Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Untreated

  • leave untreated

  • Terms modified by Untreated

  • untreated animals
  • untreated area
  • untreated caries
  • untreated cell
  • untreated child
  • untreated control
  • untreated control cell
  • untreated control group
  • untreated control sample
  • untreated culture
  • untreated defect
  • untreated dental caries
  • untreated depression
  • untreated diabetic
  • untreated diabetic rat
  • untreated fiber
  • untreated group
  • untreated groups
  • untreated hypertension
  • untreated individual
  • untreated leaf
  • untreated lesion
  • untreated male
  • untreated mouse
  • untreated patient
  • untreated plant
  • untreated prostate cancer patient
  • untreated psychosis
  • untreated rat
  • untreated sample
  • untreated seed
  • untreated soil
  • untreated subject

  • Selected Abstracts

    Oral and maxillofacial manifestations of familial adenomatous polyposis

    ORAL DISEASES, Issue 4 2007
    MA Wijn
    Patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) develop multiple premalignant colorectal adenomas. Untreated, one or more of these polyps will progress to colorectal carcinoma in middle-aged adults. Extra-intestinal manifestations of FAP are frequently observed and this combination has been called Gardner's syndrome. Oral and maxillofacial symptoms of FAP include an increased risk of jaw osteomas, odontomas and supernumerary or unerupted teeth. Early diagnosis of FAP is crucial and may be life saving. As oral signs usually precede gastrointestinal symptoms, the dentist may play an important role in the diagnosis of FAP. [source]

    The management of severe emergence agitation using droperidol

    ANAESTHESIA, Issue 11 2006
    R. Hatzakorzian
    Summary Emergence agitation can occur following recovery from general anaesthesia. The patient may exhibit aggressive behaviour, disorientation, agitation and restlessness. Untreated, this complication may result in significant morbidity. We report two cases where droperidol was successfully used in the management of severe emergence agitation. In the first case, droperidol was administered to prevent the occurrence of postoperative agitation in a patient known to suffer from this condition following previous general anaesthetics. In the second case, droperidol was used to treat emergence agitation in a morbidly obese patient with a difficult airway who was aggressive and difficult to restrain. Both of these patients remained calm and co-operative, with stable cardio-respiratory parameters, following the administration of droperidol and showed no further signs of agitation. We suggest that droperidol is an effective medication that may be used to prevent and treat severe emergence agitation due to its rapid sedative effect and minimal cardio-respiratory depression. [source]

    Untreated or uncontrolled cardiovascular risk factors are associated with an increased risk of cerebral hemorrhage during colder periods

    T. C. Turin
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Reed-Sternberg cells in atypical primary EBV infection

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 2 2001
    M Bitsori
    The presence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in the Hodgkin's/Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells of a significant proportion of cases of Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) is a matter of consideration when a case of presumptive HL has to be differentiated from infectious mononucleosis (IM). A 15-y-old boy was admitted with a presumptive diagnosis of extranodal HL, based on the biopsy of a painless ulcer on the right mandibular alveolar crest. Histologic examination of the lesion was consistent with mixed cellularity HL. The patient additionally presented with hepatosplenomegaly and regional lymphadenopathy. Serology for EBV was indicative of acute infection. Histological examination of regional lymphoid tissue was consistent with immunologic activation due to primary EBV infection. The patient was left untreated, under close observation. All clinical findings resolved within 3 mo and EBV viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgM antibodies converted to negative after 6 mo. A 3-y follow-up period was uneventful. [source]

    Screening for Asymptomatic Left Ventricular Dysfunction Using B-Type Natriuretic Peptide

    Theresa A. McDonagh MD
    Asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction (ASLVD), a known precursor phase of heart failure, fulfills the essential criteria that should be met before screening for a disease. It is common and associated with reduced longevity and quality of life. Left untreated, it progresses to heart failure, which incurs a mortality greater than most cancers as well as significant morbidity rates. In addition, we now have several population-based studies that demonstrate that both B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP) can accurately exclude left ventricular systolic dysfunction. More recent work shows that this can be done cost-effectively. There is also a wealth of evidence from randomized controlled trials indicating that the treatment of ASLVD can reduce both morbidity and mortality and slow progression to the heart failure state. The main stumbling block to implementation of screening, in addition to the perceived cost, may well be the lack of a randomized study showing that screening the population for ASLVD really does alter the natural history of the condition, something that other screening strategies have so far failed to do. Congest Heart Fail. 2008;14(4 suppl 1):5,8. ©2008 Le Jacq [source]

