water (untreated control). To determine the insecticide selectivity, adults of Encarsia sp., Acanthinus sp., Discodon sp. and Lasiochilus sp. were exposed to abamectin, acephate, acetamiprid, cartap, imidacloprid, malathion and methamidophos at 50 and 100% FR, and to water. Groups of each insect species were exposed to kale leaves preimmersed in each treatment under laboratory conditions. Mortality of exposed individuals was recorded 24 h after treatment. Cartap and imidacloprid at 50 and 100% FR and abamectin and acetamiprid at 100% FR showed insecticidal activity to B. tabaci adults. Abamectin at 50 and 100% FR was the least insecticidal compound to the natural enemies Acanthinus sp., Discodon sp. and Lasiochilus sp. The present results suggest that abamectin at 100% FR may decrease B. tabaci field populations but can still be harmless to predators. Implications of these results within an integrated pest management context are discussed. Copyright © 2007 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Effects of hydraulic architecture and spatial variation in light on mean stomatal conductance of tree branches and crowns

    PLANT CELL & ENVIRONMENT, Issue 4 2007
    B. E. EWERS
    ABSTRACT In a Pinus taeda L. (loblolly pine) plantation, we investigated whether the response to vapour pressure deficit (D) of canopy average stomatal conductance (GS) calculated from sap flux measured in upper and lower branches and main stems follows a hydraulically modelled response based on homeostasis of minimum leaf water potential (,L). We tested our approach over a twofold range of leaf area index (L; 2,4 m2 m,2) created by irrigation, fertilization, and a combination of irrigation and fertilization relative to untreated control. We found that GS scaled well from leaf-level porometery [porometry-based stomatal conductance (gs)] to branch-estimated and main stem-estimated GS. The scaling from branch- to main stem-estimated GS required using a 45 min moving average window to extract the diurnal signal from the large high-frequency variation, and utilized a light attenuation model to weigh the contribution of upper and lower branch-estimated GS. Our analysis further indicated that, regardless of L, lower branch-estimated GS represented most of the main stem-estimated GS in this stand. We quantified the variability in both upper and lower branch-estimated GS by calculating the SD of the residuals from a moving average smoothed diurnal. A light model, which incorporated penumbral effects on vertical distribution of direct light, was employed to estimate the variability in light intensity at each canopy level in order to explain the increasing SD of both upper and lower branch-estimated GS with light. The results from the light model showed that the upper limit of the variability in individual branch-estimated GS could be attributed to incoming light, but not the variation below that upper limit. A porous medium model of water flow in trees produced a pattern of variation below the upper limit that was consistent with the observed variability in branch-estimated GS. Our results indicated that stems acted to buffer leaf- and branch-level variation and might transmit a less-variable water potential signal to the roots. [source]

    Effect of inoculum type and timing of application of Coniothyrium minitans on Sclerotinia sclerotiorum: control of sclerotinia disease in glasshouse lettuce

    PLANT PATHOLOGY, Issue 5 2004
    E. E. Jones
    The effects of Coniothyrium minitans inoculum quality and an 8-week interval between inoculum application and crop planting on sclerotinia (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) disease in three successive lettuce crops were investigated in a glasshouse trial. Spore suspensions of three isolates of C. minitans (Conio, IVT1 and Contans) applied at 108 CFU m,2 and a standard Conio maizemeal,perlite application (06 L m,2, 1011 CFU m,2) were assessed for their ability to control S. sclerotiorum. Only the maizemeal,perlite inoculum (isolate Conio) consistently reduced sclerotinia disease. In the third lettuce crop only, isolates IVT1 and Contans formulated by Prophyta and isolate IVT as an oil,water formulation, all applied as spore suspensions, reduced disease at harvest compared with the untreated control. Recovery, viability and C. minitans infection of sclerotia buried during the 8-week period prior to each of the three lettuce crops, and of sclerotia formed on the crop, were tested. Only the maizemeal,perlite inoculum (isolate Conio) reduced the recovery of sclerotia buried in soil for weeks between inoculum application and crop planting, reducing their viability and increasing infection by C. minitans. Eight weeks was sufficient to enable C. minitans to infect sclerotia of S. sclerotiorum, and may account for disease control. After harvest of the second and third crops, maizemeal,perlite treatment (isolate Conio) reduced the number and viability of sclerotia recovered on the soil surface and increased infection by C. minitans compared with spore-suspension treatments. The effect of inoculum concentration and the influence of soil temperature (varying with time of year) on infection of sclerotia by C. minitans are discussed. [source]

    Seven-Year Results of Thinning and Burning Restoration Treatments on Old Ponderosa Pines at the Gus Pearson Natural Area

    Kimberly F. Wallin
    AbstractWe examined the 7-year effects of three restoration treatments on leaf physiology and insect-resistance characteristics of pre-settlement age ponderosa pines (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) at the Gus Pearson Natural Area (GPNA) in northern Arizona. Restoration treatments were: (1) thinned in 1993 to approximate pre-Euro-American settlement stand structure, (2) thinned plus prescribed burned in 1994 and 1998, and (3) untreated control. Tree physiological and insect-resistance characteristics were measured in year 2000, 7 years after thinning, using the same procedures as an earlier study performed in 1996. Consistent with the 1996 results, pre-dawn water potential in 2000 was consistently lower in the control than both thinned treatments. Both thinned treatments continued to have increased foliar nitrogen concentration in leaves 7 years after treatment. However lower leaf nitrogen concentration in the thinned and burned compared with the thinned treatment suggests lower nitrogen availability to trees in repeatedly burned plots. Analysis of leaf gas exchange characteristics and carbon isotope content (,13C) suggests continued stimulation of photosynthesis by both thinning treatments. Differences among treatments in resin volume, a measure of bark beetle resistance, depended on season of measurement. Trees in both thinning treatments continued to have increased leaf toughness, a measure of resistance to insect folivores. Our results show that many beneficial effects of restoration treatments on carbon, water, and nitrogen relations and insect-resistance characteristics of pre-settlement ponderosa pines continue to be expressed 7 years after treatment at the GPNA. [source]

    Study of PfMyb1 Transcription Factor Regulation Network during Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocytic Cycle

    During the complex life cycle of Plasmodium falciparum, the regulation of events that occur during the erythrocytic cycle, such as proliferation and differentiation, implies a fine control of transcriptional activities governing the expression profiles of each gene. However, transcriptional regulation and notably its actors, transcription factors and regulation motifs, are poorly described in Plasmodium. In order to decipher the mechanisms implicated in transcriptional regulation, we studied a transcription factor belonging to the trytophan family and showed that the PfMyb1 protein contained in nuclear extracts has a specific DNA binding activity. We took advantage of long pfmyb1 double stranded RNA (dsRNA) to inactivate the cognate messenger and understand the role of PfMyb1 during the erythrocytic cycle. Culture treated with pfmyb1 dsRNA exhibited a 40% growth inhibition and mortality during trophozoite to schizont transition when compared to either untreated control or culture treated with unrelated long dsRNA. We have further demonstrated that pfmyb1 transcript and protein decreased up to 80% in treated trophozoite culture at the time of pfmyb1 expression peak. Thus, we investigated the effect of this partial loss of transcript and protein using a thematic DNA microarray containing PCR products, representative of P. falciparum genes involved in cell cycle and transcriptional regulation. SAM software enabled us to identify several genes over and under-expressed, potentially directly or indirectly regulated by PfMyb1. These alterations of expression were verified by qPCR and Western blotting. We are currently working on the promoters of those genes to decode determinants of gene regulation by Pfmyb1. [source]

    Oral administration of Lactobacillus plantarum Lq80 and Megasphaera elsdenii iNP-001 induces efficient recovery from mucosal atrophy in the small and the large intestines of weaning piglets

    Yoko YOSHIDA
    ABSTRACT Weaning causes atrophy of intestinal mucosa and a drop of IgA protection in piglets which increases vulnerability to pathogenic infections. Probiotic lactobacilli may support recovery from such weaning stresses. Butyrate-produce bacteria may support the growth of colonic mucosa. Megasphaera elsdenii, a lactate-utilizing butyrate producer, may help butyrate production particularly when combined with lactobacilli. Weaned piglets (Experiment 1: 20 days old, Experiment 2: 28 days old) were orally dosed once a day with either (L) 1010 (cell/dose) L. plantarum Lq80, or (LM) 1010 (cell/dose) Lq80 with 109 (cell/dose) M. elsdenii iNP-001. Lq80 was contained in capsules resistant to gastric digestion. M. elsdenii was contained in capsules resistant to gastric and intestinal digestion. An untreated control (C) was also prepared. After 2 weeks of administration, L. plantarum enhanced the recovery from the villous atrophy in both experiments. The rectal and colonic IgA tended to be higher in L and LM than in C in Experiment 1. Colonic butyrate was higher in LM than in the others in Experiment 1. The thickness of the colonic mucosa was greater in LM than in the others in Experiment 1. In early weaned piglets, the effects of L. plantarum and M. elsdenii were clear. [source]

    A breakthrough in lupin biotechnology: prolific protocolonisation in recalcitrant white lupin (Lupinus albus) triggered by bovine serum albumin