    Incontinence in the aged: contact dermatitis and other cutaneous consequences

    CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 4 2007
    Miranda A. Farage
    Urinary and faecal incontinence affects a significant portion of the elderly population. The increase in the incidence of incontinence is not only dependent on age but also on the onset of concomitant ageing issues such as infection, polypharmacy, and decreased cognitive function. If incontinence is left untreated, a host of dermatological complications can occur, including incontinence dermatitis, dermatological infections, intertrigo, vulvar folliculitis, and pruritus ani. The presence of chronic incontinence can produce a vicious cycle of skin damage and inflammation because of the loss of cutaneous integrity. Minimizing skin damage caused by incontinence is dependent on successful control of excess hydration, maintenance of proper pH, minimization of interaction between urine and faeces, and prevention of secondary infection. Even though incontinence is common in the aged, it is not an inevitable consequence of ageing but a disorder that can and should be treated. Appropriate clinical management of incontinence can help seniors continue to lead vital active lives as well as avoid the cutaneous sequelae of incontinence. [source]

    Growth, etching morphology and spectra of LiAlO2 crystal

    Taohua Huang
    Abstract ,-LiAlO2 single crystal was successfully grown by Czochralski method. The crystal quality was characterized by X-ray rocking curve and chemical etching. The effects of air-annealing and vapor transport equilibration (VTE) on the crystal quality, etch pits and absorption spectra of LiAlO2 were also investigated in detail. The results show that the as-grown crystal has very high quality with the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 17.7-22.6 arcsec. Dislocation density in the middle part of the crystal is as low as about 3.0×103 cm,2. The VTE-treated slice has larger FWHM value, etch pits density and absorption coefficient as compared with those of untreated and air-annealed slices, which indicates that the crystal quality became inferior after VTE treatment. (© 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    TOGp regulates microtubule assembly and density during mitosis and contributes to chromosome directional instability

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 8 2009
    Lynne Cassimeris
    Abstract TOGp, a member of the XMAP215 MAP family, is required for bipolar mitotic spindle assembly. To understand how TOGp contributes to spindle assembly, we examined microtubule dynamics after depleting TOGp by siRNA. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching of GFP-tubulin demonstrated that spindle microtubule turnover is slowed two-fold in the absence of TOGp. Consistent with photobleaching results, microtubule regrowth after washout of the microtubule depolymerizing drug nocodazole was slower at the centrosomes and in the vicinity of mitotic chromatin in cells depleted of TOGp. The slower microtubule turnover is likely due to either nucleation or the transitions of dynamic instability because TOGp depletion did not effect the rate of plus end growth, measured by tracking EB1-GFP at microtubule ends. In contrast, microtubule regrowth after nocodazole washout was unaffected by prior depletion of TACC3, a centrosomal protein that interacts with TOGp. Kinetochore fibers in both untreated and TOGp-depleted cells were stable to incubation at 4°C or lysis in buffer containing calcium indicating that stable kinetochore-microtubule attachments are formed in the absence of TOGp. Depletion of TOGp, but not TACC3, reduced kinetochore oscillations during prometaphase/metaphase. Defects in oscillations are not due simply to multipolarity or loss of centrosome focus in the TOGp-depleted cells, since kinetochore oscillations appear normal in cells treated with the proteosome inhibitor MG132, which also results in multipolar spindles and centrosome fragmentation. We hypothesize that TOGp is required for chromosome motility as a downstream consequence of reduced microtubule dynamics and/or density. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Long-term effect of different treatment modalities for traumatized primary incisors presenting dark coronal discoloration with no other signs of injury

    Gideon Holan
    Abstract,,, The aim was to compare the long-term outcomes of root canal treatment with that of follow-up-only in traumatized primary incisors in which dark discoloration is the only sign of injury. Root canal treatment was performed in 48 dark discolored asymptomatic primary incisors following trauma. Twenty-five of them [root canal treatment (RCT) group] were followed till eruption of their permanent successors. Ninety-seven dark discolored asymptomatic primary incisors were left untreated and invited for periodic clinical and radiographic examination. Of these, 28 [follow-up (FU) group] were followed till eruption of their permanent successors. The parameters examined included early extraction of the traumatized primary incisor, early or delayed eruption of the permanent successors, ectopic eruption of the permanent successor and signs of enamel hypopcalcification or hypoplasia in the permanent successor. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Seven of 25 (28%) of the RCT group and 32% (nine of 28) of the FU group required early extraction. Five of 25 (20%) of the RCT group and 21% (six of 28) of the FU group showed early or delayed eruption of the permanent successors. Sixteen of 25 (64%) of the RCT group and 79% (22 of 28) of the FU group showed ectopic eruption of the permanent successors. Enamel hypopcalcification or hypoplasia in the permanent successors was equally found (36%) in both groups (nine of 25 in the RCT group and 10 of 28 in the FU group). None of differences was statistically significant. Root canal treatment of primary incisors that had change their color into a dark-gray hue following trauma with no other clinical or radiographic symptom is not necessary as it does not result in better outcomes in the primary teeth and their permanent successors. [source]

    An open-label trial of enhanced brief interpersonal psychotherapy in depressed mothers whose children are receiving psychiatric treatment,,