    A. Sinha
    Abstract Six nutrient formulations were studied for their efficacy in inducing mitosis in white lupin seedling cotyledon protoplasts of which the formulations of Schäfer-Menuhr & Stürmer (AS) and Kao (K8p) were found to be superior over the other four when supplemented with 6-benzylaminopurine and ,-naphthaleneacetic acid (,-NAA). An ultrafiltration treatment of K8p increased mitotic frequency by 130% when compared with the untreated control. Medium enrichment with 0.2% bovine serum albumin (BSA) brought about a dramatic 1341% rise in protoplast division in comparison with BSA-free medium but only when the enrichment was carried out in Kao and Michayluk (KM8p) background containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, ,-NAA and zeatin. A higher number of protocolonies (each proliferating from single protoplast following multiple divisions) were seen in 0.4% BSA. With this breakthrough in white lupin protoplast research, it is now possible to reproducibly obtain protocolonies that was hitherto not possible. [source]

    Farm-scale trials to compare the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana with pirimiphos methyl + deltamethrin and essential oil of lemon grass for protection of stored cowpea against Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    A.J. Cherry
    Abstract In trials conducted in Benin, conidia of Beauveria bassiana were evaluated as a control method against the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus, in stored cowpea. In the first trial using a high artificial infestation of C. maculatus in 8-kg batches of cowpea in jerry cans under typical conditions, concentrations of 1 × 109 and 1 × 1011 conidia kg,1 were compared with lemon grass oil at 2 mL kg,1 and the synthetic pesticide mixture of 1.5% pirimiphos methyl + 0.05% deltamethrin at 0.5 g kg,1. After 2 months of storage, seed losses (SD) were 20.63 (5.3)% in the untreated control, 8.04 (3.2)% in the low-dose B. bassiana group, 3.12 (1.3)% in the high-dose B. bassiana group, 2.52 (0.4)% in the lemon grass oil group and 0% in the pirimiphos methyl + deltamethrin group. In a second trial with natural infestations in 50-kg batches of cowpea in 200-L drums, treatment with B. bassiana 1 × 1011 conidia kg,1 was compared with pirimiphos methyl + deltamethrin at 0.5 g kg,1. After 6 months of storage on six farms, losses reached 30.76 (1.5)% in the control, 1.28 (0.2)% in the pirimiphos methyl + deltamethrin group and 3.69 (0.6)% in the B. bassiana group. [source]

    Comparison of the effect of market crop wastes and chemical soil fertility amendments on insect pests, natural enemies and yield of Brassica oleracea

    J. Karungi
    Abstract Field studies were conducted over three growing seasons during 2 years to assess the relative effect of market crop waste (MCW)-derived soil fertility amendments and conventional fertiliser (NPK) on tritrophic relations as well as yield performance of white cabbage. A randomised complete block design with four treatments and a control replicated four times was used. Treatments were (a) MCW compost incorporated in the soil, (b) uncomposted MCW incorporated in the soil, (c) uncomposted MCW applied as surface mulch, (d) a conventional chemical fertiliser (NPK) incorporated in the soil and (e) the untreated control. Results indicated that relative to NPK-amended plants, MCW-amended cabbage performed better in plant growth parameters as well as yield, despite having sustained aphid and Plutella xylostella infestations that could be as much as double as those in the NPK treatment. Natural enemy occurrence followed the trend of host insect infestations. The average yield performance and net financial benefits from MCW-compost-amended plants were three-fold as that of NPK-amended plants. Soil analysis results indicated an advantage in soil quality accruing from the MCW amendments. This study, therefore, provides documentation for the utilisation of MCW, previously handled as garbage to be disposed of, as a key component in integrated management of insect pests and depleted soils in crop production in sub-Saharan Africa and beyond. [source]

    Evaluating the efficacy of insecticides to control Sceliodes cordalis (Doubleday) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in eggplant

    Iain R Kay
    Abstract The efficacy of insecticides in controlling Sceliodes cordalis, eggfruit caterpillar, in eggplant was tested in four small plot trials because there has been a very limited range of insecticides available to manage this pest. Weekly applications of bifenthrin, flubendiamide, methoxyfenozide, chlorantraniliprole and spinosad and twice weekly applications of methomyl provided control as measured by a percentage of damaged fruit significantly lower than that in an untreated control. Twice weekly applications of methoxyfenozide, chlorantraniliprole or spinosad were not significantly more effective than weekly applications. Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki, emamectin benzoate, indoxacarb, methomyl and pyridalyl applied weekly were ineffective, with percentages of damaged fruit not significantly different from the untreated control. These trials have identified a number of insecticides that could be used to manage S. cordalis, including several that would be compatible with integrated pest management programs in eggplant. [source]