    Holly A. Swartz M.D.
    Abstract Major depression affects one out of five women during her lifetime. Depressed mothers with psychiatrically ill children represent an especially vulnerable population. Challenged by the demands of caring for ill children, these mothers often put their own needs last; consequently, their depressions remain untreated. This population is especially difficult to engage in treatment. We have developed a nine-session intervention, an engagement session followed by eight sessions of brief interpersonal psychotherapy designed to increase maternal participation in their own psychotherapy, resolve symptoms of maternal depression, and enhance relationships (IPT-MOMS). This open-label trial assesses the feasibility and acceptability of providing this treatment to depressed mothers. Thirteen mothers meeting DSM-IV criteria for major depression were recruited from a pediatric mental health clinic where their school-age children were receiving psychiatric treatment. Subjects (mothers) were treated openly with IPT-MOMS. Eighty-five percent (11/13) completed the study. Subjects were evaluated with the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and completed self-report measures of quality of life and functioning at three time points: baseline, after treatment completion, and 6-months posttreatment. A signed rank test was used to compare measurement changes between assessment time points. Subjects showed significant improvement from baseline to posttreatment on measures of maternal symptoms and functioning. These gains were maintained at 6-month follow-up. Therapy was well tolerated and accepted by depressed mothers, who are typically difficult to engage in treatment. A high proportion of subjects completed treatment and experienced improvements in functioning. Future randomized clinical trials are needed to establish the efficacy of this approach. Depression and Anxiety 23:398,404, 2006. Published 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Aggressive and Neglected Basal Cell Carcinoma

    Ali Asilian MD
    Background. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common cutaneous malignancy and usually has a benign coarse. Rarely, examples of aggressive and neglected types of this tumor are seen. Objective. To present an interesting and dramatic example of how some people neglect their tumors and how devastating the sequelae can be. Methods. We report a 58-year-old man with an extensive BCC and signs of cranial nerve involvement. Results. The patient had a large, infected ulcer on his scalp. He also had skull bone destruction, osteomyelitis, mastoiditis, cranial nerve paralysis, and radiographic features of the skull base and upper cervical soft tissue involvement. Pathologic studies revealed an infiltrating form of BCC. Conclusions. If left untreated and neglected, as in this case, BCC can become inoperable and complicated. ALI ASILIAN, MD, AND BANAFSHE TAMIZIFAR, MD, HAVE INDICATED NO SIGNIFICANT INTEREST WITH COMMERCIAL SUPPORTERS. [source]

    Treatment of Pigmented Hypertrophic Scars with the 585 nm Pulsed Dye Laser and the 532 nm Frequency-Doubled Nd:YAG Laser in the Q-Switched and Variable Pulse Modes: A Comparative Study

    Leyda Elizabeth Bowes MD
    background. Pigmented hypertrophic scars are a difficult condition to treat. They may result from traumatic injuries or from surgical and cosmetic procedures. The 585 nm flashlamp-pumped pulsed dye laser (FLPDL) has been used to treat this condition, with significant improvement of varying degrees. It remains to be determined whether other laser modalities may have a similar or even greater success in the treatment of pigmented hypertrophic scars. objective. To determine the efficacy of the 532 nm frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser in the treatment of pigmented hypertrophic scars as compared to the 585 nm FLPDL. methods. Six patients with pigmented hypertrophic scars and skin phototypes II,IV were chosen. A scar was selected for treatment in each patient and divided into four equal 2 cm segments. Three segments were each treated with a different laser modality and one was left untreated to serve as the control. A 585 nm FLPDL was used with an energy of 3.5 J, a pulse duration of 450 ,sec, and a 10 mm spot size. A 532 nm Q-switched frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser was set to an energy of 2.8 J, a 10-nsec pulse, and a 3 mm spot size. The same 532 nm laser was set to the variable pulse mode to treat a 2 cm scar segment, with an energy of 9.5 J, a 10-msec pulse, and a 4 mm spot size. An average of 3.3 treatments were performed on each scar segment, at intervals of 4,6 weeks and long-term follow-up at 22 weeks. Treatment outcome was graded by a blind observer using the Vancouver General Hospital (VGH) Burn Scar Assessment Scale. A SigmaStat t -test was used to determine the statistical significance of the values obtained. results. Treatment of pigmented hypertrophic scars with the 532 nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser led to a significant improvement of 38% in the VGH scores when compared to baseline (P = .005). The 585 nm FLPDL also had a favorable effect on the scars, with an average improvement of 36.1% in the VGH scores. There was no significant difference noted between the outcome of treatment with either of these two lasers. Treatment with the 532 nm variable pulse Nd:YAG laser led to a 19% improvement in the VGH scores of scars, which did not differ significantly from the 16.1% improvement observed in control scars on the last follow-up visit. No side effects or complications from treatment were noted or reported during the course of the study. At the conclusion of the study, five of six patients chose the segment treated with the 532 nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser as the best segment overall. conclusion. The 532 nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and the 585 nm FLPDL offer comparable favorable results in the treatment of pigmented hypertrophic scars. The 532 nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser may be preferred by patients particularly distressed by the dark color of their scars. [source]


    ABSTRACT This paper examines pain and pain relief in the Caribbean, where pain is widely perceived as an unavoidable part of life, and where unnecessary suffering results from untreated and under treated pain. Barriers to pain relief in the Caribbean include patient and family attitudes, inadequate knowledge among health professionals and unduly restrictive regulations on the medical use of opioids. Similar barriers exist all over the world. This paper urges medical, nursing and public health professionals, and educators to examine attitudes towards pain and pain relief and to work towards making effective pain relief and palliation more accessible. It recommends that i) health professionals and officials be better educated about pain, palliation and opioids, ii) regulatory restrictions be updated in light of clinical and scientific evidence, iii) opioid procurement policies be adjusted to facilitate increased medical use, iv) medical charts and records be modified to routinely elicit and document patients levels of pain, and v) educational campaigns be developed to inform the public that moderate and severe pain can be safely relieved at the end of life and other stages of life. The professional, respectful, and beneficent response to patients in pain is to provide rapid and aggressive pain relief or to urgently consult a pain or palliative specialist. When a health system hinders such efforts the ethical response is to identify, facilitate and advocate for overcoming barriers to improvement. [source]

    The clinical aspects of newborn screening: Importance of newborn screening follow-up

    Philip M. James
    Abstract The aim of newborn screening is to identify presymptomatic healthy infants that will develop significant metabolic or endocrine derangements if left undiagnosed and untreated. The goal of ultimately reducing or eliminating irreversible sequelae is reached by maximizing test sensitivity of the primary newborn screening that measures specific analytes by a number of methodologies. Differentiation of true from false negatives is accomplished by the test specificity. This review discusses disorders for which, in general, there are available therapies and that are detected by routine and expanded newborn screening. Recommendations are presented for evaluation by a primary care physician, with confirmation by a metabolic or endocrinology specialist. Disorders are organized in tabular format by class of pathway or analyte, with attention to typical clinical presentations, confirmatory biochemical and molecular tests, and therapies. There are numerous challenges in clinical follow-up, including diagnosis and appropriate understanding of the consequences of the disorders. The data required to meet these challenges can be acquired only by large scale longitudinal comprehensive studies of outcome in children identified by newborn screening. Only with such data can newborn screening fully serve families. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. MRDD Research Reviews 2006;12:246,254. [source]

    Prospective comparison of course of disability in antipsychotic-treated and untreated schizophrenia patients

    J. Thirthalli
    Objective:, To compare the course of disability in schizophrenia patients receiving antipsychotics and those remaining untreated in a rural community. Method:, Of 215 schizophrenia patients identified in a rural south Indian community, 58% were not receiving antipsychotics. Trained raters assessed the disability in 190 of these at baseline and after 1 year. The course of disability in those who remained untreated was compared with that in those who received antipsychotics. Results:, Mean disability scores remained virtually unchanged in those who remained untreated, but showed a significant decline (indicating decrement in disability) in those who continued to receive antipsychotics and in those in whom antipsychotic treatment was initiated (P < 0.001; group × occasion effect). The proportion of patients classified as ,disabled' declined significantly in the treated group (P < 0.01), but remained the same in the untreated group. Conclusion:, Disability in untreated schizophrenia patients remains unchanged over time. Treatment with antipsychotics in the community results in a considerable reduction in disability. [source]

    Testosterone metabolites differentially maintain adult morphology in a sexually dimorphic neuromuscular system

    Tom Verhovshek
    Abstract The lumbar spinal cord of rats contains the sexually dimorphic, steroid-sensitive spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus (SNB). Androgens are necessary for the development of the SNB neuromuscular system, and in adulthood, continue to influence the morphology and function of the motoneurons and their target musculature. However, estrogens are also involved in the development of the SNB system, and are capable of maintaining function in adulthood. In this experiment, we assessed the ability of testosterone metabolites, estrogens and nonaromatizable androgens, to maintain neuromuscular morphology in adulthood. Motoneuron and muscle morphology was assessed in adult normal males, sham-castrated males, castrated males treated with testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estradiol, or left untreated, and gonadally intact males treated with the 5,-reductase inhibitor finasteride or the aromatase inhibitor fadrozole. After 6 weeks of treatment, SNB motoneurons were retrogradely labeled with cholera toxin-HRP and reconstructed in three dimensions. Castration resulted in reductions in SNB target muscle size, soma size, and dendritic morphology. Testosterone treatment after castration maintained SNB soma size, dendritic morphology, and elevated target muscle size; dihydrotestosterone treatment also maintained SNB dendritic length, but was less effective than testosterone in maintaining both SNB soma size and target muscle weight. Treatment of intact males with finasteride or fadrozole did not alter the morphology of SNB motoneurons or their target muscles. In contrast, estradiol treatment was completely ineffective in preventing castration-induced atrophy of the SNB neuromuscular system. Together, these results suggest that the maintenance of adult motoneuron or muscle morphology is strictly mediated by androgens. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 70: 206,221, 2010. [source]

    Progress of Untreated Massive Cardiac Echinococcosis,Echocardiographic Follow-Up

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 9 2006
    Serdar Soydinc M.D.
    A 56-year-old man was admitted with chest pain and dyspnea. Echocardiographic evaluation revealed a giant cystic cardiac mass with multiple loculations at interventricular septum extended to inferoposterior region protruding inside the cavity. The patient refused surgical therapy. His complaints persisted without significant changes after 5 months. Second echocardiographic evaluation revealed conjugation of previous multiple cyst to gigantic intramyocardial cyst and minimal pericardial effusion. We intend to illustrate herein an unusual echocardiographic appearance and progress of an untreated massive "cardiac echinococcosis." If cardiac hydatid cyst is left untreated it may transform to large cavity with a high risk of rupture. [source]

    Nonaqueous capillary electrophoretic separation of polyphenolic compounds in wine using coated capillaries at high pH in methanol

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 24 2003
    Zuzana Demianová
    Abstract Nonaqueous capillary electrophoretic separation of a group of flavonoids (quercetin, myricetin, catechin, epicatechin) and resveratrol in wine was investigated in methanol at high pH. Malonate background electrolyte (pH* 13.5, ionic strength I = 14.2 mmol/L) provided highly repeatable separations of the analytes. Tests of untreated and coated (poly(glycidylmethacrylate- co - N -vinylpyrrolidone)) capillaries showed the analysis to be faster (6.5 min vs. 25 min) and the repeatability better in the coated capillaries. The coating procedure was simple and highly repeatable and the coating was stable during 40,45 runs. Determination of the last migrating peaks (epicatechin, resveratrol and catechin) was achieved merely by evaporating the wine samples and reconstituting the residue in methanol. For determination of the first migrating peaks (quercetin and myricetin) the samples were submitted to solid-phase extraction in C8 cartridges. [source]

    Protection of lodgepole pines from mass attack by mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, with nonhost angiosperm volatiles and verbenone

    D.P.W. Huber
    Abstract A number of angiosperm nonhost volatiles (NHVs) and green leaf volatiles (GLVs) were tested alone and as supplements to the antiaggregation pheromone, verbenone, for their ability to disrupt attack by the mountain pine beetle (MPB), Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), on lodgepole pine, Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. var. latifolia Engel. Preliminary experiments led to a refined NHV blend [benzyl alcohol, guaiacol, benzaldehyde, nonanal, salicylaldehyde, and conophthorin] and a refined GLV blend [(Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and (E)-2-hexen-1-ol]. In a 20-replicate experiment, NHV and GLV groups both singly, and verbenone alone, significantly reduced MPB mass attack on pheromone-baited trees and on trees within 5 m of the pheromone-baited trees. Both blends in combination with verbenone reduced the number of mass attacked, baited trees to three out of 20 compared to 20 out of 20 of the baited controls. Each binary combination was also effective at reducing mass attack. In these experiments, all tested repellents were released from devices stapled to trees at the same point as the pheromone bait, suggesting that the repellency could have been to a point source, rather than to the whole tree. Therefore, in two further experiments bands of release devices were wrapped around the treated trees and the pheromone bait was removed from the treated trees. In one experiment, when the aggregation pheromone bait was suspended between pairs of trees treated with the NHV blend plus GLV blend plus verbenone, only three out of 25 treated pairs had mass attack on at least one member of the pair. In the other 60-replicate experiment, with no pheromone baits present, attack occurred on 13 untreated and 11 banded trees, all in the path of a large advancing infestation. However, the mean attack density on the banded trees was significantly reduced to a level below the 40 attacks m,2 of bark surface required to kill a healthy lodgepole pine. As a result of these experiments, operational trials are recommended. [source]

    Influence of isolation on the recovery of pond mesocosms from the application of an insecticide.


    Abstract The influence of relative isolation on the ecological recovery of freshwater outdoor mesocosm communities after an acute toxic stress was assessed in a 14-month-long study. A single concentration of deltamethrin was applied to 8 out of 16 outdoor 9-m3 mesocosms to create a rapid decrease of the abundance of arthropods. To discriminate between external and internal recovery mechanisms, four treated and four untreated (control) mesocosms were covered with 1-mm mesh screen lids. The dynamics of planktonic communities were monitored in the four types of ponds. The abundance of many phytoplankton taxa increased after deltamethrin addition, but the magnitude of most increases was relatively small, probably due to low nutrient availability and the survival of rotifers. The greatest impact on zooplankton was seen in Daphniidae and, to a lesser extent, calanoid copepods. Recovery (defined as when statistical analysis failed to detect a difference in the abundance between the deltamethrin-treated ponds and corresponding control ponds for two consecutive sampling dates) of Daphniidae was observed in the water column 105 and 77 d after deltamethrin addition in open and covered mesocosms, respectively, and <42 d for both open and covered ponds at the surface of the sediments. Rotifers did not proliferate, probably because of the survival of predators (e.g., cyclopoid copepods). These results confirm that the recovery of planktonic communities after exposure to a strong temporary chemical stress mostly depends upon internal mechanisms (except for larvae of the insect Chaoborus sp.) and that recovery dynamics are controlled by biotic factors, such as the presence of dormant forms and selective survival of predators. [source]

    Electroencephalographic Characterization of an Adult Rat Model of Radiation-Induced Cortical Dysplasia

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 10 2001
    Shinji Kondo
    Summary: ,Purpose: Cortical dysplasia (CD) is a frequent cause of medically intractable focal epilepsy. The mechanisms of CD-induced epileptogenicity remain unknown. The difficulty in obtaining and testing human tissue warrants the identification and characterization of animal model(s) of CD that share most of the clinical, electroencephalographic (EEG), and histopathologic characteristics of human CD. In this study, we report on the in vivo EEG characterization of the radiation-induced model of CD. Methods: Timed-pregnant Sprague,Dawley rats were irradiated on E17 using a single dose of 145 cGy or left untreated. Their litters were identified and implanted with bifrontal epidural and hippocampal depth electrodes for prolonged continuous EEG recordings. After prolonged EEG monitoring, animals were killed and their brains sectioned and stained for histologic studies. Results: In utero,irradiated rats showed frequent spontaneous interictal epileptiform spikes and spontaneous seizures arising independently from the hippocampal or the frontal neocortical structures. No epileptiform or seizure activities were recorded from age-matched control rats. Histologic studies showed the presence of multiple cortical areas of neuronal clustering and disorganization. Moreover, pyramidal cell dispersion was seen in the CA1>CA3 areas of the hippocampal formations. Conclusions: Our results further characterize the in vivo EEG characteristics of the in utero radiation model of CD using long-term EEG monitoring. This model may be used to study the molecular and cellular changes in epileptogenic CD and to test the efficacy of newer antiepileptic medications. [source]

    Effects of a MAPK p38 inhibitor on lung function and airway inflammation in equine recurrent airway obstruction

    J.-P. LAVOIE
    Summary Reasons for performing study: It has been suggested that many of the beneficial effects of corticosteroids are mediated through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 inhibition. Objective: To investigate the efficacy of the MAPK p38 inhibitor compound MRL-EQ1 to either prevent (Phase 1) or treat (Phase 2) recurrent airway obstruction (RAO) in horses. Methods: MRL-EQ1 was administered i.v. at a dosage of 0.75-1.5 mg/kg bwt q. 12 h. In Phase 1, susceptible horses in clinical remission were divided into 2 groups (n = 5/group), based on historical values of respiratory mechanics. All horses were entered in the study in pairs (one control, one treated horse) and exposed to the same environmental challenge (stabling, mouldy hay and dusty conditions). The treatment group received MRL-EQ1 for 14 days while the control horses were untreated during the same period. In Phase 2, affected horses were ranked by severity of respiratory dysfunction and split randomly into either dexamethasone or MRL-EQ1 treatment groups (n = 5/group). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, respiratory mechanic measurements, MRL-EQ1 plasma concentration and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) whole blood activity were evaluated sequentially. Results: In Phase 1, MRL-EQ1 did not prevent the occurrence of clinical signs and pulmonary inflammation. However, treatment was associated with a reduction in severity and a delay in the onset of signs and a reduction in pulmonary neutrophilia. In Phase 2, plasma concentrations achieved resulted in ex vivo suppression of lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF production in equine blood. MRL-EQ1 did not improve airway inflammation or lung function and was associated in a dose dependent manner with behavioural (depression, excitability) and blood changes (neutrophilia, increased serum muscle enzyme concentrations). Conclusions: Inhibition of p38 in the horse was partially effective in reducing clinical signs and airway inflammation when administered prior to, but not during clinical exacerbation in RAO. Potential relevance: Inhibitors of p38 MAPK with a better toxicity profile may be effective in the prevention or treatment of RAO. [source]

    Bradykinin stimulates prostaglandin E2 production and cyclooxygenase activity in equine nonglandular and glandular gastric mucosa in vitro

    Summary Reasons for performing study: There are few data available regarding regulation of prostaglandin (PG) generation by equine gastric mucosae and the role of the cyclooxygenase (COX) isoforms in their production. Objectives: To: 1) characterise and quantify PGE2 output in vitro; 2) examine the sensitivity of PGE2 production to exogenous bradykinin (BK) exposure; 3) determine the contribution of the COX-1 and COX-2 pathways to basal and BK-stimulated PGE2 production; and 4) measure if BK influences electrogenic ion transport in equine gastric mucosae in vitro. Methods: Full thickness gastric sheets were obtained from horses at post mortem, stripped of muscle layers and mounted in Ussing chambers. Tissues were exposed to bradykinin (BK, 0.1 ,mol/l) either alone, or following pretreatment with a selective COX-2 inhibitor (NS-398, 1 ,mol/l) or a nonselective COX inhibitor (piroxicam, 1 ,mol/l), or were untreated. Results: BK administration increased PGE2 output from the basolateral but not the apical faces of both tissue types. Piroxicam, but not NS-398, reduced basolateral PGE2 release below control levels in both tissue types. Both piroxicam and NS-398 pretreatment inhibited BK-stimulated PGE2 release. In separate experiments, BK was without effect upon electrophysiological parameters of tissues mounted in Ussing chambers. Conclusions: PGE2 is produced by the nonglandular and glandular equine gastric mucosae in vitro. Significantly more PGE2 is released basolaterally than apically. BK stimulated the production of PGE2 from the basolateral side of both tissue types. These findings suggest that COX-1 is a significant pathway for basal PGE2 production from the basolateral faces of both nonglandular and glandular equine gastric mucosae in vitro. Potential relevance: The identification of the cells responsible for basolateral PGE2 release, via both COX-1 and COX-2 pathways, under basal and BK-stimulated conditions requires further study. [source]

    Aminoguanidine prevents arterial stiffening in a new rat model of type 2 diabetes

    K.-C. Chang
    Abstract Background, Formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) on collagen within the arterial wall may be responsible for the development of diabetic vascular injury. This study focused on investigating the role of aminoguanidine (AG), an inhibitor of AGE formation, in the prevention of noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM)-derived arterial stiffening and cardiac hypertrophy in rats. Materials and methods, The NIDDM was induced in male Wistar rats, which were administered intraperitoneally with 180 mg kg,1 nicotinamide (NA) 30 min before an intravenous injection of 50 mg kg,1 streptozotocin (STZ). After induction of diabetes mellitus type 2, animals receiving daily peritoneal injections with 50 mg kg,1 AG for 8 weeks were compared with the age-matched, untreated, diabetic controls. Results, After exposure to AG, the STZ-NA diabetic rats had improved aortic distensibility, as evidenced by 18·8% reduction of aortic characteristic impedance (P < 0·05). Treatment of the experimental syndrome with AG also resulted in a significant increase in wave transit time (+23·7%, P < 0·05) and a decrease in wave reflection factor (,26·6%, P < 0·05), suggesting that AG may prevent the NIDDM-induced augmentation in systolic load of the left ventricle. Also, the glycation-derived modification on aortic collagen was found to be retarded by AG. The diminished ratio of left ventricular weight to body weight suggested that prevention of the diabetes-related cardiac hypertrophy by AG may correspond to the drug-induced decline in aortic stiffening. Conclusions, Long-term administration of AG to the STZ-NA diabetic rats imparts significant protection against the NIDDM-derived impairment in vascular dynamics, at least partly through inhibition of the AGE accumulation on collagen in the arterial wall. [source]

    Significant cytotoxic activity in vitro of the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib in acute myeloblastic leukaemia

    Elin Lindhagen
    Abstract Objectives:, Gefitinib inhibits epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signalling, but may also act by non-EGFR dependent mechanisms. We have investigated the activity of gefitinib in haematological tumour cells, in particular acute myeloblastic leukaemia (AML). Methods:, Cytotoxic activity of gefitinib, alone or in combination with standard anti-leukaemic drugs, was assessed by the short-term fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay in tumour cells from 117 patients representing five haematological and five non-haematological malignancies. In AML, the EGFR status was analysed by immunochemistry. Gefitinib-induced apoptosis was investigated in a subset of AML samples, as well as in the leukaemia cell line MV-4-11, using a multiparametric high content screening assay. To confirm activation of caspase-3 in cells treated with gefitinib, a blocking test was carried out in which MV4-11 cells were pretreated with the specific caspase inhibitor DEVD-FMK. Results:, Gefitinib showed highest cytotoxic activity in AML (n = 19) with many samples being sensitive at concentrations achievable in clinical practice (<10 ,M), and no difference between previously untreated and relapsed patients. No correlation between the activity of gefitinib and standard antileukaemic drugs (cytarabine, doxorubicin, etoposide) was observed. Combining gefitinib with these drugs resulted in mainly additive or synergistic (etoposide) effects, with no evidence of sequence dependency. The AML cells did not express the EGFR. Gefitinib induced apoptosis, which was at least partly mediated by activation of the caspase-3 pathway. Conclusion:,In vitro, gefitinib has significant cytotoxic activity in AML by inducing apoptosis through non-EGFR dependent pathways. [source]

    Acute myeloid leukaemia arising from a patient with untreated essential thrombocythaemia

    Javier Bolaños-Meade
    Abstract:, Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is an uncommon complication of patients with essential thrombocythaemia (ET). We report a patient with ET which progressed into AML and who had only received a few days of therapy with hydroxyurea (HU) when diagnosed with ET. This is extremely rare, as in large series no patients who were left untreated for their ET developed this complication. This case supports the theory that AML transformation can be part of the natural history of ET in some cases. [source]

    Copolymer effects on microglia and T,cells in the central nervous system of humanized mice

    Zsolt Illes
    The random amino acid copolymers FYAK and VWAK ameliorate EAE in a humanized mouse model expressing both a human transgenic myelin basic protein (MBP)85,99-specific T,cell receptor and HLA-DR2. Here we show that microglia isolated from the central nervous system (CNS) of humanized mice with EAE induced by MBP85,99 and treated with these copolymers had reduced expression of HLA-DR, and thus reduced capacity to present MBP85,99 and activate transgenic T,cells. In vitro microglia up-regulated empty HLA-DR2 upon activation with GM-CSF with or without LPS or IFN-,, but not with IL-4 or IL-10. Correspondingly, gene chip arrays showed that the CNS of untreated and YFAK-treated mice differentially expressed pro- and anti-inflammatory molecules during MBP85,99-induced EAE. Interestingly, microglia expressed the full-length ,,,and ,,,subunits of the tetrameric adaptor protein complexes AP-1 and AP-2 respectively, but after treatment with GM-CSF these complexes were cleaved, as had been found in immature dendritic cells derived from bone marrow. Strikingly, in vivo the perivascular lymphocyte infiltration seen in untreated mice immunized with MBP85,99 was composed of equal numbers of hV,2+ MPB85,99-specific transgenic and hV,2, endogenous T,cells, while the much smaller infiltration seen after treatment with YFAK was composed predominantly of hV,2, endogenous T,cells. [source]

    Treatment of neonatal mice with Flt3 ligand leads to changes in dendritic cell subpopulations associated with enhanced IL-12 and IFN-, production

    Sabine Vollstedt
    Abstract Treatment with the hematopoietic growth factor Flt3 ligand (FL) increases DC numbers in neonatal mice and enhances their resistance against intracellular pathogens. Flow cytometric analysis showed the presence of conventional DC (cDC) and plasmacytoid pre-DC (pDC) in neonatal spleens from untreated and FL-treated mice. CD8, and MHC class,II expression on cDC and pDC was higher on DC from FL-treated mice than on DC from control littermates. After FL treatment, two additional subpopulations of DC-lineage cells were found that were able to produce IL-12 and IFN-,. The IL-12 production of cDC from FL-treated animals was more than 50-fold increased and their ability to stimulate T,cell proliferation was also increased. We conclude that the enhanced resistance against intracellular pathogens was due to increased numbers of DC-lineage cells and their increased ability to produce the essential cytokines. [source]

    How are we doing with the treatment of essential tremor (ET)?

    Persistence of patients with ET on medication: data from 528 patients in three settings
    Background:, The pharmacological treatment of essential tremor (ET) is not optimal. There are only two first-line medications and troublesome side effects are common. It is not uncommon for patients to simply stop taking medication. Yet, no published data substantiate or quantify this anecdotal impression. Objectives:, To determine, amongst patients with ET who were prescribed medication for tremor, what proportion are still taking medication and what proportion have stopped? Methods:, Five hundred and twenty-eight patients with ET from three distinct study settings (clinical, brain donors, population) were interviewed. Results:, A clear pattern that emerged across settings was that the proportion of patients with ET who had stopped medication was sizable and consistently similar (nearly one-third): 31.4% (clinical), 24.3% (brain donors), 30.0% (population), 29.8% (overall). A similarly high proportion of cases with severe tremor had stopped their medication: 31.9% (clinical), 36.4% (brain donors). For the four most commonly used medications (propranolol, primidone, diazepam, topiramate), one-half or more of the treated patients had stopped the medication; amongst the less commonly used medications, the proportion who stopped was even higher. Conclusions:, Nearly one of every three patients with ET who had been prescribed medication for tremor had discontinued pharmacotherapy. Even more revealing was that a similar proportion of cases with severe tremor had stopped medication. These data make tangibly evident that there is a sizable population of patients with ET who are untreated and disabled, and underscore the inadequacy of current pharmacotherapeutic options for this common neurological disease. [source]

    MR imaging of the brain in patients with hepatic form of Wilson's disease

    D. Kozi
    The aim of this study was to detect the sites and frequency of possible lesions by brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; 1,5T) in a group of 16 neurologically asymptomatic patients with hepatic form of Wilson's disease (WD; seven untreated and nine under treatment). Abnormal MR findings of the brain were found in 75% of patients. Lesions in brain parenchyma were detected in all untreated, drug-naive patients and in 44% of treated patients. Abnormal signal in globus pallidus, putamen, and caudate nucleus was revealed in 86, 71 and 71% of treated and in 33, 33 and 22% of untreated patients, respectively. In five of eight patients with putaminal pathology (62.5%) and in four of seven patients with caudate nuclei involvement (57%), only proton density 2-weighted sequence (PDW) exhibited sensitivity for lesion detection, with both T1W and long echo T2W sequences being insensitive. This superiority of PDW sequence was even more pronounced in the group of untreated patients in whom 80% of putaminal pathology was visible exclusively on this sequence. The lower frequency of lesions in the group of treated in comparison with untreated patients indicated that they might be reversible in the course of chronic chelating therapy. [source]